Subject WHO IS MUAMMAR AL GADDAFI? THE NEW DAWN WHO IS MUAMMAR AL QADHAFI? +quot;Man of fa

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Subject: WHO IS MUAMMAR AL GADDAFI? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- THE NEW DAWN WHO IS MUAMMAR AL QADHAFI? "Man of faith and tradition, Muammar Al Qadhafi cannot be classified according to the criteria commonly admitted. If you search for him on the right you will find him on the left, since he preaches in many ways a renovation with the air of revolution. But if you look for him on the left you risk finding him on the right, because this sincere mystic is tied to more than one traditional value. It is not Qadhafi who is senseless; it is the terms, obsolete, and upon which are based the subjective judgements of foreign observers who are more interested in polemic than in the truth." - Prof. Francis Dessart. To the Western establishment and international Zionism, Muammar Qadhafi is a 'madman' and the world's number one 'terrorist'. To the oppressed, the exploited and the struggling peoples of the earth he is a teacher, guide, brother, but above all, the leader of a world revolution for a New Civilisation. At the Second World Mathaba Conference held in Tripoli, Libya, on March 15th, 1986, just one month prior to the United States bombing raids on Libya, the spiritual head of the North American based "Nation of Islam", Minister Louis Farrakhan introduced Muammar Qadhafi by stating that the Libyan Arab people's collective need for freedom produced a leader who was born to serve the masses. Minister Farrakhan said that when a people is oppressed the need for freedom produces a longing which in turn produces a leader. "The oppressor is always watching for that leader," Louis Farrakhan explained, "...they know that the people will never be free until they produce a leader with the vision to create the revolution and see it through to its ultimate end." Such a leader is Muammar Al Qadhafi. Born in the desert town of Sirte in 1942 Muammar Qadhafi has been deeply influenced by his traditional upbringing. He has been described as a messenger and a thinker in the ancient North African tradition of the 'marabout' - a holy man. He lives simply, he does not drink, and prays regularly. Although devout, he is a progressive Muslim in the tradition of the Prophet Muhammed, believing in feminine emancipation and the role of women in society. When asked by journalists about how he was brought up Brother Qadhafi said: "It was difficult in terms of the circumstances and the environment under which I lived. Bedouin life is mobile; the strictness of upbringing therefore comes from the severity of these circumstances. But socially I was free. We were bedouins enjoying full freedom and we lived amongst nature and everything was absolutely pure, in its true self, in front of us. We lived on the land and there was nothing between us and the sky. "Bedouin life made me discover the natural laws, natural relationships, life in its true nature, before life knew oppression, coercion and exploitation. This enabled me to write The Green Book. "I had a general idea how to make the masses free, how to make man happy. After that, things started to get clearer", Brother Qadhafi explained. This led him to set out his analysis in The Green Book. "It is not like writing an ordinary book. It was simply an attempt to explain the dialectic which exists between Marxism and capitalism. The world has reached a political and economic impasse, and humanity simply cannot accept this impasse and accept to die. There must be a way out. That way out is this new theory". Muammar Qadhafi's message covers the political, economic, social and philosophical dimensions of life. In The Green Book with inspired insight and a deep vision he sets out fully the principles of the Third Universal Theory, a way beyond both communism and capitalism. The main idea behind The Green Book is a return to the natural life and to natural forms of socialism and direct democracy - People's Power - which places all authority, wealth and arms in the hands of the people. In March 1986 the British newspaper Daily Mail held an exclusive interview with the revolutionary leader. In the introduction to the article the writer commented: "It was hard to credit that this was the man President Reagan had condemned as the world's number one terrorist. "Colonel Muammar Al Qadhafi was simple and charming sitting by the bonfire outside his tent when I arrived to interview him. He told me: I see the press as being the messengers between me and the world to tell them the truth." The Daily Mail stated: "Here is Al Qadhafi his view of the world in which he feels destiny has cast him in the role of a Prophet and a Messiah, above all a warrior for the Arab world and the Palestinian cause so dear to his heart." The Italian writer Mirella Bianco drew a comparison between Muammar Qadhafi and the Prophet Muhammed which in closing is worthy of note. Both the Prophet and Qadhafi are Bedouins of a similar desert background. They both share, therefore, a common love for freedom, physical endurance, and an ideal of equality in society. They are both given to meditation, and share the belief that no real change in society could occur without a spiritual transformation. Both share a feeling of urgency in having to convey their vision of the universe to others. They are both teachers with unshakable certainty in the rightness of their convictions. They both possess unusual courage, and an indomitable determination to pursue their mission. Finally, they are products of similar moments of transition and change in human history. Mirella Bianco ends her biography of Muammar Qadhafi with the following words: "The future will decide whether Muammar Al Qadhafi is to be simply a shooting-star across the skies of the Arab World from the Atlantic to the Gulf, or whether he is to be the bearer of its message to mankind." This is Muammar Al Qadhafi. For further details please write to: The New Dawn,GPO Box 3126FF, Melbourne, 3001, Victoria, Australia. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: CAPITALISM AND MARXISM - QADHAFI ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- CAPITALISM AND MARXISM By Muammar Al Qadhafi Marxist society copies capitalist exploitative society because like capitalism it puts people in the chains of wages, transforming everyone into wage workers employed by the state, thereby denying them their freedom. This is not an unfounded accusation because Marxist society is dictatorial and this is a question which the capitalist West exploits where there is talk about human liberties. Marxism responds to capitalism by saying that if the state did not carry out the task of employing everyone, allowing them to engage in all kinds of activities which are an alternative to capitalist exploitation, then there would be a re-emergence of unemployment and exploitation. Hence under the Marxist system all citizens are transformed into the state's wage-workers. In fact the Marxist ideology which has emerged to displace capitalism has fallen into the same trap as capitalism, namely the trap of wage-based economy, in which everyone has been transformed into a wage-worker. Tradesmen, barbers, scientists and peasants... they all belong to the state. State owned collective farms serve the state, not the farmer. What is happening is that these farms are in fact the expression of a new collective system of feudalism, which is a result of the application of Marxism to farming. The only society which can be free from exploitation and wage-slavery is the society of the masses, a Jamahiriya. This is a society which holds out the prospect of a return to the lost, earthly paradise. The Third Universal Theory exist to deal with the fundamental problems which face society and to offer solutions for them. To create a New Society and a new age, that is our task, for it will usher in the era of the masses and guarantee a radical solution to the economic problems which have beset mankind. THE THIRD ALTERNATIVE All over the world ever increasing numbers of people are realising that the answers to the political, economic and social problems facing the world community cannot be found in either state socialism or free market capitalism. Both of these nineteenth century ideologies are unable to provide realistic answers to the crisis of the modern age. Today people are searching for a third alternative which restores to the individual his dignity and at the same time gives the group its due place. Such an alternative has been set out in The Green Book by Muammar Qadhafi. The Libyan revolutionary leader, has denounced both capitalism and communism precisely because they have failed to tackle the pressing problems that face the world today. This is primarily because, through representation or deputation, they have deprived the masses from authority and have concentrated power in the hands of a privileged class or group. They also have kept the masses away from any meaningful opportunities to rule themselves. In Muammar Qadhafi's view, capitalism has failed because "it elevated man without considering the collectivity", while communism with its proletariat dictatorship "emphasised the collectivity and forgot man". In order to correct the shortcomings of both capitalism and communism, Qadhafi has authored the Third Universal Theory which is contained in The Green Book. His theory is designed to reorganise societies along new political, economic and social lines in order to establish a harmonious, egalitarian society where power and wealth are placed in the hands of the people, thus eliminating all forms of exploitation and achieving freedom and unity. Its application therefore is not just limited to Libya. It can be applied anywhere because it deals with today's human problems and provides solutions that neither capitalism nor communism have offered. It places man and natural law at the centre of the system on the ground that "man is the basis of everything... law is made for man" not vice-versa. Natural law "does not change but it acquires new dimensions with the evolution of human knowledge". The Third Universal Theory, in the words of Muammar Qadhafi, emerged from the realisation "that the world is in a transitional stage, and we live in a continuously precarious situation, influenced by both capitalism and Marxism. However, these theories have brought no real change to the world. This is the fundamental problem. The world remains in chaos and turmoil; the well-being promised by past theories has failed to materialise. The world now is like a sick person who, to reduce his pain, may rest on his left side or his right side, on his front or back. But the solution of problems is not determined by the way he sleeps, but by diagnosing his sickness and prescribing effective medication. Likewise, the world is moving towards the right and towards the left... These movements have proven to be shallow and vague, for they do not solve the real problems of mankind or fulfill man's needs. The problems of power and wealth a not yet solved." The United States in particular, and the continent of Western Europe in general, perhaps provide the clearest demonstration of the failure of capitalism and of the myriad offshoot systems of government which, ostensibly disguised as "socialism" have nonetheless not succeeded to contain either the political, economic or social turmoil in which the countries of Europe and the states of America find themselves. On the other hand, Marxism intended as an alternative to right the wrongs of capitalism has promised much but delivered little, and from Muammar Qadhafi's point of view the only real differences between the two rival systems is that where as capitalism allows the individual to exploit the masses, Marxism through the complete centralisation of power and wealth by the state likewise relegates the people to the unenviable status of mere cogs in a huge political machine geared to reach only the elusive and exclusive objectives of communism. Everything can be summarised by saying that the capitalist system has abused property and is to blame for communism because it has given it a reason to exist. Without the exploitation of capitalism, communism would never had existed. That is the cause, and communism is the effect. In order to remove the effect, it is necessary to remove the cause. Increasing political, economic and social crisis in many parts of the world, especially in Western Europe and the United States, together with the popular uprisings in Eastern Europe and the total moral degeneration which has become the hallmark of what is otherwise referred to as modern society, lends more than just substance to Muammar Qadhafi's statement that the traditional systems of government have neither come up to expectations nor do they offer any hope for the future. The Green Book in the words of Muammar Qadhafi is "a summary existing data, a putting together of facts pertinent to the life of man and to history; its aim is to serve as an instrument of reflection, and so, offer solutions to political, economic and social problems, which constitute its main theme. I declare with all sincerity and impartiality, that The Green Book is not my work, but that, such and how I have told you, it is been written by the fight of man for his final redemption." At an international symposium held in the Great Libyan Jamahiriya in 1983 over 1000 journalists, academics and freedom fighters declared that The Green Book provides "radical solutions... to the various political, economic and social problems which the prevailing regimes and theories have failed to resolve". Many participants felt that the theory is worthwhile and deserves serious consideration because, in their view, it contains sound ideas and principles that can help solve the complex problems facing oppressed people in the world at large. They agreed that the parliamentary system, the backbone of traditional Western democracy, has failed to create a genuine democracy. Instead, it has set up dictatorships that, because they are disguised in a democratic cloak, mislead the people with pretenses that they are governments of the people, by the people and for the people. The symposium delegates saw Qadhafi's theory as a welcome contrast and a genuine attempt to place the instruments of governing in the hands of the people as a whole, thus eliminating the deceptive role of rerepresentation or deputation. The great achievements of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, which are recognized internationally are the direct result of the progressive application of the Third Universal Theory. For the Libyan experiment is the creation of a completely New Society in which power, wealth and arms are in the hands of all the people. In a world that is suffering a political, spiritual and moral void the Third Universal Theory of The Green Book is a refreshing and viable path to political, economic and social emancipation. Such a theory, which is being discussed on every continent, must be debated and openly set before the people of Australia. The radical ideas of popular power (through local People's Conferences and Committees), economic justice (through partnerships and the satisfaction of need), and social harmony (through respect for natural human values, national identity and culture), must be discussed in the light of Australian conditions. Certainly The Green Book as a contemporary, functioning ideology provides a dynamic new way, thought-provoking and complete concepts which deserve to be printed, published and above all discussed, even when fixed prejudices are 'threatened'. Those who cannot accept this principle, or who cannot break free of the sterile, oppressive concepts of the past confine themselves to the dustbin of history. The AUSTRALIAN GREEN INSTITUTE is dedicated to researching these ideas and to questioning the intellectual dictatorship which is just a cover for perpetuating the traditional systems of oppression. For further details please write to: The New Dawn,GPO Box 3126FF, Melbourne, 3001, Victoria, Australia. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: THE GREEN BOOK BY MUAMMAR AL QADHAFI ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- THE BOOK GOVERNMENTS HAVE TRIED TO SUPPRESS THE GREEN BOOK by Muammar Al Qadhafi The Green Book, by Muammar Al Qadhafi, in three parts, sets out realistic solutions to the political, economic and social problems of the modern world.Read for yourself what governments and powerful lobby groups have banned and attempted to suppress. Obtain your copy of The Green Book written by one of the most controversial and charasmatic leaders of our time.WRITE FOR YOUR COPY TODAY!PRICE $6, includes postage and handling.Australian People's Conference, GPO Box 3126FF, Melbourne, 3001, Victoria, Australia. The FACTS about LIBYA Under the revolutionary leadership of Col. Muammar Qadhafi Libya has attained the highest standard of living in all of Africa. This is all the more remarkable when we consider that in 1951 Libya was officially the poorest country in the world. According to the World Bank, the per capita income was less than $50 a year - even lower than India. Today all Libyans own their own homes and cars. In the words of two Fleet Street journalists, David Blundey and Andrew Lycett, who are by know means supporters of the Libyan Arab revolution, "The young people are well dressed, well fed and well educated. Libyans now earn more per capita than the British. The disparity in annual incomes... is smaller than in most countries. Libya's wealth has been fairly spread throughout society. Every Libyan has a job and a decent salary. He gets free, and often excellent, education, medical and health services. New colleges and hospitals are impressive by any international standard. All Libyans have a house or a flat, a car and most have televisions, video recorders and telephones. Compared with most citizens of the Third World countries, and with many in the First World, Libyans have it very good indeed." (QADDAFI AND THE LIBYAN REVOLUTION) Brother Qadhafi is popular with all Libyans, especially the youth. Frequently, he will drive his own small car to factory dedications and similar ceremonies with very little personal security. He mingles freely with the people who eagerly seek to shake his hand. They frequently shout such slogans as, "I will live and die with Muammar Qadhafi". Unlike Nigeria and Mexico, where none of the oil wealth seeps down to benefit the people, under Libya's system of direct democracy summed up in the popular slogan "all power, wealth and arms in the hands of the people", all the oil profits are transferred directly to the people. No longer is wealth hoarded by a select few as in the days before the 1969 Revolution. The streets of Tripoli are filled with privately owned late model cars. Modern apartment complexes are going up everywhere making the city look like one huge construction site. Housing projects have been developed right across the country so as to ensure every Libyan has the right to own his own home. Every citizen has been given a decent house or apartment to live in rent-free. In Col. Qadhafi's Green Book we read: "The house is a basic need of both the individual and the family, therefore it should not be owned by others." This dicta has now become a reality for the Libyan Arab people. Large scale agricultural projects are being implemented in an effort to 'make the desert bloom' and achieve self-sufficiency in food production. Foremost among these projects is 'Jabal Akhdar' (Green Mountain) outside of Benghazi. As Muammar Qadhafi has stated: "The Jafara Plain, the great Jabal Al Akhdar, the plain area and the Fezzan valleys are witnessing the great agricultural revolution that will enable the Libyan people to earn their living, to eat freely the food that was normally imported from overseas - this is freedom, this is independence, and this is the Revolution." Any Libyan who wants to become a farmer is given free use of land, a house, farm equipment, some livestock and seed. Great attention has been payed to the development of industry since the start of the Revolution. Between 1970 and 1988 the total number of industrial projects was 362, of which 101 were for the provision of foodstuffs. Today, Libya can boast one of the finest health care systems in the Arab world. All people have access to doctors, hospitals, clinics and medicines, completely free of all charges. The Green Book sets out the basis for the transfer of all power, wealth and arms directly into the hands of the people themselves through a system of People's Conferences and People's Committees. It is this system of direct democracy which has enabled the Libyan Arab people to make spectacular economic and social advances, and to govern themselves by themselves. Certainly these material advances would not have been possible without the oil wealth. However, other oil-producing countries, such as Saudi Arabia, cannot show the same advances for all their people. In Libya the country's wealth is being used to benefit the whole community - a policy which stems directly from the ideology of The Green Book. More than the advances in housing, agricultural, industry, health care, education, is the advance in direct popular democracy. The September 1st Revolution, instigated and led by Muammar Al Qadhafi, has given the Libyan Arab people a freedom that is not enjoyed by other nations. It is the freedom to directly control their own lives and destiny. The feelings of the ordinary Libyan people about the Revolution are well near unanimous. Speak to university students, academics, farmers or shopkeepers and the sentiments expressed are the same. The Libyan masses would rather die fighting to defend their gains than become the lackeys of some imperialist superpower. Naturally, as the Libyans freely admit, there is still much to be done. Though they are determined to overcome their problems free from outside interference. The Libyan Arab people have something no other people have, the opportunity to participate directly in the decision making process. To rule themselves by themselves. In the final analysis this is the greatest achievement of the Great Al Fateh Revolution which began the green march on September 1 1969 - PEOPLE'S POWER. This is the GREAT JAMAHIRIYA. THE THIRD UNIVERSAL THEORY AND THE WEST Western politicians encourage the acceptance of basic misconception about the Third Universal Theory for very good reasons - from their point of view of course. The Third Universal Theory contains everything which exposes the bankruptcy of Western politics and it is because of this that every attempt is being made to prevent the theory of having any impact in Western countries. The very intensity of the propagandistic efforts to discredit the Third Universal Theory, enable us to gauge the fear which The Green Book provokes in the minds of the political operators in the representative political systems. These operators know that were the contents of The Green Book to become general knowledge amongst Western peoples, then they might one day find themselves out of a job. For the essence of the Third Universal Theory's approach to the problem of creating a truly democratic political structure is the belief that people cannot be "represented", they must represent themselves in decision-making forums like Libya's Basic People's Conferences. The Third Universal Theory contends that representative politics is a form of dictatorship, for such political procedures actually separate the people from the decision-making process. The only popular involvement in that process consists of the right to mark a cross on a ballot paper once every few years. In between such elections, the people have no direct control over government and, if a voter opted for a party which lost an election, that voters preferences are simply ignored. INCREDIBLE DISTORTIONS Although the peoples of the Western countries are aware of the failing of their own political systems, most feel there is little they can do to alter those systems. The idea of revolutionary change is strange and even frightening to them. But were they to read and understand The Green Book and appreciate the meaning of the Third Universal Theory, then such drastic change would not seem so very strange after all. This explains the incredible distortions of the meaning of the Third Universal Theory which are bandied about in the Western media, which has generally been obediently towing the anti-Libyan and anti-revolution lines of their countries governments. Fear of the message of the Third Universal Theory spreading is also the real underlying reason behind the hate campaign directed against Muammar Qadhafi and against all things Libyan. By projecting an image of the Leader of the Revolution which is untrue and by casting aspersions against the political processes which govern the Libyan Jamahiriya, Western leaders hope to thwart the political challenge of the Third Universal Theory. But such attempts to prevent Westerners curious about the Third Universal Theory from discovering more, have not met with anything like total success. Several Western universities have over the past decade held serious academic seminars at which the political content of the Third Universal Theory was discussed. More and more academics with knowledge of the Arab world are realising that the Third Universal Theory is a strain of serious political thought which offers Arabs, the peoples of the developing countries and the people of the developed nations, a new way forward to a truly popular democracy. Also we can call attention to the increasing acceptance of the Third Universal Theory by freedom fighters and political activists in the West. Committees and People's Conferences have been organised throughout the Western world composed of committed individuals who have dedicated themselves to the propagation of The Green Book. These militants, together with academics and many others with knowledge of the workings of the Basic, Municipal and General People's Conferences in the Great Jamahiriya and the way these organs of people's power relate to the People's Committees and the Administrative Secretariats, realise that here is a system which was not tailor made for Libya, but which could be applied elsewhere. INTERESTS CATERED FOR What has impressed foreign observers is the way the political structures which serve the Third Universal Theory cater for all the interests within a society. Both local, regional and national needs are all made to reconcile themselves with one another, while individual interest groups, such as trade unions for example, also have a direct say through association with the People's Conferences in the decision-making process. The Third Universal Theory is a guide which needs to be interpreted. Circumstances differ from one country to another and activists committed to its tenants would have to develop their own approach to its implementation in any industrial advanced European or North American society. The more people realise this, the more the theory becomes a threat to entrenched representative politics of the West and this is why the Third Universal Theory provokes such fear amongst Western reactionaries. For further details please write to: The New Dawn,GPO Box 3126FF, Melbourne, 3001, Victoria, Australia. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: PARLIAMENTS - QADHAFI - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- PARLIAMENTS by Col. Muammar Al Qadhafi. Parliaments are the backbone of traditional democracy prevailing in the world today. Parliament is a misrepresentation of the people and parliamentary systems are a false solution to the problem of democracy. A parliament is originally founded to represent the people, but this in itself is un-democratic as democracy means the authority of the people and not an authority acting on their behalf. The mere existence of a parliament means the absence of the people, but true democracy exists only through the participation of the people, and not through the activity of their representatives. Parliaments have been a legal barrier between the people and the exercise of authority, excluding masses from politics and monopolizing sovereignty in their place. Peoples are left with only a facade of democracy, manifested in long queues to cast their election ballot. To lay bare the character of parliaments one has to examine their origin. They are either elected from constituencies, a party or a coalition of parties, or are appointed. But all of these procedures are undemocratic, for dividing the population into constituencies means that one member of parliament represents thousands, hundreds of thousands or millions of people, depending on the size of the population. It also means that a member keeps no popular organisational link with the electors since he, like other members, is considered a representative of the whole people. This is what the prevailing traditional democracy requires. The masses are completely isolated from the representative and he, in turn, is totally removed from them. Immediately after winning the elector's votes the representative takes over their sovereignty and acts on their behalf. The prevailing traditional democracy endows the member of a parliament with a sacredness and immunity which are denied to the rest of the people; parliaments, therefore, have become a means of plundering and usurping the authority of the people. It has thus become the right of the people to struggle, through popular revolution, to destroy such instruments; the so-called parliamentary assemblies, which usurp democracy and sovereignty and which stifles the will of the people. The masses have the right to proclaim reverberantly the new principle: no representation in lieu of the people. If parliament is formed from one party as a result of winning an election, it becomes a parliament of the winning party and not of the people. It represents the party and not the people, and the executive power of the parliament becomes that of the victorious party and not of the people. The same is true of the parliament of proportional representation in which each party holds a number of seats allocated by popular vote. The members of this parliament represent their respective parties and not the people and the power established by such a coalition is the power of the combined parties and not of the people. Under such systems the people are the victims whose votes are vied for by exploitative competing factions who dupe the people into standing into long apathetic silent queues to cast their ballots in the same way that they throw waste paper into the dustbins. This is the traditional democracy prevalent in the whole world, whether it is represented by a one-party, two-party, multi-party or non-party system. Thus it is clear that representation is a fraud. Assemblies formed by appointment or hereditary succession do not fall under any form of democracy. Moreover, since the system of elected parliaments is based on propaganda to win votes, it is a demagogic system in the real sense of the word. Votes can be bought and falsified. Poor people are unable to compete in the election campaigns and the result is that only the rich always get elected. Philosophers, thinkers, and writers advocated the theory of representative parliaments at a time when peoples were unconsciously herded like sheep by kings, sultans and conquerors. The ultimate aspiration of the people of those times was to have someone to represent them before such rulers, when even this aspiration was rejected. People waged bitter and protracted struggle to attain this goal. After the successful establishment of the age of the republics and the beginning of the era of the masses, it is unthinkable that the democracy should mean the electing of only a few representatives to act on behalf of great masses. This is an obsolete structure. Authority must be in the hands of all of the people. The most tyrannical dictatorships the world has known have existed under the aegis of parliaments. For further details please write to: The New Dawn,GPO Box 3126FF, Melbourne, 3001, Victoria, Australia. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: THE GREEN BOOK ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- THE GREEN BOOK. [The Green Book is available from the Australian People's Conference, GPO Box 3126FF, Melbourne, 3001, Price: $6 including postage.] DIRECT DEMOCRACY'S ATTRACTION "All political systems in the world today are the product for the struggle for power between instruments of governing. The struggle may be peaceful or armed... The result is always the victory of an instrument of governing - be it an individual, group, party or class and the defeat of the people i.e. the defeat of genuine democracy." From Part One of The GREEN BOOK. The Third Universal Theory's approach to the problem of democracy as contained within part one of The Green Book, has many attractions. One of these is the fact that this approach holds out the possibility of an end to the fratricidal struggles between instruments of governing which are so characteristic of contemporary politics all over the world. The Green Book examines the problem of democracy and of the lack of real popular political power on the basis of an understanding that it is the state, bureaucratic and party political monopoly of power which is the key to the whole problem. Thus although Muammar Qadhafi considers the failings of each aspect of contemporary political structures, from parliaments to political parties, he ties this consideration into a whole which adds up to a rejection of the very notion of instruments of governing which are separate from the people. The practical result of this in the Libyan Jamahiriya has been not only the creation of the People's Conferences where decisions on the administration of the Jamahiriya are taken, but also in the creation of a popular administrative structure, the People's Committees, which puts government in the people's hands. Had the Third Universal Theory stopped at simply affirming the people's right to determine policy, then the mechanism of the state would have continued to exist, if only to execute the people's decisions. The result would have been the survival of the concept of political and administrative representation. Popular political power would thus have been meaningless, because the people would have been separated from the actual execution of popular decisions. Thus the political structure outlined in The Green Book provides for the People's Committees which are the administrative compliment to the People's Conferences. This is one of the main attractions of direct democracy, because under this system it is not only decision-making which is in the hands of the people, but also the administration of the popular will. The other main attraction of the Third Universal Theory is its rejection of the notion that the people need the structure of the state in order to regulate their lives. Since People's Conferences and People's Committees exist to both take the decisions which affect people's lives and then put them into practice, there is no need for a superfluous state structure which, however well monitored by the people, may threaten the revolutionary achievement of direct democracy. Since, as The Green Book says, there must be "no representation in lieu of the people", the state thus becomes unnecessary under the system of direct democracy outlined by the Third Universal Theory. The same goes for all the institutions related to the state, including the armed forces. The practical implementation of the aphorism "Power, Wealth and Arms in the hands of the People" has made it inevitable that the people of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya should take direct responsibility for national defence. If political power is not to be monopolized under the direct democratic system, then the same must go for military power. The practical application of the Third Universal Theory's dicta in the Libyan Jamahiriya has highlighted the attractions of a democracy in which political power is the sole preserve of the people. The Libyan people have thus conclusively demonstrated that it is possible for a people to take over the reins of power and dismantle unnecessary and repressive state institutions. POLITICAL FLEXIBILITY Another of the Third Universal Theory's attractions is the fact that there is a political flexibility inherent in its approach which would allow for modifications to the basic approach making the theory's implementation easier in other countries. The respect the theory accords the particular cultural and religious traditions of different countries implies an understanding of the fact that the establishment of direct democracy elsewhere may take different forms. But the essence of direct democracy is the same everywhere and it can be understood and appreciated by all peoples. It is because of this that it would be incorrect to assert that the Third Universal Theory is in some way more applicable to Arab or developing countries. The theory can be applied anywhere, because it offers people the opportunity to take direct control of their countries' affairs. The Green Book's rejection of the concept of political and administrative representation is something which everyone, all over the world, can understand and appreciate. That is why Muammar Qadhafi's theory is truly universal, because it is based on a longing for direct democracy which has existed since the dawn of man. The Third Universal Theory only expresses what man has always sought and that is the root of its attraction. ON SOCIALISM AND THE GREEN BOOK Socialism, as expounded in the Third Universal Theory outlined in The Green Book, can in no way be confused with state socialism, which has created in state socialist countries a society based on the exploitation of man by the state. This society is as harmful to man as that which, in capitalist countries generates the exploitation of man by man. One of the greatest mistakes of our time is to associate the term socialism with state socialism or Marxism. Muammar Qadhafi has on many occasions made a series of statements on the economic aspect of the Third Universal Theory. State socialism has separated man completely from his traditional life, and reconditioned him as a robot. Thus, in the Commentary on the Green Book we read: "By simply pressing a particular button, human robots move like ants to gather the fruits of their labour into previously designated places of storage. Such human robots do not have the freedom to choose when to eat and drink, love and dream, desire and rest; to rise to a higher station in life or to achieve fame." This state socialist system subsists on violence and "requires that an iron fist be always placed over the head of the people. Were it possible for this iron fist to be lifted, people would revert back to their old ways and only serve their own private interests. The tendency in Marxist society is, therefore, to establish a strong state which controls the wealth, authority and arms in order for it coerce all people to relinquish their personal interest and work only for Communism." (Commentary on the Green Book) The state socialist and capitalist systems are similar in that both have a people, a government and a state. They both have a regular army and police force, which are used in the capitalist system to protect the interests of rich capitalists, and in the Marxist system to protect the ruling party. Yet in both systems the people toil without being able to manage their own affairs. Rather, they are managed by public or private administrations which represent either the state, or private exploitative firms or companies. The Commentary on the Green Book concludes: "Leaders of the capitalist system pride themselves on their system having produced some affluent workers, yet they ignore those who became poor because of the affluence of the workers who usurped their opportunities for work and their share of the wealth of society. Marxists, likewise, pride themselves on having eliminated unemployment and thus ensured employment opportunities for all those who are capable of using them, yet they too ignore their own inability to provide the comforts of life for the workers." The Third Universal Theory, by contrast, proposes a New Socialism the purpose of which, in the words of The Green Book, "is to create a society which is happy because it is free. This can be achieved through satisfying the material and spiritual needs of man, and that, in turn, comes about through the liberation of these needs from outside domination and control." Speaking in the early 1970's Colonel Qadhafi stated: "Solutions adopted both by the East and the West which lacked sufficient aspirations and urgently required a Third Universal Theory, have caused great harm to humanity. Capitalism has harmed man... The whole of Western social life deteriorated because of wealth - wealth is the only thing that matters. He who has no capital, has no place and nobody will listen to him." Capitalism is the original cause for social disorder and state socialism is its most disastrous consequence. According to the Third Universal Theory it is necessary to end the economy of exploitation and replace it by a social economy without exploiters or exploited and where each receives a just payment in accordance with his capacity and effort. Capital must be at the service of the economy and not the economy at the service of international capitalism as has occurred up to now. Capitalism subdues and dominates man through the oppression of a techno-bureaucratic minority. By eradicating the capitalist cancer and establishing a New Socialist society based on natural law, the Third Universal Theory also eliminates the causes which generate the necessary social disorder for the development of Marxism. The application of the economic aspect of the Third Universal Theory leads to the establishment of economic independence and real social justice. It builds a New Socialist society, which is unlike both the existing state socialist and capitalist models, and in which man and the satisfaction of his needs is the essential factor. For further details please write to: The New Dawn,GPO Box 3126FF, Melbourne, 3001, Victoria, Australia. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: IT IS DAWN - QADHAFI - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- IT IS DAWN by Muammar Qadhafi One must know that there is a free nation that emancipated itself during the night of Al-Fateh/September 1969. This nation cannot accept the domination of any master. It is its own master. It decides its own destiny. The essential function of the people's revolution is to instill a revolutionary spirit in all walks of Jamahiriyan life and to create a Jamahiriyan apparatus under the people's control... the fundamental objective of the people's revolution is to become the master of the state apparatus, control it and remodel this apparatus... to revolutionize each sector of activity from the administrative point of view, the cultural and all other points of view. Very soon the tempest of the people's revolution will cover the whole world. We are saying this based on the real evolution of events and on the material achievements realised in the name of liberty in all places by the popular masses against coercion, against inequality, and against the instruments of power. The instruments of power are already disappearing. The governments, in the face of the progress made by the people towards capturing power, are already on the decline. For further details please write to: The New Dawn,GPO Box 3126FF, Melbourne, 3001, Victoria, Australia. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: A NEW JAMAHIRIYAN WORLD - QADHAFI - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- A NEW JAMAHIRIYAN WORLD: by Muammar Qadhafi The world has undergone fluctuations. It has taken the repugnant forms of capitalism and Marxism, but it has not changed in any way. These fluctuations have taken a repetitive character marked by perpetual new starts, step by step... Capitalism has failed in its attempt to bring happiness to humanity. Communism, which took the opposite path followed by capitalism in its attempt to save humanity, has also failed. Finally, the Third Universal Theory has been established. It has solved the problems faced by humanity at the present time and the problems it will face in the future. The three sections of the 'Green Book' political, economic and social, are the fundamentals of this theory. But, it is not enough to learn these three sections to be able to fully grasp this theory... One must also read all the commentaries explaining the fundamental questions raised in the 'Green Book'. In the age of the masses, we know full well that all the theories that have preceded the Third Universal Theory have been unable to transform the world. This is in spiteoftheir importance, inspite of the indelible marks they have left on human existence, inspite of the serious attempts made by capitalism and Marxism in the overall picture. Exploitation and inequality have persisted under the most diversified of forms. In the Jamahiriyan school, which is the stage which comes after Marxism and the left, we are on the path to the creation of a new world. A Jamahiriyan world. For further details please write to: The New Dawn,GPO Box 3126FF, Melbourne, 3001, Victoria, Australia. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: THE HAPPINESS OF HUMANKIND - QADHAFI - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- THE HAPPINESS OF MANKIND by Muammar Qadhafi The aim of the society is to create happiness for mankind. This cannot be done without satisfying the material and the spiritual needs of the people. To succeed in this, his needs to dominate and seize what belong to others have to be overcome. Needs have to be satisfied without exploitation and enslavement by others; otherwise, it will be in contradiction with the objectives of the new society. Based on this data, we may say: - Housing is a necessity for man and his family. It must belong to no one but him. - For a man an income is essential. This cannot thus, in a society, be a wage of any type, anymore than it can be a kind of charity. In a new socialist society there are no salaries, there are only associates. - A means of transportation is also essential for an individual and his family. Therefore, it must not belong to another person.- The land is no one's property... each person has the right to exploit it for agriculture and for cattle raising within the limits of his possibilities and his needs during his lifetime and those of his inheritors. He cannot, however, use another person, salaried or not, to work on his land. - Savings, that go beyond the needs of a person, can exist only at the expense of others and the wealth that belongs to society.- Work must be guaranteed to all by the society; to those capable of working and those who need to work, man or woman. But each individual must be able to choose the work that suits him or her. - Before the law, there is no difference between man and woman, big and small. But, there is no absolute equality either, as far as duties are concerned. - Considering minorities as political or economic minorities comes under the purview of dictatorship and injustice. All these principles are based on 'direct democracy'... This is a system of government which, once achieved, tolerates no discussion or calling into question. The people become the 'apparatus of the government'. In the age of the masses, the Jamahiriya is the corner-stone, the base, of a people's struggle which spreads to new areas everyday. One day it will encompass all the masses in their sacred march towards final emancipation. For further details please write to: The New Dawn,GPO Box 3126FF, Melbourne, 3001, Victoria, Australia. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: THE TRUE CONCEPTS - QADHAFI - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- THE TRUE CONCEPTS by Muammar Qadhafi Revolution does not just mean that an armed group seizes power. Politically speaking, it means that the masses seize power, and establish a people's government. Revolution does not just involve throwing out foreign armies. This is an obligation that a nation must fulfill, with or without revolution. Revolution is not the sum total of the measures taken to nationalise foreign interests in a country. These measures are only the compliment of national sovereignty. These measures must be taken even without a revolution. Admittedly, these important initiatives have only been taken under revolutionary pressure. However, these initiatives, by themselves, do not constitute revolution. Revolution consists in the masses seizing power and in that a final and decisive solution is found to the political problem in favour of the people. Revolution consists in the workers taking over all the sectors of activity in their country and in their moving forward to liberate themselves from the yoke of salaries and in their breaking all the chains of bondage and domination by others. Revolution, it is the revolution for the victory of liberty, and a genuine and decisive victory in favour of the masses... Such is revolution. For further details please write to: The New Dawn,GPO Box 3126FF, Melbourne, 3001, Victoria, Australia. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subject: THE WOMAN'S POSITION - QADHAFI - ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- THE WOMAN'S POSITION by Muammar Qadhafi In our era, all societies consider women as merchandise, in the Orient as an article to be bought and sold, in the Occident they are not considered as females at all. The woman is always enslaved and chained by dangerous social constraints. According to the revolutionary logic, the liberation of the woman does not consist in authorising activities reproved morally, by approving a revolt against duties towards the family, or by rejecting decency and reserve in attitude and maintenance. In so doing, we reject any ideas of superiority. Civilisation consists in putting into practice the supreme values of existence, and revolution is a manifestation of civilisation. The woman's liberation movement is an affirmation of morality and duties towards the family. But women must be respected. Society must recognize their true value, preserve their dignity and give them the opportunity of leading a happy life. This objective cannot be achieved without rehabilitating women and recognizing their full place in the political and social life. To achieve this it is also necessary for women to develop their personality fully by their own efforts, and without seeking anyone's help or aid. For further details please write to: The New Dawn,GPO Box 3126FF, Melbourne, 3001, Victoria, Australia. Source: Peacenet Via New York Transfer News 718-448-2358, 718-448-26 --- [ This file has travelled through the Socialism OnLine! BBS at +1-203-274-4639, 24 hours, 300-9600 bps HST/MNP/V42bis, on its way to you, the reader of this file. 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