Article 6468 of alt.conspiracy Subject JFKsummary of Garrison's evidence (LONG) Date 27 De

---
Master Index Current Directory Index Go to SkepticTank Go to Human Rights activist Keith Henson Go to Scientology cult

Skeptic Tank!

Article 6468 of alt.conspiracy: From: jamesruts.amdahl.com (Jim Richard) Newsgroups: sci.skeptic,alt.conspiracy Subject: JFK:summary of Garrison's evidence (LONG) Message-ID: bbF702J13clP00amdahl.uts.amdahl.com Date: 27 Dec 91 19:29:59 GMT Distribution: usa Organization: Amdahl Corporation, Sunnyvale CA Lines: 730 After seeing "JFK" last weekend and then reading Garrison's book I had a very clear sense of what Garrison thought happened in Dallas. However, the support for those claims and the sources for the information on Shaw, Ferrie and Banister were pretty fuzzy. So I wrote down the claims that Garrison had made and then went through his book a second time, writing down all the things that supported his various charges. The result is this summary. Almost all the information that follows came from: Jim Garrison, *On the Trail of the Assassins*, New York: Warner Books, Inc, 1988. 1. More than one gunman shot at Kennedy. a. Zapruder film showed that shots took place over 5.6 seconds, only enough time for a single assassin to get off three shots. One shot is known to have missed the limousine and hit bystander Tague in the jaw. The third shot was the final fatal head shot. That leaves one bullet to account for all other wounds received by Kennedy and Connally. There was a back wound and throat wound on Kennedy. Connally had a back wound, pierced lung, a fractured wrist and a grazed leg. According to the Warren Commission one bullet did this. It entered Kennedy's body travelling downward at 17 degrees and then travelled upward, departing through his neck. The bullet then entered Connally at the rear of his right armpit heading leftward. It travelled downward at 27 degrees, hitting Connally's fifth rib and exiting his chest. The bullet continued downward and passed through Connally's left wrist, shattering his radius bone, and finally lodged in his left leg. The bullet was found in a corridor of the Parkland Hospital with only slight damage to the base of the bullet. More fragments were recovered from Connally's wrist then were missing from this bullet. The Zapruder film shows Connally's cheeks puff out over a second after Kennedy clutches his throat. The puffing out was caused by Connally's lung collapsing and the air it contained being forced out. Connally did not testify that he and Kennedy were hit simultaneously; he said Kennedy was hit first. b. Many witnesses said they heard shots from the grassy knoll just in front and to the right of the presidential limousine. These include Tague who was cut in the face by a bullet or asphalt, and Abraham Zapruder, who was filming the motorcade. Some witnesses said they saw smoke rising from the trees located at the top of the knoll. Behind the knoll was a railroad yard. The knoll and the yard were separated by a five foot high picket fence. The switchman for the railroad yard, Lee Bowers, was in a glassed-in tower 14 feet off the ground. Earlier in the day he had seen a man driving around the railroad car apparently speaking into a microphone. A few minutes before the shooting, Mr. Bowers saw two unfamiliar men standing behind the picket fence. After the shooting he watched fifty to a hundred policemen converge on the railroad yard within five minutes. Bowers stopped some departing trains and these were searched. A Sergeant Harkess reports that some tramps and hoboes were pulled off the train but no guns were found. The transients were arrested and brought to the station and questioned. However, there is no record of their arrest or even there names. Analysis of news photos taken after the shooting traces the flight of three men from the grassy knoll to the box-cars. The photos show that the hoboes were clean-shaven and had fresh haircuts. The soles of their shoes are not worn and their clothes are shabby but clean. The photos also show that the police officers leading the tramps away are holding there rifles very casually, not at port arms. The trousers of one of officers did not fit him. A radio receiver earclip is visible in one officer's ear. Garrison says he knew of no local police force that possessed these earclips in 1963. c. Dr. Robert McClelland signed the admission note at Parkland Hopital which said that Kennedy's death was caused by a gunshot wound of the left temple. A wound in the left temple would not be consistent with the shooter being behind Kennedy. d. Several witnesses saw two or three people in the sixth floor of the Texas Book Depository shortly before the shooting. Oswald supposedly shot from the easternmost end of the sixth floor. Arnold Rowland, a student, saw an elderly black man at the easternmost end fifteen minutes before the shooting. At the westernmost end he saw a man with a rifle in his hands standing just back from the window. Carolyn Walther saw a man with a white shirt and light hair in the easternmost window. He was holding a rifle with a very short barrel. Standing next to him was a man in a brown suit. A 16-year old, Amos Euins, saw a man with a white bald spot doing the shooting. John Powell, an inmate in the county jail directly across from the depository, saw two men with a rifle, one of whom had a very dark complexion. Richard Carr, a steel worker at a building under construction about 500 feet away, saw a heavy-set man with horned rim glasses at the window next to the "assassin's lair". After the shooting, Carr ran down the building he was working on and saw four men running out of the Book Depository. One of these men walked away. The other three, one of whom was the same man he had seen on the sixth floor, walked a block and jumped into a Nash Rambler station wagon. The driver was Spanish or Cuban and had a very dark- complexion. Roger Craig, a Dallas deputy sheriff, saw the Dallas police unsuccessfully questioning a Spanish speaking Latino on Elm Street minutes after the shooting. Craig recognized this same man pull up to the Depository in a Nash Rambler some minutes later. A man Craig identified as Oswald jumped into the wagon which then tore off. Craig says that he went to the police headquarters and told Captain Will Fritz about the Nash Rambler. Oswald commented that the car belonged to Mrs. Ruth Paine, the woman who Oswald's wife was staying with. Another deputy later confirmed that Mrs. Paine owned a Nash Rambler but the homicide unit did not follow up on this. Fritz later denied that Craig had even been to police headquarters that day but a news photo surfaced six years later showing that Craig was in fact there. e. Shortly before the motorcade arrived, a Latin man had an epileptic seizure. He was taken to Parkland Hospital where he walked off, refusing to be treated or to identify himself. This seizure caused police officer Joe Smith to leave his post at the corner of the Depository and would have allowed gunmen on the grassy knoll to move into position. It also made unavailable the ambulance that was on standby in case of injury to the President. f. Julia Ann Mercer, wife of a former congressman, was caught in a traffic jam near the grassy knoll sometime before the arrival of the motorcade. She saw a man get out of a pickup truck carrying a poorly concealed rifle and climb up the grassy knoll. The next day she identified the driver of the pickup as Jack Ruby. This was the day before Ruby shot Oswald. The FBI altered her statement so that it did not mention the positive identification. The sheriff's office filed a notarized affidavit that said Mercer was not able to identify the driver. Mercer said that she had never been brought before a notary and that her signature on the affidavit had been forged. f. In 1979 the House Select Committee on Assassinations concluded that Kennedy "was probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy." This was based largely on acoustical evidence which indicated that shooting occurred both from behind Kennedy and from the grassy knoll in front of him. The committee called on the Justice Department to reopen the investigation. In September 1988, the Justice Department announced that it had found no persuasive evidence of a conspiracy. --- 2. Oswald didn't shoot Kennedy. a. The day he was arrested, Oswald was tested for nitrates on his cheeks to see if he had fired a rifle in the last 24 hours. The test was negative. The results were withheld for 10 months. Oswald's hands did react positively to the test. b. Oswald was seen in luncheon room on second floor 90 seconds after the shooting. He was drinking a coke. In 90 seconds he would have to had hidden the rifle under a pile of boxes, run down four flights of stairs and purchased a coke. c. No fingerprints of Oswald were found on the rifle when it was examined in FBI labs in Washington, D.C. The rifle was returned to Dallas police who later announced that a palm print of Oswald's had been found on the rifle. d. Three empty cartridges from a Mannlicher-Carcano were found near the easternmost window on the sixth floor. They were arranged close together and nearly in parallel even though a cartridge is flung violently away when the rifle is fired. e. Officer Seymour Weitzman, part of the Dallas search team that discovered the rifle on the sixth floor of the Depository, identified it as a highly accurate, German-made 7.65 Mauser. Weitzman operated a sporting goods store and was quite familiar with weapons. Roger Craig, who was also part of the search team, recalled the word Mauser inscribed on the metal of the rifle and Deputy Boone also described it as a Mauser. A film taken of the rifle being removed from the depository shows a rifle without a sight mounted on it. Both the Carcano and the Mauser have sights. f. The sight on the Mannlicher-Carcano was not aligned. g. Oswald's fellow Marines testified that he was a very poor shooter. --- 3. U.S. government involved in cover-up of conspiracy. a. A fourth bullet was apparently found during Kennedy's autopsy. The chief pathologist, Commander James Humes, told the Warren Commission that he had not found any bullets during the autopsy. However, an FBI memo from November 22, 1963, released under the Freedom of Information Act, acknowledged the receipt of a missile removed by Commander Humes on that date. b. Despite being told by Texas officials that Texas law required that a civilian autopsy be performed on Kennedy in Dallas, the secret service had the body flown to Bethesda Naval Hospital, where three military pathologists examined it. c. The military pathologists did not probe Kennedy's neck wound to trace the path of the bullet and to possibly recover the bullet, even though civilian doctors at Parkland Hospital had diagnosed the wound as an entrance wound. d. Fifteen to twenty photographs and X-rays of Kennedy's body were delivered to secret service agent Roy Kellerman but the Warren commission never examined them. e. One of the military pathologists, Dr. Finck, testified that the operation was coordinated under the direction of an Army general and that "when you are a lieutenant colonel in the Army you just follow orders, and at the end of the autopsy we were specifically told - as I recall it, it was by Admiral Kinney, the surgeon of the Navy - this is subject to verification - we were specifically told not to discuss the case." f. The front page of the Dallas Morning News for November 22 showed a map of the planned parade route. This route shown did not go by the Texas Book Depository because this change was made that morning. A copy of the front page that was introduced as a Warren Commission exhibit had a large square of solid gray on the five-sixths of the page that showed the motorcade route. (The Warren Commission did hear testimony on the motivation for the route change. It was to avoid a difficult, 100 degree turn beyond the railroad overpass to depart on Stemmons Freeway.) g. Two frames of the Zapruder film were reversed so that it appeared that Kennedy's head moved forward instead of backward after the fatal shot. When the Warren Commission asked the FBI what had happened to the film, J. Edgar Hoover replied that an inadvertent printing error had occurred. h. In 1972, Dr. Cyril Wecht, a pathologist, obtained a court order allowing him to examine Kennedy's brain, which had been preserved in formalin. The examination could have revealed the direction from which Kennedy had been hit. Unfortunately, it was found that Kennedy's brain had disappeared. i. Beverly Oliver filmed the motorcade facing the grassy knoll. The FBI took her film and never returned it. They claimed to have lost it. j. FBI had altered Julia Ann Mercer's testimony, removing her positive identification of Jack Ruby as the driver of a pickup trick carrying a gunman. k. Arnold Rowland, the man who saw an elderly black man on the sixth floor was told by the FBI agents who interviewed him that this wasn't relevant to the case and to just forget it now. l. The mayor of Dallas at the time of the assassination, Earle Cabell, was the brother of a former deputy director of the CIA, Charles Cabell. Charles Cabell had been in charge of the Bay of Pigs invasion and was afterwards fired by Kennedy. m. The secret service cleaned and washed out the presidential limousine on the day of the assassination. n. Secret service sent Connally's suit to be cleaned and pressed. o. Congressmen Goodell originally proposed an investigative commission of seven senators and seven congressmen to look into the assassination. President Johnson shortly announced formation of Warren Commission with two Senators and two congressmen. The commission members had a strong pro-military background. These include Allen Dulles, the former CIA director, Gerald Ford, a strong supporter of the CIA, and Richard Russell, the chairmen of the Senate Armed Forces Committee. p. Ruth Paine got Oswald his job in the Texas Book Depository. Paine's father and her brother-in-law had worked for the Agency for International Development which may have been a CIA cover. q. The CIA claimed that Oswald had visited Cuban and Soviet Embassies in October 1963 even though photos and tape recordings didn't match Oswald. --- 4. Banister was involved in assassination conspiracy. Guy Banister was a former Chicago FBI agent and former New Orleans police deputy working as a private detective in New Orleans. Banister had strong anti-communist views. A young attorney that Garrison played chess with reported that while in college he had been hired by Banister to infiltrate radical campus groups. There was a Banister-Oswald connection. When Oswald was arrested on August 9, 1963, he was handing out Marxist pro-Cuba literature. The address stamped on the pamphlets was the same office building as Banister worked in. Banister's secretary, Delphine Roberts, also reported that Banister had closed door meetings with Oswald and that Banister arranged for Oswald to have a third floor office. Jack Martin was a private detective who worked out of Banister's office. He spoke to Garrison off the record and reported that during the Summer of 1963 he saw many Cubans come and go from Banister's office. Dave Ferrie practically lived at the office and Lee Harvey Oswald also spent time there. Martin's job was to handle the small amount of private detective work that came in to the office. The August 1st and 2nd editions of the New Orleans Times-Picayune reported that the FBI had seized a cache of bombs from a house on the north shore of Lake Pontchartrain. The house was occupied by Jose Juarez, a Cuban refugee. The FBI reported that the bombs were seized in connection with an investigation of an effort to "carry out a military operation against a country with which the United States is at peace." According to Martin, the raid also included a training camp where nine Cuban and two American trainees were arrested. This was corroborated by an FBI report. Martin described Banister's activities as part of a supply line that ran from Dallas to Miami. The supplies were meant to be used against Cuba. Banister died about nine months after the assassination. His widow told Garrison that she had come across some pro-Cuba leaflets while emptying his office. Federal government agents had taken away his locked filing cabinets an hour or two after his death. --- 5. Banister worked for CIA. a. Banister was a former FBI agent. b. Banister's office in New Orleans was located amidst the intelligence agencies located there. c. Garrison feels the anti-Castro activity including the Lake Pontchartrain training camp were CIA sponsored. --- 6. Ferrie was involved in assassination conspiracy. Ferrie was an associate of Guy Banister's who frequently visited his office. Garrison learned that Ferrie had driven from New Orleans to Houston shortly after the assassination. The source was someone who knew Jack Martin. In Houston, Ferrie was seen at an ice rink, making and receiving numerous telephone calls. When asked why he had driven to Houston during a violent thunderstorm just to go to an ice rink, Ferrie was evasive. Ferrie was also found to have driven to Galveston, Texas. Galveston is where Jack Ruby called on Saturday night, the day before he shot Oswald. Ferrie's apartment was searched the weekend of the assassination and an assortment of Army rifles and other equipment were found. A large map of Cuba was on the wall. Ferrie also had a mob connection. When reputed mob boss Marcello was deported by Robert Kennedy and dumped in Guatamala, it was Ferrie who flew Marcello back to the U.S. Additional evidence is listed under evidence for claim that Clay Shaw was involved in assassination conspiracy. --- 7. Ferrie worked for CIA. Gordon Novel was pursued to learn his role in a raid on a Schlumberger Corporation explosives bunker in southern Louisiana. He announced that he had participated in the raid and had been working as a CIA operative. He identified David Ferrie as another CIA employee and participant in the raid. Novel said that the bunker was "a CIA staging point for munitions destined to be used as part of the abortive Bay of Pigs attack on Casto's Cuba." The arms were brought back in a laundry truck and divided equally between Ferrie's apartment and Banister's office. Garrison states twice that Ferrie worked at the Lake Pontchartrain training camp as an instructor (pages 141 and 204) but he gives no source for this information. Garrison considers the training camp to be a CIA operation. --- 8. Shaw was involved in assassination conspiracy. Clay Shaw was head of the International Trade Commission and a prominent civic leader. On the day after the assassination, a Clay Bertrand asked his lawyer Dean Andrews to fly to Dallas and represent Oswald according to Andrews testimony to the Warren Commission. But, when interviewed by Garrison, Andrews denied having ever seen Clay Bertrand or knowing who he really was. Andrews, in his first FBI interview, had described Bertrand as 6'2". Later, Andrews told the Warren Commission that Bertrand was 5'8". He had also told the FBI that Bertrand had previously asked him to help with the citizenship problems that Oswald's wife, Marina, was having. The FBI final reported stated that the phone call from Bertrand had been a figment of Andrews' imagination. Garrison's investigators covered the bars in New Orleans' French Quarter asking about Clay Bertrand. Bartenders and many others said it was common knowledge that Clay Shaw went by the name Clay Bertrand. A young man and friend of Shaw's named William Morris did so on the record. Others followed. A hostess at the V.I.P. room for Eastern Airlines said that a Clay Bertrand had signed the guest register. Her description of him matched Shaw's. Later on, when Garrison had Shaw arrested, Shaw was asked by the booking officer, Aloysius Habighorst, if he had any aliases. Shaw replied Clay Bertrand. In September 1963, Oswald was seen in the small town of Clinton, in deep south Louisiana, accompanied by two men whose descriptions matched Clay Shaw and David Ferrie. A barber, Edwin McGehee, reported that he gave Oswald a haircut and that Oswald had mentioned he was applying for a job at a hospital in nearby Jackson. McGehee suggested that he register to vote in the parish to improve his chances of getting the job. A major drive was underway to register black voters. Oswald was seen by several people who recalled that he was the only white standing in a long line of blacks registering to vote. A number of witnesses reported that the two men matching Shaw's and Ferrie's descriptions waited in a black limousine whose license plate showed it was registered to the International Trade Mart. Garrison found several other people who stated that Shaw knew David Ferrie. Jules Rico Kimble said that Ferrie flew him and Shaw to Canada to pick up a heavy-set Cuban who was balding in front. David Logan says that Ferrie introduced him to Shaw and that Shaw invited him to dinner at his house where Logan and Shaw were seated at opposite ends of a long dining table. Another friend of Ferrie's, Raymond Broshears, had dined with Ferrie and Shaw together. Broshears said that Ferrie would discuss the Kennedy assassination only when he was drunk and that then he would emphasize that his role was marginal. Broshears said that Ferrie's role was to drive to Houston where he was to pick up two members of the assassination team and fly them to a more distant location. Edward Whalen, a professional criminal, told Garrison that Ferrie and Shaw had offered him $25,000 to kill Garrison. Whalen said that they had been tipped off by Dean Andrews about Garrison's investigation. Whalen refused the offer because he did not want to kill a district attorney. Perry Russo, a 25-year old Equitable insurance agent from Baton-Rouge, testified that Ferrie and Shaw had discussed Kennedy's assassination in September 1963. Russo dropped in at a party at Ferrie's where Shaw, some Cubans and someone who was called Leon Oswald were gathered. Russo could not firmly identify Leon Oswald as Lee Harvey Oswald. They first discussed plans to assassinate Castro and the difficulties involved. When the Cubans left the conversation switched to getting Kennedy and how this could be blamed on Castro and lead to an invasion of Cuba. Ferrie emphasized that triangulation of fire, using three shooters from different directions, would be the best method to kill Kennedy. Shaw said that they would all need alibis and that he would be on the west coast. The talk of alibis made it clear to Russo that the Kennedy assassination was not a hypothetical discussion but a plot that was going to be carried out. A narcotics offender, Vernon Bundy, said he had seen Shaw and Oswald together. Bundy had gone to the seawall at Lake Pontchartrain to get a fix. While he was there, Shaw and Oswald held a 15 minute conversation within twenty feet of him. During the conversation, Shaw handed Oswald some money. Richard Case Nagell told Garrison that he had worked for an unnamed government agency. Nagell was assigned to infiltrate a group that included Oswald. By September 1963 it had become clear that a large operation directed toward assassinating Kennedy was underway. Nagell feared he was being drawn into a trap so he had himself arrested and jailed to prevent any charges being levelled against him. Nagell named Guy Banister, David Ferrie and Clay Shaw as the other men involved with Oswald. Charles Spiesel, an accountant from New York, said he met Ferrie and Shaw on a trip to New Orleans and heard them discuss the possible assassination of Kennedy. Spiesel was thoroughly discredited under cross examination. He testified that the New York city police had hypnotized and tortured him. He could tell when an attempt was being made to hypnotize "when someone tries to get your attention - catch your eye. That's a clue right off." He said that he been hypnotized in order to plant thoughts in his head that were untrue. Spiesel also admitted that he fingerprinted his daughter whenever she left for school at L.S.U. at again when she returned to make sure she was the same person. --- 9. Shaw worked for CIA. Shaw was on the board of directors of the Centro Mondiale Commerciale. Some articles in the Italian newspaper, Paesa Sera, identified the directors as being so strongly anti-communist they wished to swallow up all those who wanted decent East-West relations. The paper also indicated that the Center may have been the creature of the CIA. A CIA staff employee named Marchetti said that during Shaw's trial, he heard CIA officials asking about the status of the trial and whether the CIA was doing enough to help. Marchetti was told that Shaw had been a contact of the CIA. The former CIA director Helms testified that Shaw had been "one of the part-time contacts of the Domestic Contact Division, the people that contacted businessmen, professors, and so forth, and who traveled in and out of the country." --- 10. Oswald did not murder officer Tippit. a. Tippit was murdered between 1:06 and 1:10 PM. Oswald was seen at a bus stop at 1:04 a mile to the south of the murder. b. The closest of the witnesses to Tippit's murder, Domingo Benavides, wouldn't identify Oswald as the murderer. c. Warren Reynolds saw a gunmen fleeing from the shooting. At first, he told the FBI he would hesitate to name Oswald as the gunmen. Reynolds was subsequently shot in the head in a car basement and, after recovering, he testified that the gunman was Oswald. d. Helen Markham testified that the gunman was Oswald but she also said that she did had never seen any of the men in the police line-up, which included Oswald. Markham also claimed to have tried to talk to Tippitt for twenty minutes after the shooting but all the other witnesses said he died immediately. e. There were other witnesses who testified to the Warren Commission but Garrison dismisses them as "inconsequential." f. There were a few witnesses not interviewed by the Warren Commission who gave different versions of the shooting. Acquilla Clemons saw two men at Tippit's police car. The gunman was short and heavy. Frank Wright reported that the gunman fled the scene in a gray car parked next to the police car. FBI director J. Edgar Hoover ordered FBI agents not to question Clemons and Wright, as revealed in an FBI memo. g. Minutes after the shooting, a report describing the suspect said he was armed with an automatic pistol. The first report from the scene said that the shell at the scene indicated an automatic pistol. Oswald was found with a revolver, not an automatic. Revolvers and automatics are easily distinguished, as are their shells. h. Four different bullets were removed from Tippit. Three were Winchester Westerns and the fourth was from Remington-Peters. It would be unusual for a single gun to contain two types of bullets since bullets are not sold in mixed lots. The FBI labs could not confirm that the four bullets had been fired by Oswald's revolver. i. The cartridges entered as evidence were confirmed to have been fired by Oswald's revolver but these cartridges did not have the initials etched on them by either the officer at the scene or the officer who received them at police headquarters (the officer at the scene believed he had marked the cartridges but could not swear to it). --- 11. Someone impersonated Oswald to make him appear a Communist. a. When Oswald moved to New Orleans in April 1963 he took a job at Reilly Coffee Company. Reilly was strongly anti-Castro and the job may have been arranged because of this. However, there were dozens of job application found with Oswald's signature on them. All of these listed Oswald's height as 5'9". However, Oswald was probably 5'11". An impersonator could have applied for the jobs, forging the signatures but listing his actual height to avoid arousing suspicion. b. On January 20, 1961, while Oswald was in Russia, two men representing Friends of Democratic Cuba inquired about buying 10 Ford pickup trucks. One was a Cuban the other a man called "Oswald". One of the incorporators of FODC was Guy Banister. c. The CIA claims that Oswald was in Mexico City in October 1963 trying to defect to Cuba or the USSR. They released a murky photo supposedly of Oswald, although the man was portly, greying and older. A Cuban Embassy worker, Silvia Duran, was arrested and released by the CIA only after she identified Oswald as a visitor to the Cuban Embassy. In 1978 she described Oswald as blond and 5'3". The Cuban Consul, Eusebio Azcue, had three confrontations with the man claiming to be Oswald. Azcue stated that photographs of Oswald did not show the same man as he met. The Warren Commission tried to get tapes of Oswald's calls from the Soviet Agency but the CIA said they had none. However, FBI agents at Oswald's post-arrest interrogation heard them and thought them to be of somebody else. d. Someone claiming to be Lee Oswald went to a Lincoln-Mercury dealership in early November 1963. He drove like a wild man and, when told the amount needed for a down payment, commented that maybe he would have to go back to Russia to buy a car. The salesmen said that this man had a different hairline than Oswald and was shorter. --- 12. Oswald worked in counter-intelligence. a. Eight marines associated with Oswald at the El Toro Marine Base testified to the Warren Commission that Oswald had no Marxist inclinations. Only Kerry Thornley disagreed. (Garrison implicates Thornley as the possible impersonator of Oswald). b. About six months before defecting to the Soviet Union, Oswald was given a Russian language examination. c. When travelling to the Soviet Union, Oswald arrived in England on October 9, 1959. According to the Warren Commission Report he left for Helsinki the same day but his passport shows he did not leave until the 10th. Oswald checked into a hotel in Helsinki on October 10th. However, there was no direct commercial flight from London to Helsinki on October 10th. d. A CIA finance officer, James Wilcott, testified to the HSCA that Oswald had been recruited by the CIA for a double agent assignment in the Soviet Union. Wilcott said that he had handled funding for the project Oswald was on. This testimony was denied by other agents. e. Oswald was given a repatriation loan when he returned to the U.S. This was only given to those who had unquestionable loyalty to the U.S. f. After returning to U.S., Oswald was given a security clearance to work at company that apparently worked on military maps for U-2 missions over Cuba. This was in October 1962. g. Accepted by conservative White Russian community who one would expect to reject a Soviet defector and Marxist sympathizer. h. The Life cover photo that showed Oswald holding a rifle in one hand, a Marxist newspaper in his right and a pistol on his right hip is claimed by some to be a fake. There are a few different photos of Oswald taken at different distances. His face is always the same and the size of the head doesn't change but that of his body does. i. Associated with Banister who was a former FBI agent. j. Oswald hired people from local employment office to hand out pamphlets for Fair Play for Cuba Committee. Spoke with FBI agent John Quigley when arrested. k. Wagoner Carr, the attorney general of Texas, testified to the Warren Commission that Oswald had been an FBI informant during the year before the assassination, receiving $200 a month. Carr had acquired this evidence from Allan Sweatt, the chief of the criminal division of the Dallas Sherriff's office. --- 13. Dallas police department involved in conspiracy. a. No notes were taken of 12 hour interrogation of Oswald following his arrest and no attorney was present. This would have made any statements he made inadmissible in court. b. The police department possible concealed or altered evidence such as the 7.65 Mauser identified at the sixth floor of the Depository, and the ballistic evidence in Tippit's murder. c. The police department did not follow up on Deputy Sherriff Craig's report of a Nash Rambler station wagon leave from the Depository carrying Oswald. d. Insufficient protection was offered to protect Oswald. e. Julia Ann Mercer's affidavit was fabricated. --- 14. U.S. government involved in conspiracy. a. Five days before the assassination the New Orleans FBI received a telex warning that an attempt would be made on Kennedy's life in Dallas. The warning was not passed on to the Secret Service. The telex disappeared from the New Orleans file shortly after the assassination. b. FBI agent James Hosty notified Dallas police that he had information that showed Oswald was capable of committing the assassination at 2:50 PM on the day of the assassination. This was before the FBI had mentioned that Oswald was a suspect. The tenant of a former FBI agent who knew Hosty had heard that Oswald was an FBI informant and that Hosty was Oswald's contact. c. On the day of the assassination, the secret service had removed the plastic bubble used to cover the presidential limousine on the day of the assassination. (The Warren Commission had been told that the bubble was not bulletproof and the skies had cleared). d. The secret service failed to secure the roofs of the buildings in Dealy Plaza or to make sure that windows would be closed. e. The local army unit that would normally have been involved in the security duties for Kennedy's visit to Dallas were told that they would not be needed. [Mentioned in Stone's movie but not Garrison's book. Stone sticks pretty closely to Garrison's book but he assigns a much larger role to the CIA than Garrison does. Garrison believes that the plan to assassinate the president was carried out by rogue elements within the CIA or its contract agents. These encompassed Shaw, Ferrie, Banister and the Cuban guerillas. Stone, though, indicates that these rogue elements were actually directed by higher ups in the CIA. Stone's evidence for this comes from the interview with X.] f. Extensive biographical information on Oswald was published in New Zealand newspapers immediately after the assassination [mentioned in Stone's movie but not Garrison's book]. --- A few of the pieces of evidence listed above are dubious as stated. How could a witness describe a man in the Texas Book Depository as being heavy-set and wearing horned-rim glasses (1.d) from 500 feet away? There were many witnesses to the Tippit murder but Garrison dismisses most of them as "inconsequential" without any attempt to refute their testimony (10.e). Garrison also has ignored some important pieces of evidence against a conspiracy. He does not mention the experiments of U.C. Berkeley physicist, Luis Alvaraz, in which taped melons were shot at and some were observed to move towards the rifle. He does not mention that twenty pathologists were shown the autopsy photographs of Kennedy and nineteen said that Kennedy had been hit from behind (but it has also been claimed that the autopsy evidence was tampered with). Garrison also fails to mention that the acoustical evidence for a second gunman that the HSCA had based its conspiracy charge on was refuted by a subsequent study performed by the National Academy of Sciences in 1982. There are a few instances where Garrison presents seemingly strong evidence for a claim but then buries additional facts that mitigate the evidence in a notes section in the back of the book. The notes section contains the facts that Oswald's hands reacted positively to the nitrate test, that the Warren Commission heard testimony about the motorcade route change and that the plastic bubble that had been removed from the limousine was not bulletproof. The above shortcomings do not destroy the claim that there were more than one gunmen. There are just too many other pieces of evidence. The attempts to implicate the CIA are more dubious. There is are too few witnesses and no corroborating evidence to indict Banister, Ferrie and Shaw. Only four witnesses were found who accused Shaw and Ferrie of plotting the assassination: these were Broshears, Russo, Nagell and the paranoid Spiesel. Their involvement in the CIA is also poorly supported. Only Gordon Novel is recorded as saying Ferrie was a CIA employee. Shaw's only known involvement with the CIA was that he debriefed businessmen who were returning from overseas. -- All views expressed are mine, not my employers.

---

E-Mail Fredric L. Rice / The Skeptic Tank