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ASTROLGY BIBLIO - astrology-and-judaism-biblio.txt TAGGING CONVENTIONS Characters that are not part of the safe low ASCII set have been tagged. This will allow users of this document to search and replace the tagged characters through any word processor. Diacriticals/Accents acute <'e> grave <`e> circumflex <^e> umlaut <"e> cedille <,c> Print Formating Conventions begin italics end italics In this document you will find the following tagged characters: <"u> <'e> <"a> <`e> <^o> <`a> <^e> <^a> <,c> <^u> <"o> Formatted for network distribution by Michael Strangelove _______________________________________________________ The Abstract, Table of Contents, List of Illustrations, Introduction, and Bibliography from ASTROLOGY AND JUDAISM IN LATE ANTIQUITY A DISSERTATION Submitted to the Faculty of Miami University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of History by Lester J. Ness Miami University Oxford, Ohio 1990 (C) Lester J. Ness 1990 ABSTRACT ASTROLOGY AND JUDAISM IN LATE ANTIQUITY by Lester J. Ness The goal of this book will be to explain how the Jews of the Hellenized world used astrology. It will focus on the zodiac mosaics found in the synagogues of Byzantine period Israel. The first chapter will discuss the zodiac mosaics themselves, both as archaeological finds and as works of art. Second is a chapter on the origins of astrology in Mesopotamia. There we will see how astrology grew from the beliefs that the planets manifested the gods, and that one could predict the gods' wills by predicting, mathematically, the planets' motions. The result was the first horoscopes. The third chapter will tell how the Hellenistic world adopted the Mesopotamian practice and blended it with Greek science to produce the mathematical "scientific" astrology familiar to most twentieth century readers. The following fourth chapter will show how astrology's religious side fared in the Hellenized Near East. The planets were important gods, astrological art was used to praise the gods, and to portray their power and ability to care for the world and their worshippers. Horoscopes and astrological magic allowed one to communicate with the gods and persuade them to help one through life. Chapter five will deal with Jewish astrology, both "scientific" and "religious." We will examine a variety of Jewish writings from the Hellenized Near East to demonstrate that Jews did indeed practice astrology. Finally, we will discuss the various theories which try to explain what they meant. We will conclude that Jews adapted the polytheistic assumptions of astrology to their own monotheistic world-view by interpreting the planet gods as planet angels, beings superior to humans, but subordinate to the one genuine God, YHWH. Since the planets are the subordinates of YHWH, running the world according to His instructions, the zodiac mosaics are best explained as indirect portrayals of God. The sun and the zodiac signs were His creatures. They carried out His commands as the satraps of His cosmos. Thus, they were appropriate visual substitutes for the God whom even Moses might not see. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I owe debts of gratitude to many people throughout my life, and especially during the last few years, in which I learned to be a scholar. My late mother, Margaret, taught me the alphabet. My father, Harold, and grandfather, Adolph, raised me to respect learning and the study of history. My brothers and sisters provided irreplaceable support, both financial and emotional, as did my friends, especially Louis Nanassy, Joan Moynagh and Bob Howard. My advisor and mentor, Dr. Edwin M. Yamauchi encouraged me by allowing me to study a not quite respectable topic, by giving many bibliographical hints, and with a great deal of patience. My other committee members also performed above and beyond the call of duty. But I owe much to informal advice, too. Jerry Colthorp and Dr. Timothy Rogers taught me word processing. Dr. Scott Carroll brought the Letter of Rehoboam to my attention, urged me to study Syriac, and took part in many stimulating conversations. I want, also, to thank the staff of Miami University's Interlibrary Loan Department, especially Sarah Barr and Scott Van Dam, who brought to me many of the sources used in this book. To all of you, named and unnamed, who helped me thorough these years, many thanks! TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS LIST OF MAPS INTRODUCTION 1. ASTRAL ART IN THE SYNAGOGUE 2. ASTROLOGY IN MESOPOTAMIA 3. HELLENISTIC SCIENTIFIC ASTROLOGY 4. ASTRAL RELIGION 5. JEWISH ASTROLOGY BIBLIOGRAPHY LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figures 1. Diameter Aspect. Bouch<'e>-Leclercq, p. 166, figure 18. 2. Trine Aspect. Bouch<'e>-Leclercq, p. 169, figure 19. 3. Quartile Aspect. Bouch<'e>-Leclercq, p. 171, figure 20. 4. Sextile Aspect. Bouch<'e>-Leclercq, p. 172, figure 21. 5. Zodiac Ring. van der Waerden, Dawn, Plate 26. 6. Signs of the Zodiac, Academic American Encyclopedia, s.v., "Astrology." 7. Ptolemy's Planetary Domiciles. Bouch<'e>-Leclercq, p. 188, figure 24. 8. Exaltations and Depressions. Bouch<'e>-Leclercq, p. 195. 9. Zodiacal Dodecatemoria. Goold, lii, figure 10. 10. Planetary Dodecatemoria. Goold, liv, figure 11. 11. Decans. Goold, lxxxvi, figure 23. 12. Planetary Decans. Bouch<'e>-Leclercq, p. 288, figure 28. 13. Mundane Houses. Bouch<'e>-Leclercq, p. 280, figure 31. 14. Lot of Fortune, after Manilius and Ptolemy. Bouch<'e>- Leclercq, p. 290, figure 35. 15. Lot of Daimon, after Paul of Alexandria. Bouch<'e>-Leclercq, p. 295, figure 37. 16. The Circle of the Athla. Goold, p. lxiii, figure 14. 17. Zodiacal Melothesia. H. G. Gundel, frontispiece. 18. Nut with Constellations Above, Decans Below. Decans on Boats. van der Waerden, Dawn, p. 30, figure 3. 19. Horoscope of Antiochus I of Commagene. van der Waerden, Dawn, p. 149, Plate 18. 20. Chart of Papyrus Horoscope. Neugebauer and Van Hoesen, Plate 1, no. -1. 21. Plan of the Bel sanctuary. Colledge, Palmyra, p. 27, figure 6. 22. Bel temple "Battle" relief. Colledge, Palmyra, p. 37, figure 15. 23. Bel temple north thalamos relief. Colledge, Palmyra, p. 39, figure 18. 24. Bel temple north thalamos ceiling. Colledge, Palmyra, Plate 21. 25. Soffit relief of the Bel temple north thalamos lintel. Colledge, Palmyra, p. 38, figure 17. 26. First-century relief of a divine triad, `Aglibol, Ba`alshamin, and Malakbel, Plate 35. 27. Selection of tesserae. College, Palmyra, p. 56, figure 32. 28. Selection of tesserae. Colledge, Palmyra, Plate 56. 29. Graffito of god(s) from Khirbet Ab<^u> D<^u>h<^u>r, north-west of Palmyra, Colledge, Palmyra, p. 50, figure 30. 30. Fragment of ceiling with Zodiac. Michalowsky, Fouilles II, p. 114, figure 129. 31. Reconstruction of ceiling with Zodiac. Michalowsky, Fouilles II, p. 115, figure 130. 32. 232--face. Hajjar, Triade, Plate LXXXVIII. 33. 232--reverse. Hajjar, Triade, Plate LXXXIX. 34. 233--face. Hajjar, Triade, Plate XC. 35. 233--reverse. Hajjar, Triade, Plate XCI. 36. 186. Hajjar, Triade, Plate LXX. 37. Nabataean Temple, Khirbet Tannur. Glueck, Dolphins, Plan A, p. 621. 38. Nabataean Temple, Section, Period III. Glueck, Dolphins, p. 623. 39. Stone horns and eagle finial over Vegetation Goddess. Glueck, Dolphins, Plate 32. 40. Cronos-Saturn. Glueck, Dolphins, Plate 153. 41. Hermes-Mercury with lyre. Glueck, Dolphins, Plate 146a. 42. Helios relief with torches. Glueck, Dolphins, Plate 136. 43. Enthroned Zeus-Hadad. Glueck, Dolphins, Plate 42. 44. Nik<'e>-supported Zodiac Tych<'e>. Glueck, Dolphins, Plate 48. 45. Mampsis. An impression of the seal of Rabbathmoba, indicating the month of Maraxon (Marheshvan) and depicting Scorpio. Negev, Nabataean Archaeology, p. 96, figure 57. 46. Mampsis. An impression of a seal of Characmoba indicating the month of Xisleu (Chislew) and depicting Sagittarius. Negev, Nabataean Archaeology, p. 97, figure 58. 47. Restored plan, Naaran. Vincent, "Sanctuaire," Plate 5. 48. Mosaic pavement, Naaran. Vincent, "Sanctuaire," Plate 7. 49. Naaran zodiac. Vincent, "Sanctuaire," Plate 19. 50. Sun god and chariot, Naaran. Vincent, "Sanctuaire," Plate 21. 51. General plan of Beth Alpha. Hachlili, Art, p. 147, no. 4.5. 52. Prayer-hall mosaic, Beth Alpha. Hachlili, Art, p. 357, no. 10. 53. Zodiac panel, Beth Alpha. Hachlili, Art, Pl. 73. 54. Plan, Husifa. Hachlili, Art, p. 146, no. 9. 55. Floor mosaics, Husifa. Hachlili, Art, p. 332, no. 5. 56. Zodiac panel, Husifa. Avi-Yonah and Makhouly, "Isfiya," Plate 44, figure 3. 57. Mosaic panels, synagogue IIb, Hammath-Tiberias. Hachlili, Art, p. 340, no. 1. 58. Nave mosaic, synagogue IIb, Hammath-Tiberias. Hachlili, Art, p. 338, no. 9. 59. Plan, Susiya synagogue. Hachlili, Art, p. 157, no. 6. 60. Susiya mosaic. Shanks, Judaism, p. 102. Note that Shank's illustration is mislabelled "Eshtamoa." 61. Yafia, a: plan, b: mosaic floor. Hachlili, Art, p. 290, no. 35. 62. En Gedi, inscription. Levine, "En Gedi Inscription," in Levine, Ancient Synagogues, p. 141. 63. Plan, En Gedi synagogue. Barag, Porat, and Netzer, "`En Gedi," in Levine, Ancient Synagogues, p. 117. 64. Decorated Jewish Tomb, Via Nomentana, Rome. Leon, Rome, figure 43. 65. Reconstruction, circular Mesopotamian astrolabe. van der Waerden, Dawn, p. 66, figure 6. 66. Ecliptic. Dicks, Astronomy, p. 18, figure. 4. MAPS Map 1. Geographical Syria and Mesopotamia. Glueck, Dolphins, p. 633, Nabataean and Related Sites. Map 2. Edessa and Harran Region. Segal, Edessa, Map. Map 3. Synagogues in Ancient Israel. Hachlili, Art, p. 142, map 2. Introduction Astrology is one of the most remarkable practices to come to us from the ancient world. Born in ancient Mesopotamia, reared in the Hellenistic world, it was at once science, philosophy and religion. It quickly spread throughout the known world, from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean, and is with us still. Its appeal was and is varied. One important reason is the awe-inspiring beauty of the heavens. The astrological model of the universe also had an intellectual beauty, which many still find appealing. A third factor was the belief that the planets were manifestations of important gods. If one could predict the gods' plans from the planets' movements, one could make plans for the future. Likewise, one could appeal to the planet gods to smile on one's goals. Astrology was both beautiful and useful. Astrology was adopted by most of the peoples of the ancient world, who proceeded to adapt its principals to their peculiar needs and society. Perhaps the most interesting example of this phenomenon was the adoption of astrology by the Jews. Their religion differed from those of other ethnic groups within Hellenistic society in its allegiance to only one god, YHWH. Astrology was polytheistic; yet there is no doubt that more than a few Jews practiced it. Rabbinic literature often speaks of it. More than a few Jewish astrological manuals survive. The most dramatic and surprising evidence of a Jewish adaptation of astrology is on the floors of Israel's synagogues. Jews were notorious in the ancient world for rejecting religious images as well as polytheism. Yet many examples of mosaics of the zodiac and the sun god may be seen today. This book will first describe the synagogue zodiacs, then review the history of astrology broadly before concentrating on how Jews used astrology. It will demonstrate that astrology was seen as the power of YHWH managing the universe and caring for His people Israel, and that the zodiac mosaics symbolized His power and concern. BIBLIOGRAPHY PRIMARY SOURCES "Abodah Zarah." Translated by A. Mishcon and A. Cohen. In The Hebrew-English Edition of the Babylonian Talmud. Edited by I. Epstein. London: Soncino Press, 1988. Die El-Amarna-Tafeln. Edited by J. A. Knudtzon. Mit Einleitung und Register bearbeitet von Otto Weber und Erich Ebeling. 2 Volumes. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1915; Reprint, Aalen: Otto Zeller Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1964. Ammianus Marcellinus. Res Gestae. Translated by John C. Rolfe. 3 Volumes. Loeb Classical Library. London: William Heinemann; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1935-39; Revised Edition, 1950-52. Aristotle. On the Heavens. Translated by W. K. C. Guthrie. Loeb Classical Library. London: William Heinemann; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1939. _________. On Coming To Be and Passing Away. Translated by E. S. Forster. Loeb Classical Library. London: William Heinemann; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1935, 1969. _________. Metaphysics. Translated by Hugh Tredennick. Loeb Classical Library. London: William Heinemann; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1935, 1969. Artapanus. "The Fragments of Artapanus." Translated by John J. Collins. In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Edited by James H. Charlesworth. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1983, II, pp. 897-902. _________. In Felix Jacoby, Fragmente der griechischen Historiker, 3 Volumes. Berlin: Weidmann; Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1923-58. Dritter Teil C, #726, pp. 680-86. Augustine. De Civitate dei libri XX. Corpus Christianorum, Series latina XLVIII. 2 Volumes. Turnholtii: Typographi Brepols, 1955. The Hebrew-English Edition of the Babylonian Talmud. Edited by I. Epstein. London: Soncino Press, 1988. "Baba Bathra." Translated by Maurice Simon and Israel W. Slotki. In The Hebrew-English Edition of the Babylonian Talmud. Edited by I. Epstein. London: Socino Press, 1988. Bardaisan. The Book of the Laws of Countries: Dialogue on Fate of Bardaisan of Edessa. Translated and Edited by H. J. W. Drijvers. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1965. Bar Sennak, Labubna, The Teaching of Addai. Translated by George Howard. Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1981. Berossus. The Babyloniaca of Berossus. Translated by Stanley Mayer Burstein. Malibu, CA: Undena Publications, 1978. _________. Berossos und die babylonisch-hellenistische Literatur. Translated and Edited with Commentary. Leipzig and Berlin: Teubner, 1928; Reprint, Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1968. Betz, Hans Dieter, ed. The Greek Magic Papyri in Translation, including the Demotic Spells. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986. Caplice, R. I. The Akkadian Namburbi Texts: An Introduction. Los Angeles: Undena Publications, 1974. Carmignac, J. "Les horoscopes de Qumran." Revue de Qumran 5 (1964-1966): pp. 199-217. Cassiodorus, Historia ecclesia tripartita. In Yousseff Hajjar, La triade d'H<'e>liopolis-Baalbek; Iconographie, th<'e>ologie, culte, et sanctuaires. Montr<'e>al: Universit<'e> de Montr<'e>al, 1985, pp. 425-30. Cassius Dio. Roman History. Translated by Earnest Cary. 9 Volumes. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1914-27. Catalogus Codicum Astrologorum Graecorum. Edited by D. Olivieri, et al. 11 Volumes. Brussels: Acad<'e>mie Royale, 1898- 1953. Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 2 Volumes. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1983 _________. "Rylands Syriac MS 44 and a New Addition to the Pseudepigrapha the Treatise of Shem, Discussed and Translated." Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 60 (1978): pp. 376-403. _________. "Die `Schrift des Sem' Einf<"u>hrung, Text, und <"u>berseztung." unter Mithelfe von James R. Mueller. In Aufstieg und Niedergang des r<"o>mischen Welts. Edited by W. Haase and H. Temporini. Berlin: W. de Gruyter, 1987. II.20.2, pp. 951-87. _________. "The Treatise of Shem." In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, Edited by James H. Charlesworth. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1983. I, pp. 473-86. Chwolson, Daniel. Die Ssabier und der Ssabismus. St. Petersburg, 1859; Reprint, Amsterdam: Oriental Press, 1965. Cohen, S. "Tadmor." International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley et al. New York, Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1962. IV, pp. 509-10. Cicero. De Divinatione. Translated by William Armistead Flaconer. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann, 1923, 1964. Cureton, William. Ancient Syriac Documents Relative to the Establishment of Christianity in Edessa. London, 1864; Reprint, Amsterdam, 1967. Davidson, Israel. Thesaurus of Medieval Hebrew Poetry [Hebrew]. New York: Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 1929. Delatte, Armand. Anecdota Atheniensia. Paris: E. Champion, 1927. _________. Herbarius; Recherches sur le c<'e>r<'e>monial usit<'e> chez les anciens pour la cueillette des simples et des plantes magiques. 2nd Edition Revised and Enlarged. Li<'e>ge: Facult<'e> de philosophie et lettres; Paris: Librairie E. Droz, 1938 Delcor, M. "Recherches sur un horoscope en langue hebraique provenant de Qumran." Revue de Qumran 5 (1964-1966): pp. 521- 42. Diodorus Siculus. Histories. Translated by C. H. Oldfather. 10 Volumes. Loeb Classical Library. London: William Heinemann; Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1933, 1946. Dorotheus Sidonius. Carmen Astrologicum. Interpretationem Arabicum in lingvam Anglicam versam vna cvm Dorothei fragmentis et Graecis et Latinis, edidit D. Pingree. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1976. Dupont-Sommer, Andr<'e>. "Deux documents horoscopiques ess<'e>niens d<'e>couverts <`a> Qoumr<^a>n, pr<'e>s de la Mer Morte." Comptes rendus de l'Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres (1965): pp. 239-53. Ebeling, Erich. Die Akkadische Gebetsserie "Handerhebung". Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1953. Ecclesiastes Rabbah. In Midrash Rabbah. 10 Volumes. Translated into English with notes under the editorship of Rabbi Dr. H. Freedman and Maurice Simon. London: Soncino Press, 1939, Reprint, 1961. Egeria. Egeria: Diary of a Pilgrimage. Translated by George Gingras. New York and Paramus, NJ: Newman Press, 1970. 1 (Ethiopic Apocalypse of) Enoch. Translated by E. Isaac. In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Edited by James H. Charlesworth. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1983. I, pp. 5-90. 3 (Hebrew Apocalypse of) Enoch. Translated by P. Alexander. In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Edited by James H. Charlesworth. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1983. I, pp. 223-316. Ephrem Syrus. Hymni Contra Haereses. Edited by Edmund Beck. Louvain: Imprimerie orientaliste L. Durbecq, 1957. Epiphanius. Panarion. In Patriologia cursus completus, Series graeca. Edited by Jacques Paul Migne. Paris: 1857-87. XXXXI, columns 247-58. Eupolemus. "." [Peri t<^o>n en t<^e> Ioudaioi basile<^o>n; Concerning the Jewish Kingdom]. In Fragmente der griechischen Historiker. Edited by Felix Jacoby. 3 Volumes. Berlin: Weidmann; Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1923-58. III.C, # 723, pp. 671-78. _________. "Eupolemus." A New Translation and Introduction by F. Fallon. In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, Edited by James H. Charlesworth. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1983. II, pp. 861-72. _________. "Pseudo-Eupolemus." In Fragmente der griechischen Historiker. Edited by Felix Jacoby. 3 Volumes. Berlin: Weidmann; Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1923-58. III.C, # 724, pp. 678-79. _________. "Pseudo-Eupolemus." A New Translation and Introduction by R. Doran. In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Edited by James H. Charlesworth. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1983. II, pp. 873-79. Eusebius of Caesarea. Das Onomastikon der biblischen Ortsnamen. Edited by Erich Klostermann. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1904; Reprint, Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1966. _________. Praeparatio evangelica. In Eusebii Caesarensis Opera. Edited by Guilielmis Dindorfius, 4 Volumes. Leipzig: Teubner, 1867-71. _________. Theophany. In Yousseff Hajjar, La triade d'H<'e>liopolis-Baalbek; Iconographie, th<'e>ologie, culte, et sanctuaires. Montr<'e>al: Universit<'e> de Montr<'e>al, 1985, p. 430. _________. Vita Constantini. In Yousseff Hajjar, La triade d'H<'e>liopolis-Baalbek; Iconographie, th<'e>ologie, culte, et sanctuaires. Montr<'e>al: Universit<'e> de Montr<'e>al, 1985, pp. 425-30. Fiensy, D. A. "Revelation of Ezra." In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Edited by James H. Charlesworth. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1983. I, pp. 601-04. Fitzmeyer, Joseph. "The Aramaic `Elect of God' Text from Qumran Cave 4." In Essays on the Semitic Background of the New Testament. Edited by Joseph Fitzmeyer. London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1971, pp. 127- 60. Frey, J. B., ed. Corpus Inscriptionum Judaecorum; Receuil des inscriptions juives qui vont du IIIe si<`e>cle avant J<'e>sus Christ au VIIe si<`e>cle de notre <`e>re. Vatican City: Pontifical Institute of Christian Archaeology, 1936. Fuks, Alexander and Tcherikover, Avigdor, eds. Corpus Papyrorum Judaicarum. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, for the Magnes Press, the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1957-1964. The Dead Sea Scrolls in English. Translated by Geza Vermes. 3rd Edition. Sheffield, UK: JSOT Press, 1987. Gadd, C. J. "The Harran Inscriptions of Nabonidus." Anatolian Studies 8 (1958): pp. 35-92, and Pls. I-XVI. Geminus. Gemini Elementa Astronomiae. Ad codicum fidem recensuit Germanica interpretatione et commentariis instruxit Carolus Manitius. Stuttgart: Teubner, 1924. Genesis Rabbah. Translated by Rabbi Dr. H. Freedman. In Midrash Rabbah. 10 Volumes. Translated into English with notes under the editorship of Rabbi Dr. H. Freedman and Maurice Simon. London: Soncino Press, 1939, Reprint, 1961. Geoponica. In Joseph Bidez and Franz Cumont. Les mages hellenis<'e>: Zoroaster, Ostanes, et Hystaspe d'apres la tradition grecque. Paris: Belles Lettres, 1938, pp. 182-3. The Greek Anthology. Translated by W. R. Paton. 5 Volumes. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann, 1929. The Greek New Testament. Edited by Aland, Kurt, et al. 3rd Edition. United Bible Societies, 1975. Heidel, Alexander. The Babylonian Genesis; The Story of Creation. Phoenix Books, 2nd Edition. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1951; Phoenix Books, 1963. Hesiod. Works and Days. Translated by Hugh G. Evelyn-White. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann, 1929. Hj<"a>rpe, J. "Un texte concernant les `pseudo-sabe<'e>ns de Harran'." Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress of The International Associations of the History of Religions SHR 31 (1975): pp. 68-70. Hunger, H., ed. Sp<"a>tbabylonische Texte aus Uruk. Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 1976. Isbell, Charles D. Corpus of the Aramaic Incantation Bowls. Missoula, MT: Society of Biblical Literature and Scholars Press, 1975. Jacob of Sarug. "Discourse de Jacques de Saroug sur la chute des idoles." 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Translated by O. S. Wintermute. In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Edited by James H. Charlesworth. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1983. II, pp. 7-35. Julian the Apostate. Hymn to Helios. In The Works of Julian the Apostate, 3 Volumes. Translated by Wilmer Cave Wright. Loeb Classical Library. London: William Heinemann; New York: The Macmillan Co., 1913. I, pp. 353-54. Ha-Kallir, Eleazer. "On Dew." In "Der Tierkreis im der Tradition und im Synagogenritus." Translated by David Feuchtwang. Monatschrift f<"u>r Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums 51 (1915): pp. 259-263. _________. "On Rain." In "Der Tierkreis im der Tradition und im Synagogenritus." Translated by David Feuchtwang. Monatschrift f<"u>r Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums 51 (1915): pp. 263-65. Labat, Ren<'e>. Un calendrier babylonien des travaux des signes et des moins. S<'e>ries Iqqur ppu . Paris: Honor<'e> Champion, 1965. Lamentations Rabbah. Translated by Dr. A. Cohen. In Midrash Rabbah. 10 Volumes. 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