To: All Nov-30-93 01:52PM Subject: A heat transformer much more efficient than a heat pump

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From: Mathias Bage To: All Nov-30-93 01:52PM Subject: A heat transformer much more efficient than a heat pump Organization: Royal Institute of Technology, NADA From: mathias@linnea-grind.stacken.kth.se (Mathias Bage) Message-ID: Newsgroups: sci.energy,sci.chem,sci.skeptic,alt.paranet.science Please comment on this. I didn't write the text. A now deseased guy whose name I've forgotten did. It is speculated that he was killed. I will post more information later. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- The Elmotherm heat transformer (patent applied for) Energy production plant utilizing heat transformation in chemical reactions in cyclic, totally closed processes. Elmotherm system heat transformer is a physical/chemical heating plant for converting low-temperature energy to high-temperature energy. The system has an extremely high degree of efficiency in utilizing the almost unlimited amounts of low-temperature energy to be found in nature: in the air, water and earth. Other primary sources may be waste heat from industry or cooling water from power plants. The chemical heat transformer fulfills all reasonable requirements for an energy plants which must safeguard the environment, work with a high degree of efficiency, and take into account our limited fuel resources. The principle of the Elmotherm chemical heat transformer is related to that of the heat pump, but the Elmotherm system is considerably more efficient. This is due to the fact that it supplies reaction heat from a solely chemical process, in addition to heat from the physical vaporization process of the heat pump. The physical and chemical processes are joined together in a totally closed circuit which requires a limited amount of additional energy for its operation. In the chemical heat transformer's /physical process/, the temperature is raised by changing the state of the heat medium in the system -- for example, from a liquid to a gas. In the next stage the gas returns to a liquid. In the /chemical process/, the temperature is raised by converting certain substances to other substances -- for example, converting ammonia and carbon dioxide to ammonium carbonate. In the next phase the process is reversed, and we get the original substances again. Both of these cycles are close-cycle processes, a characteristic of the Elmotherm system as a whole. Elmotherm 191 heat transformer The soda-ammonia process *Main components* Elmotherm 101 chemical heat transformer consists of a combined heat exchanger/processor, a second processor, a second heat exchanger, a heater and an ammonia cooler. *Operation* Water at a relatively low temperature (e.g. sea water at +10 degC) and liquid ammonia are fed to the heat exchanger/processor. The ammonia is heated by the +10 degC water, which leaves the heat exchanger at a temperature of -3 degC. In the processor unit of the heat exchanger the ammonia is vaporized and then goes at a temperature of -5 degC to a second processor. There the gaseous ammonia is mixed with a sodium carbonate solution (soda crystals dissolved in water) at a temperature above +31 degC. When the gaseous ammonia dissolves in the free water of crystallization the temperature of the process is raised. Liquid ammonia and a sodium carbonate solution are formed with a temperature of approximately +65 degC. This end product is carried to a second heat exchanger, where the 5 degC water is heated to +65 degC and then distributed as hot water to a consumption unit. The liquid ammonia returns to the first heat exchanger/processor. During the heat transformation in the second heat exchanger, the sodium carried solution absorbs the water of crystallization and is converted to soda crystals at a temperature below +31 degC. The soda crystals go to a heater where they melt, giving us back the sodium carbonate solution. This is now carried to the second processor for a new cycle. Energy for the heater can be taken from the high-temperature side of the second heat exchanger, or it can be provided by electric power. The plant also includes a cooler with a filter at the liquid ammonia inlet. As a cooling medium, water is used from the low-temperature side of the first heat exchanger. Flowchart of Elmotherm 101 heat transformer In the flowchart, sea water is used as a primary source of heat. Alternatively, water from lakes and other waterways can be used, as can sewage or drainwater, or even the heat content of the air. Temperatures given in the chart are approximate. They can vary depending on the type of water or other primary heat source used. Chemical components: Water = H O 2 Ammonia = NH 3 Soda (sodium carbonate) = Na CO 2 3 Soda crystals (sodium carbonate solution) = Na CO . 10H O 2 3 2 In the second processor, ammonia and the sodium carbonate solution are mixed, reaching a temperature of +65 degC. The product, a solution of Na CO . 10H O _ NH 2 3 2 3 is taken to the second heat exchanger which can send its heat to a consumption unit. The mixture of soda and ammonia dissolved in water of crystallization is further cooled below +31 degC, at which temperature the soda crystallizes, thereby binding the water of crystallization. The dissolved ammonia in the closed vessel then precipitates as a liquid and can be separated. A heater, at a temperature above +31 degC, melts the soda crystals formed in the heat exchanger and they return to their original sodium carbonate solution. Approximately 25 kg of ammonia and 400 kg soda crystals are needed for an Elmotherm 101 chemical heat transformer of a size that would satisfy the heat requirements (approximately 30,000 kWh/year) for a normal private home, with margin to spare. These chemicals circulate constantly in the totally closed system of the plant, without being consumed. Thus, for all practical purposes, they have an unlimited life. +--------+ | cooler | +---------------------| and | | | filter | hot water | +-------------->>| | liquid output | | | | ammonia (+65 degC) | | +-------| |//-------------------------------+ | | | | +-----| |\\-----------------------------+ | | | | | | +--------+ | | | | | | | liquid ammonia and | | | | | | | sodium carbonate solution | | | v | \\ // | +--------+ v v | +------------+ +---------+ | +---------| heat | --+--- | -\\| heat |--\\|processor| | | | exch- |--\\ ------ | -//| exchanger/ |--//| II | v | +-->>| anger |--// sea | | processor | |_ _ _ _ _| | | | II | water | | I | ^ | |------------------\\| |//-- inlet | | | | | |------------------//| |\\-- +10 | | | | | | | | | | degC | | | | | |//---+ | | +--------+ ^ | | | | | |\\-+ | | | | | | //-----+----| | | +---------+ | | v | | | | \\----------| | | | | v | | | | sea water +------------+ | | | +--------+ | | cold water outlet | | | | heater | | | input -3 degC gaseous ammonia | +--| |//--+ | (+5 degC) (-5 degC) +----| |\\----+ | | ^ +--------+ ^ | | | | sodium carbonate soda crystals solution ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- . <= it's actually a ring over the a Mathias Bage mathias@stacken.kth.se

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