Since some of the materials which describe the $cientology cult could be
considered to be copywritten materials, I have censored myself and The
Skeptic Tank by deleting any and all possible text files which describes
the cult's hidden mythologies. I have elected to quote just a bit of the
questionable text according to the "Fair Use" legal findings afforded to
those who report. - Fredric L. Rice, The Skeptic Tank, 09/Sep/95
From news.interserv.net!news.sprintlink.net!howland.reston.ans.net!ix.netcom.com!netnews Mon Jul 10 17:03:11 1995
From: email@example.com (Maureen Garde)
Subject: Re: American Founding Fathers APPROVED of anonimity.
Date: 9 Jul 1995 16:07:21 GMT
References: <3tcq9n$r5a@Starbase.NeoSoft.COM> <firstname.lastname@example.org> <email@example.com> <firstname.lastname@example.org>
In <email@example.com> firstname.lastname@example.org (Samuel
Kaplin) responds to this statement:
>: However, I don't think even Thomas Jefferson would approve of
>: bigots who voice their opinion while hiding behind a screen.
Mr. Kaplan responds:
>BULLSHIT!! Ever hear of "Publius?" Just to refresh everyone's memory,
>Publius was a psudonym used by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James
>Madison to publish the "Federalist Papers." I believe Jefferson knew
>the effort. OUR FOUNDING FATHERS APPROVED OF ANONINIMITY AND USED IT!!
>would hardly call any of these patriots cowards!
In McIntyre v. Ohio Board of Elections, Justice Stevens of the United
States Supreme Court discussed the tradition of anonymous publishing in
a case in which the Court struck down an Onio election board regulation
that prohibited anonymous campaign literature. The full text of the
opinion is available at ftp://ftp.cwru.edu/hermes/ascii/93-986.ZO.filt.
I accessed the opinion through http://www.law.cornell.edu/.
Justice Stevens stated:
-Anonymous pamphlets, leaflets, brochures and even
books have played an important role in the progress of
mankind.- Talley v. California, 362 U. S. 60, 64 (1960).
Great works of literature have frequently been produced
by authors writing under assumed names. Despite
readers' curiosity and the public's interest in identifying
the creator of a work of art, an author generally is free
to decide whether or not to disclose her true identity.
The decision in favor of anonymity may be motivated by
fear of economic or official retaliation, by concern about
social ostracism, or merely by a desire to preserve as
much of one's privacy as possible. Whatever the
motivation may be, at least in the field of literary
endeavor, the interest in having anonymous works enter
the marketplace of ideas unquestionably outweighs any
public interest in requiring disclosure as a condition of
entry. Accordingly, an author's decision to remain
anonymous, like other decisions concerning omissions or
additions to the content of a publication, is an aspect of
the freedom of speech protected by the First Amend-
The freedom to publish anonymously extends beyond
the literary realm. In Talley, the Court held that the
First Amendment protects the distribution of unsigned
handbills urging readers to boycott certain Los Angeles
merchants who were allegedly engaging in discrimina-
tory employment practices. 362 U. S. 60. Writing for
the Court, Justice Black noted that -[p]ersecuted groups
and sects from time to time throughout history have
been able to criticize oppressive practices and laws
either anonymously or not at all.- Id., at 64. Justice
Black recalled England's abusive press licensing laws
and seditious libel prosecutions, and he reminded us
that even the arguments favoring the ratification of the
Constitution advanced in the Federalist Papers were
published under fictitious names. Id., at 64-65. On
occasion, quite apart from any threat of persecution, an
advocate may believe her ideas will be more persuasive
if her readers are unaware of her identity. Anonymity
thereby provides a way for a writer who may be person-
ally unpopular to ensure that readers will not prejudge
her message simply because they do not like its propo-
nent. Thus, even in the field of political rhetoric, where
-the identity of the speaker is an important component
of many attempts to persuade,- City of Ladue v. Gilleo,
512 U. S. ___, ___ (1994) (slip op., at 13), the most
effective advocates have sometimes opted for anonymity.
The specific holding in Talley related to advocacy of an
economic boycott, but the Court's reasoning embraced a
respected tradition of anonymity in the advocacy of
political causes. This tradition is perhaps best exem-
plified by the secret ballot, the hard-won right to vote
one's conscience without fear of retaliation.