(word processor parameters LM=1, RM=70, TM=2, BM=2) Taken from KeelyNet BBS (214) 324-3501
(word processor parameters LM=1, RM=70, TM=2, BM=2)
Taken from KeelyNet BBS (214) 324-3501
Sponsored by Vangard Sciences
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This is a story from a book called FOIBLES AND FALLACIES OF
SCIENCE, written by Mr.Daniel Hering in 1924.
History relates several types of perpetual motion machines. The
inventor's motives range from the ideal of pure invention to an
attempt to defraud the public. Perpetual motion machines have been
traced back for several hundred years.
As of this date there has been no known account of a working
perpetual motion machine which can be built and demonstrated by
anyone other than the inventor. Although, we have heard many
claims, we have yet to see a working model. This does not rule
out the possibility that one could actually be made and
The U.S.Patent Office receives about one hundred applications a
year on perpetual motion machines but they are usually rejected by
the office, without research into their workability.
The keywords which bring about the rejection are perpetual motion.
contributed by Ron Barker
THE LIQUEFACTION OF AIR AND THE HOPES IT AROUSED ;
PERPETUAL MOTION OF THE SECOND KIND
Why should a little matter like the second law of
thermodynamics obstruct the path to perpetual motion when we
consider what we might achieve if we could be rid of it?
The boundless possibilities growing out of the achievement of
perpetual motion were too fascinating, its unlimited and
uncomplaining response to the heightened complexity and increased
demands of modern civilization was too satisfying for it to be
abandoned, and every advance in science stimulated the hope that a
new principle would do away with the limitations imposed by
earlier partial and imperfect knowledge.
By 1895 gases had been liquefied by the so-called
regenerative method with less difficulty and expense than had
before been possible; Mr. Charles E. Tripler of New York had
devised apparatus for the liquefaction of air in large quantity,
and a popular article concerning Mr. Tripler's laboratory and his
remarkable work was published in McClure's Magazine for March
1899. This article, written by Mr. Ray Stannard Baker, then of
the editoral staff of the magazine, contained some startling
statements and one especially which meant the refutation of the
second law of thermodynamics and the achievement of the perpetual
Mr. Tripler said :
" I have actually made about ten gallons of liquid air in my
liquifier by the use of about three gallons in my engine.
There is, therefore, a surplusage of seven gallons that has
cost me nothing, and which I can use elsewhere as power."
The very cold liquid air in the boiler of an engine would be
vaporized and have high pressure under the heating effect of the
atmosphere, without any other fuel, and the air thus under
pressure would drive the engine which, in turn, would compress
more air to be liquefied and employed for power purposes. The use
of air for driving the engine constituted no difficulty either in
theory or practice, but according to accepted ideas of science, as
much work would be required in compressing the air and depriving
it of heat as the air could possibly restore in again reaching its
normal pressure and temperature. Still, there was Mr. Tripler's
statement which he offered to verify in his laboratory.
At the invitation of McClure's Magazine, through Mr. Baker,
two professors, heads of the departments of Physics and Chemistry
in a prominent university, visited Mr. Tripler's laboratory to
witness such a demonstration. The visit, though made by
appointment, proved to be not conveniently timed for Mr. Tripler,
and nothing came of it except a brief comment from each of them
criticizing Mr. Tripler's claims. This the magazine did not
publish, and the exploitation of liquid air and its wonders
continued. Those who had declared war to the death on the second
law of thermodynamics were elated and exultant.
Mr. Tripler resented calling his invention a scheme for
perpetual motion - always insisting that the heat of the
atmosphere was a furnace for his liquid air, and consistently
refusing to admit that he lost any power in getting the air to a
temperature below that of the surrounding bodies, i.e., denying
the validity of the second law of thermodynamics. The promises of
the liquid air scheme were alluring -bewilderingly so - and its
friends were loath to give up the hopes based upon them. Posing as
an exemption from a painful but inexorable law, this fallacy
lingered for several years and died hard.
Another example of the "second kind" of perpetual motion is
found in a pamphlet entitled "Die Perpetuum mobile Theorie," by
Franz Hoffmann, of Saalfeld Prussia. It was published in Leipzig,
in 1912, there years after an international aviation contest at
Rheims, in which the Germans were worsted and two years before the
outbreak of the great world war.
It is a rather involved scheme which winds up with this naive
bit of patriotic sentiment :
" Anyone who cannot understand that, there is no help for, -
it will happen with him just as with certain gentlemen who,
some ten years ago, had not been able to understand that a
body that was essentially heavier than air could
nevertheless lift itself free in the air. The consequence
of this intellectual debility was that three years ago in
Rheims we had to let Messieurs Frenchmen and Americans fly
away from us instead of the Germans leading the remaining
nations in flying.
" Perhaps a gracious fate may preserve poor Germany from
another Rheims humiliation that will come from the fact
that not until other nations arrive in Hamburg or Bremen
with their `perpetual motion' ships, will the German
Michael awake from his lethargy."
He implores every reader who still has any regard for
Germany's name and honor to do what he can that, at least in
respect to perpetual motion, Germany may remain in advance of the
Submitted by: Ronald Barker,
***** SPECIAL NOTE *****
There are several other articles on the Keelynet BBS that you can
download on perpetual motion.
1. KeelHoax.ASC = The Story of Keely being a Hoax.
2. Pmotion1.ASC = Overall history of Perpetual Motion.
3. Pmotion2.ASC = The Redhffer Fiasco Story.
4. Pmotion3.ASC = The Liquefaction of Air and The Hopes It
Aroused: Perpetual Motion of The Second
Jerry Decker and I will be working on some drawings that can be
included into some of the articles. The current problem involves
the time necessary to scan and edit the images as well as choosing
the graphic formats (.PCX, .TIF, etc..) to use which will allow
everyone to view them easily.
E-Mail Fredric L. Rice / The Skeptic Tank