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Phone :(215)243-2205 // Fax: (215)387-1266 E-mail:garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu ================= :h URL: gopher://ds2.internic.net//11/pub/the-scientist TO FTP : ftp ds.internic.net /cd pub/the-scientist login / password = anonymous / your e-mail address GOPHER : telnet ds.internic.net login : gopher terminal type: vt100 (if unknown) Choose #4, 4, and 13 from successive ================== THE SCIENTIST VOLUME 8, No:21 OCTOBER 31,1994 (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) =============================================================== Articles published in THE SCIENTIST reflect the views of their authors and not the official views of the publication, its editorial staff, or its ownership. =============================================================== *** THE NEXT ISSUE OF THE SCIENTIST WILL APPEAR ON *** *** NOVEMBER 14, 1994 *** *** *** ******************************************************* Subscription rates for the printed edition are: In the United States: one year $58, two years $ 94 Canada : one year $82, two years $142 All other foreign : one year/air cargo $ 79 one year/ airmail $133 THE SCIENTIST (Page numbers correspond to printed edition of THE SCIENTIST) FOR SEARCHING PURPOSES: AU = author TI = title of article TY = type PG = page NXT = next article ------------------------------------------------------------ TI : CONTENTS PG : 3 ============================================================ NEWS 1995 BIOTECH PROSPECTS: Despite severe setbacks in clinical trials and a harsh financing climate for the biotechnology industry over the past year, a prestigious annual report predicts that biotech will prosper in 1995, a forecast winning cautious support from industry officials PG 1 CLOUDS ON BUDGETARY HORIZON: While the 1995 budget process brought few major unpleasant surprises, veteran science-policy watchers see ominous indications for future budget battles, and some are questioning the government's commitment to research PG 1 SUPERCOMPUTING IN PARADISE: Scientists and government officials say a new United States Air Force supercomputing facility in Hawaii, equipped with one of the world's most powerful supercomputers, will become a center of collaboration for government, academic, and industry researchers, and a vital scientific communications link with Asia PG 1 CONSOLIDATING THE AIDS FIGHT: With final approval in hand, United Nations officials expect a unification of AIDS programs sponsored by six international organizations to significantly enhance worldwide research and social-policy efforts to combat the epidemic PG 3 NUCLEAR SHIFT? The Clinton administration's two selections for the 1994-95 Enrico Fermi Award--both of whom have been somewhat critical of nuclear energy in the past--reflect a movement away from the award's original intent to recognize applications in the field toward more theoretical interests, and, perhaps, a governmental change in attitude toward nuclear power in general, say some observers PG 4 OPINION CONFOUNDING IRONIES: Johns Hopkins University graduate biology student Mark H. Paalman says that researchers starting out on their careers are facing a bitterly ironic pair of roadblocks: general science illiteracy and mistrust on the part of the population, undermining popular support for their work; and unchecked production of Ph.D. scientists into a system that is already oversupplied PG 12 COMMENTARY: It's time for a revised approach to science-education reform that focuses on fixing the system rather than the students, says Shirley Malcom, director of the American Association for the Advancement of Science's Education and Human Resources Directorate PG 13 RESEARCH FULLERENES FUEL CHEMISTRY: Citation data indicate that articles on fullerenes and related molecules have dominated the chemistry literature in 1990s, although other areas in the discipline are closing the gap, according to the newsletter Science Watch PG 14 HOT PAPERS: Cell biologist Keith Burridge discusses focal adhesions in cells; computational chemist Jiali Goa reports on his simulations of biological macromolecules; statistician Gareth Roberts expands on MCMC methodology PG 16 TOOLS & TECHNOLOGY NEW WINDOW ON STATISTICS: Sparked by the application of Windows technology, mathematical and statistical software has become considerably more versatile and easier to use PG 17 PROFESSION GRANTING REQUESTS: In the final installment of a three-part series of excerpts from his book A Ph.D. Is Not Enough!, physicist Peter Feibelman offers tips on proposal writing to young scientists PG 23 DAVID M. GOLDENBERG AND JEAN-PIERRE MACH, president of the Garden State Cancer Center and a biochemist at Lausanne University, respectively, have received the 1994 Abbott Award PG 24 SHORT TAKES NOTEBOOK PG 4 CARTOON PG 4 LEADERS OF PG 10 SCIENCE LETTERS PG 13 STATISTICAL AND MATHSOFTWAREDIRECTORY PG 19 NEW PRODUCTS PG 22 CROSSWORD PG 24 (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.3, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: NEWS ----------------------------------------------------------------- TI : 1995 Budget Draws Praise_And Concerns Though many expressgeneral satisfactionwith allocations, some observers warn of toughfunding battles ahead AU : BARTON REPPERT TY : NEWS PG : 1 The 1995 federal budget process has produced its traditional share of beneficiaries and victims, champions and critics. Some, for example, are heartened by a 14 percent funding increase for the National Science Foundation, while others view a modest budget raise for the National Institutes of Health as woefully inadequate. In general, many officials of scientific associations and other science-policy watchers are expressing satisfaction with this year's congressional appropriations for research funding. Several other observers, however, see in this and other recent budget go-rounds indications that do not bode well for the future. They caution that the U.S. research community will need to redouble its lobbying efforts and push for sustained support in the next budget year, in view of increasingly tight caps on federal discretionary spending. Rep. George E. Brown, Jr. (D-Calif.), chairman of the House Science, Space, and Technology Committee, warns that the final budget numbers may represent a more fundamental problem. He fears that the Clinton administration and Congress may be retreating from key long-range goals--such as achieving a 50-50 balance of civilian and military research. "Overall--and I try to keep everything in perspective here, with regard to the total investments in R&D--I'm not very happy," Brown said at a news conference. "Military R&D continued to go up. When the president requested less in real dollars for NASA, he requested more in real dollars [for the Pentagon]--and ended up getting more." Singing The Budget's Praises By the time lawmakers left Washington this month for their election-campaign recess, Congress had passed and sent to the White House for Clinton's signature eight fiscal 1995 appropriations bills, including money for research. NSF got a substantial boost, raising its total budget to $3.396 billion for the 1995 fiscal year, which began on October 1. This includes $250 million for modernizing or building new academic research facilities--more than double this year's allocation of $105 million. Jack Crowley, head of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Washington office, calls this expanded university infrastructure program "the most encouraging step in research-facilities financing in more than 15 years." By contrast, Senate and House appropriators approved only a 3.6 percent increase for the National Institutes of Health, setting its total FY 1995 appropriation at $11.334 billion--$138 million less than the administration's budget request. In recent years, Congress generally has added to the White House's budget for NIH funding. Despite the tight budget for NIH overall, Congress voted a 20.4 percent increase for the National Center for Human Genome Research, the agency's component of the Human Genome Project (HGP), boosting the center's 1995 funding level to $153 million. Francis Collins, director of the genome center, notes that most of the additional monies will go to a new intramural research program at NIH. "I am enormously pleased with that vote of confidence, from the administration and the Congress, that allowed that to happen," he says. But Collins adds that HGP, generally, remains underfunded. "People think the genome is the place to go if they need money, and that's not the case," he says. "We are seriously strapped. We are living with a budget that's about 60 percent of what the original planners of the project proposed five years ago. And yet we're being held to a standard of achieving those same goals that we thought we would need a much larger budget for. So we are managing, as one does, in a difficult time." Another conspicuous winner on Capitol Hill was the Commerce Department's National Institute of Standards and Technology. NIST's Advanced Technology Program--which focuses on government-industry cooperative R&D efforts--received a 116 percent increase, up to $431 million, while the agency's overall budget grew by 64 percent, up to $855 million. Officials of several scientific societies and associations interviewed for this article maintain that both the administration and Congress are doing as much as they can for research funding, given the overall tight budget climate. "I think the research budgets fared relatively well," says Cornelius J. Pings, president of the Association of American Universities, which represents major U.S. research universities. He calls the 3.6 percent increase for NIH a reflection of "fiscal reality," adding, "I don't detect any necessary waning of commitment to the importance of biomedical research." Looking to the future, Pings foresees "an ongoing sound commitment to investment in science and engineering, in basic research, from both the administration and the Congress." Clifford J. Gabriel, executive director of the American Institute of Biological Sciences, says he is also basically content with the fiscal 1995 funding levels, given the situation. "I'm just pleased that we can keep our head above water," he says. Gabriel comments that he "would have liked to have seen more of the increase at NSF go towards the research budget, rather than the facilities budget. Overall, that's probably my biggest concern. . . . It doesn't do much good to have nice new buildings without any scientists working in them." He rates the Clinton administration's performance in living up to its espoused commitments to strengthening U.S. civilian research as satisfactory. "I think it's doing as well as it can do under the current budgetary circumstances," Gabriel says. Sour Notes But not everyone--in and outside of government--feels the same way. Rep. John Porter (R-Ill.), the ranking Republican on the House Appropriations Committee subcommittee for labor, health and human services, and education, complains about NIH's allocation in the current budget: "In this appropriations bill, I'm very disappointed with the numbers." Noting that he is "very concerned" that such small increases could become a trend for the future, Porter says, "Last year we managed to have a 6 percent increase, which I think is the minimal level." Samuel C. Silverstein, president of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB), based in Bethesda, Md., and a faculty member at Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons, echoes Porter's discouraging assessment of the modest increment for NIH. "The [Senate-House] conference level [of 3.6 percent added funding] was all that we could get," Silverstein says. "However, FASEB had recommended an 8.9 percent increase, because we believed that this was the funding level NIH needed to keep pace with the rapid growth in biomedical research opportunities." Pentagon financing of basic research at universities emerged as a heated issue in congressional wrangling over a defense appropriations bill providing about $35 billion for research, development, testing, and evaluation, the majority of which is dedicated to weapons development and defense-related research. Contending that academic research shouldn't be increasing at a time when military programs overall are being pared down, Rep. John Murtha (D-Pa.), chairman of the House Appropriations Committee's defense subcommittee, pushed through an amendment that would have sliced $900 million from the proposed $1.5 billion Pentagon allocation for university research. In conference committee, lawmakers reduced the cut to $200 million, funding the appropriation at $1.3 billion. Murtha's move was widely viewed as a rejoinder to Rep. Brown, Congress' leading expert on science, who has campaigned to curb so-called earmarks--channeling funds to particular pet proj-ects--inserted by lawmakers into defense and other appropriations bills. Earmarks are generally blamed, especially by scientists, for reductions in basic research funding, such as the defense allocations for universities. Also taking a somewhat more gloomy view of the budget outcome than many of his science society colleagues is Robert Park, public affairs director of the American Physical Society (APS). High-energy physicists, who represent a substantial APS constituency, are still striving to recuperate following last year's congressional vote to kill the superconducting supercollider (SSC). "Well, I guess they could have been worse," Park comments about the 1995 appropriations. "It is by no stretch a good year. But it is not as disastrous a year as some people had anticipated." The Department of Energy's allocation for general science and research was sliced from $1.615 billion in 1994 to $984 million for the new fiscal year--reflecting mainly reduced costs associated with shutting down the SSC, along with other program cuts. Park says his organization remains opposed to the space station--generally perceived to be the "big-science" initiative retained by Congress at the expense of the SSC--but has largely given up hope of stopping the megaproject in view of continuing support for it on Capitol Hill. "It's hard to maintain opposition to something year to year when each year it keeps winning," he observes. "I think the feeling in the scientific community is that we took our best shot--and at this point there's not much point in opposing it any further." Congress voted a total of $14.397 billion for NASA in fiscal 1995, down by $110 million from the previous year. Spending for space station R&D was set at $1.890 billion, a 2.6 percent decrease, while overall funding for human space flight was trimmed by 7.9 percent, down to $5.574 billion. NASA science, aeronautics, and technology programs got a 2 percent increase, up to $5.901 billion. Rep. Brown, a longtime proponent of the space station, said at the September 26 news conference that the project's success in winning renewed funding despite the budget crunch was "very heartening to me." However, the California Democrat expressed concern over what he depicted as adverse trends in research funding. In a technology white paper issued last year and a White House report on science policy released in August (B. Reppert, The Scientist, April 5, 1993, page 1; B. Reppert, The Scientist, Aug. 22, 1994, page 1), the Clinton administration set ambitious goals--including commitments to shift toward a 50-50 balance between military and civilian R&D funding, as well as to boost U.S. civilian R&D up to the levels of Japan, Germany, and other competitors on the world market. But Brown contended at the conference that "the goals set forth [in the administration policy papers], which are very noble and I commend them highly, we're retreating from. We are no closer to, for example, equal military vs. civilian research and development. We are retreating from the goal ... of equaling the investments of our major international competitors of somewhere around 3 percent of GNP." Another disturbing aspect of this year's budget process, according to many observers, was that Congress, following a pattern that has prevailed over the past several years, again failed to adopt new authorizing legislation for NSF. Other authorization bills that died in congressional gridlock included measures to specifically reauthorize programs for NASA, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Energy's national laboratories, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Administrative Perspective The White House view of how its budget fared in Congress was similar to that expressed by some scientific society leaders--one of cautious optimism. A senior official of the administration's Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) says that "on the whole, we're very pleased with how the appropriations process turned out this year. That doesn't mean that we got all we wanted--not by a long shot. But ... in the end, there was very strong funding for R&D across a number of areas." However, the official, speaking on condition of anonymity, cautions that because of the overall budget squeeze, the climate for R&D funding will be increasingly difficult for fiscal 1996. "The caps [on discretionary spending] are tough--and they aren't going to get any easier next year," he says. The OSTP staffer adds: "The most important lesson out of this is that, yes, we can maintain science and technology funding in this time of budget austerity. But it is going to take an increasingly better communications job"--by the White House and federal R&D agencies--to reach both Congress and the voters, the "stockholders" in the U.S. research enterprise. In addition, he says, "It is going to take a lot better communication from the science and technology community--again, to the stockholders of the enterprise--about why these investments are worthwhile investments in terms of real issues that matter to people." Barton Reppert is a freelance science writer based in Gaithersburg, Md. (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.1, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: ------------------------------------------------------------ TI : FEDERAL RESEARCH FUNDING (Millions of Dollars) TY : NEWS PG : 8 FY 1994 FY 1995 FY 1995 Request Approp. National Science Foundation 2,983 3,200 3,396 National Institutes of Health 10,938 11,472 11,334 Department of Energy -Energy supply R&D 3,224 3,424 3,315 --Gen. Sci & Res. 1,615 1,074 984 National Aeronautics and Space Administration --Space station R&D 1,940 1,890 1,890 --Science, aeronautics, 5,788 5,901 5,901 and technology National Institute of Standards and Technology 520 935 855 Environmental Protection Agency (R&D) 338 364 350 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 227 238 259 Department of Agriculture --Agri. Res. Service 728 743 696 --Coop. State 495 419 433 Research Service Defense Department Total research, development, test, and evaluation 34,721 36,255 34,870 --Basic research (colleges and universities) 1,470 1,460 1,300 Source: Various government agencies and science associations (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.8, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: -------------------------------------------------------------- TI : Optimistic Report Predicts Rebound For Biotechnology AU : Franklin Hoke TY : NEWS PG : 1 The biotechnology industry's prospects for the coming year are strong, despite a harsh financing climate and continuing difficulties in shepherding drugs through clinical trials, according to a new report. The report's two authors, from the accounting and management-consulting firm of Ernst and Young, San Francisco, acknowledge that novel alliances and other creative business strategies will be required for companies to survive. But, sounding a note of optimism notably missing from other recent assessments, the two analysts predict the industry will prosper in 1995, largely because, in their view, biotechnology researchers are proving to be the most reliable source of innovative pharmacological agents. Biotech company executives also expect the industry to grow as a whole. At the same time, however, they say that something close to a shakeout in their industry is imminent. They assert that only a fraction of the current 1,300-plus biotechnology companies will persist as independent firms past the next few years. Many will be partially or totally merged into other biotechs or much-larger pharmaceutical corporations, or will be forced to limit their goals and cut their work forces substantially in order to survive. Some, they say, will fail entirely. The biotech officials do agree with the analysts that basic scientists are the core resource of the industry and will be somewhat protected in the expected restructuring. They add that the most promising ideas from academia will continue to be able to create a place for themselves within biotech, either through venture-capital-supported startups or licensing deals with existing companies. "Conventional wisdom is that we're going to take the 1,300 companies and shrink them down very dramatically because the capital markets are going to cause that to happen, and that we're going to go down to a list of 100 or 200 companies," says G. Stephen Burrill, one of the report's authors and a senior adviser for international life sciences and high-technology industry services at Ernst and Young. "We don't believe that's going to happen." "The biotechnology industry raised more capital in the last 12 months than in the 12 months previous, more capital by a substantial margin," contends Kenneth B. Lee, Jr., the second report author and Ernst and Young's national director of life sciences industry services. "The industry is doing quite well--albeit that there are some clinical [trials] difficulties. Public company product sales were $5.2 billion, which is a 20 percent increase in product sales over the previous year," in which sales totaled $4.3 billion. In the report, "Biotech '95: Reform, Restructure, Renewal," released in September, the analysts also note that discovery and development of new technologies continue to be well supported by the industry. They point to a 27 percent increase in spending for research and development by public companies from 1993 to 1994, from $3 billion to $3.8 billion, and predict further increases in the coming year. This rise in R&D spending, however, outpaced revenue growth significantly in 1994, leading to a 40 percent increase in net losses for public companies, from $1.5 billion to $2.1 billion. "This tremendous increase in the investment in R&D continues to drive overall industry losses," Lee says. By comparing companies' cash on hand to their spending rates, Lee and Burrill present a so-called survival index in the report--the number of months that companies have to spend themselves out of cash. For the median company, the average survival index dropped from 34 months in 1993 to 25 months this year. Still, the analysts say the industry is undervalued in the financial markets, and they expect investors to gain greater confidence in biotechnology this year. They base their assessment on a number of positive indicators, including the fact that more than 300 biotechnology products are now in some stage of clinical trials, with a number of them nearing Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. The biotechnology executives also see a relatively bright future for the industry overall, based largely on the continuing high productivity of industry researchers, reflected in the number of product candidates. They are less sanguine than the analysts, however, about how many firms will be able to negotiate the path to success. "I am personally extremely bullish on the future of biotechnology, but I am not saying 1,300 to 1,400 companies will be around as independent companies in five years," says Gabriel Schmergel, president and chief executive officer of Genetics Institute in Cambridge, Mass. "The industry is overpopulated. There are a lot of interesting and lucrative areas to work on, but there isn't room for 1,400 companies." The Virtual Company Most observers of biotechnology agree that, however many companies may survive in the next few years, the industry is currently undergoing a major reorganization in response to financial pressures of different kinds. A key concept in this process is a business tactic-- referred to variously as the "virtual company" or "virtual integration" strategy--being adopted by an increasing number of biotechnology companies. In the virtual company, one or more of the stages in discovering, developing, producing, marketing, and distributing a drug may be performed by different firms. Each partner in this process may work for a fee or for a stake in the overall value of the product or its sponsoring company, or combinations of these. Complex hybrid businesses result as companies invest in each other's strengths. New types of industries are being created as the concept evolves. Clinical research organizations (CROs), for example, specialize in managing clinical trials for biotech and pharmaceutical companies (F. Hoke, The Scientist, Sept. 19, 1994, page 1). The virtual company approach is contrasted with the concept of a fully integrated pharmaceutical company, or FIPCO, approach. A company pursuing the FIPCO strategy seeks to own and control all aspects of the process of creating and selling a drug. According to Schmergel, the biotechnology companies that will succeed in the next few years fall at one end or the other of the business spectrum defined by these two strategies. At one end are perhaps a relative handful of companies with products on the market and sufficient capital in the bank to successfully pursue a FIPCO approach, although most of them also selectively engage other companies for distribution or other kinds of help. His own Genetics Institute is among these, Schmergel observes--although a measure of that financial security stems from the 60 percent acquisition in 1992 of the company by American Home Products, the pharmaceutical giant based in New York City. "At the other end of the spectrum, you have the high-quality, small research boutiques, usually concentrating on only one, very often specialized, technology platform," Schmergel says. "Of these companies, the ones that are, in fact, occupying a leading-edge position with a particular project or in a particular technology niche and that resist the temptation to add unnecessary infrastructure--to do that, they have to, at the appropriate time, arrange partnerships to aid them with clinical development or marketing--will be able to provide an excellent return for the shareholders." Between these extremes are companies that have built up an infrastructure that may prove to be a liability in the current economic environment, according to Schmergel. "It's in the middle that you get squeezed most brutally," he says. "These are companies that had a strategy to be broad-based, built up the infrastructure, and then one thing or another went wrong--whether it's a patent issue, a delay of a clinical trial, or a negative FDA reaction." A classic case study of the risk such a company runs is Centocor Inc., headquartered in Malvern, Pa. The widely publicized failure of the company's Centoxin product to gain FDA approval in 1993 nearly destroyed Centocor. The company saved itself through a combination of sharp spending cuts and a return to the firm's core scientific strengths. Today, with several products doing well in clinical trials or nearing FDA approval, Centocor is once again among the leaders in its industry (see accompanying story). Seeking Partnerships Some biotechnology companies with existing infrastructure investments that may not be fully occupied in manufacturing their own products increasingly are turning to the virtual-company approach as a way to maximize their assets. "Companies that may have already invested in infrastructure, in the bricks and mortar of a manufacturing plant and so on, are going to be looking for more active collaborations in the industry," says David L. Urdal, president of Immunex Manufacturing Corp., a division of Immunex Corp. in Seattle. Urdal notes that, in addition to the more commonly discussed difficulties for biotechnology companies in getting a product approved by FDA--such as demonstrating a compound's safety and efficacy through successful clinical trials--a company must also have an agency-licensed manufacturing facility ready to produce the drug. "In our industry, that means you have to make that investment before you know you have a product," Urdal says. "While we have products in our pipeline that are in clinical development, from the manufacturing and process development point of view, we have excess capacity that we could potentially sell to younger companies that could then hold off making a larger investment for a longer period of time." Such arrangements would, in turn, also help Immunex defray operating costs, Urdal says. Like other industry observers, Urdal predicts that the next several years of financial constraint may be difficult ones for some biotechnology companies. He notes, however, that the pharmaceutical industry is in the process of scaling back its research and development efforts and sees possible benefits to biotechnology in this situation. "The large pharmaceutical companies are cutting back, investing less in research," Urdal says. "That may be a boon to biotechnology, because many of these companies will be looking to biotechnology as the source of greater innovation than, perhaps, they have represented within their own groups." Biotechnology executives also say that, despite the difficult financing market, good ideas remain at a premium and can find support. "The interesting thing is that new startups are still being financed by venture capital--although less than before," says Schmergel. "Venture capitalists have become a lot more discriminating, but the best ideas still get funded." Tim Cost, senior vice president of investor relations and strategic operations at Centocor, notes that ReoPro, a drug that his company hopes will be approved before the end of the year, was originally developed by Barry Coller, a professor of medicine at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York City. "We didn't discover that," Cost says. "Coller's a brilliant guy with a brilliant idea, and we'll be out looking for more. The value of [scientists'] ideas, their innovation, their ability to create technology, is going to be as highly valued as ever, if not more so." (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.1, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: ------------------------------------------------------------ TI : RETRENCHING FOR REJUVENATION AU : FRANKLIN HOKE TY : NEWS PG : 11 In 1993, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) declined to approve Malvern, Pa.-based Centocor Inc.'s lead compound, Centoxin, sending the company into a near-fatal financial tailspin. Today, after a drastic retrenching, Centocor has recovered to be listed as one of the top 10 biotechnology firms by market valuation in the Ernst and Young report "Biotech '95: Reform, Restruc- ture, Renewal." A new angioplasty therapeutic called ReoPro will likely receive FDA approval later this year, and another product called Panorex is proving significantly effective against colorectal cancer in Phase III clinical trials. Looking back, company officials say, Centocor wagered too heavily on the fully integrated pharmaceutical company, or FIPCO, strategy. Rather than form alliances with other companies to provide costly business capacities it did not possess, it moved instead to develop these in-house. "As it was preparing to launch Centoxin worldwide, the company decided to go with the FIPCO strategy," says Tim Cost, senior vice president of investor relations and strategic operations at Centocor. "It hired a full sales force, put in information-management systems to support them, built up the finance organization, created regional sales offices around the world--all without a product to sell yet, but getting itself ready. It got that infrastructure in place, took the employment levels up to 1,600 people, and took the negative cash flow up to in excess of $50 million a quarter. And then Centoxin did not get approved." Centocor's stock collapsed from $60 to $5, Cost says, and managers began a complete overhaul of the company in an effort to save it from bankruptcy. The burn rate was trimmed from $50 million a quarter to less than $50 million a year. The work force was scaled back from 1,600 to 500--but managers worked hard to protect the company's basic researchers. "We dismantled the entire sales and marketing organization," Cost says. "What we did was go back to what the company was founded on in 1979, which is that it's a discovery and development company that has good partnering strategies. While the Centoxin bombs were going off, we preserved the R&D and scientific core around ReoPro and pursued it. Now, we're coming to the end of this year with this drug that we are hopeful will be approved." Cost says that pursuing the FIPCO approach was a "very hopeful" strategy that nearly cost the company its existence. "You have to crawl, then you have to walk, and then you can run," Cost says. "The company found its way back to its original roots, which is discovery and development. That's what we do well--we find innovative products." --F.H. (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.11, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: ------------------------------------------------------------- TI : Supercomputer Center Fosters Cooperation Scientists say launching Of the Hawaiian facilityis also a major step in restructuring of U.S.defense research efforts AU : Karen Young Kreeger TY : NEWS PG : 1 Scientists and government officials expect a recently launched United States Air Force supercomputer center in Hawaii--equipped with one of the world's most powerful parallel-processing computers, one of only two of its kind anywhere--to forge far-reaching collaborations among academic, industry, and government scientists, many of whom have contributed to its creation. They say the $21 million Maui High-Performance Computing Center (MHPCC), which officially became operational in August, represents a major step in retooling Department of Defense (DoD) research to foster increased U.S. global economic competitiveness. In addition to aiding advances in biomedicine, education, environmental science, geoscience, and other areas, the new center is expected to become a vital communications link between researchers in the U.S. and other parts of the world--especially in Asia. "The Air Force's role is changing and the new role is to help U.S. business become stronger," says computer scientist Ronald Comeau, an Air Force captain and program manager at the Maui Center. "The partnership really is a simplistic idea, and we're running this experiment to see how well it works. In the long run we think it will benefit the country." The center--a 24,500-square-foot facility with 25 employees--is located in Kihei on the Hawaiian island of Maui. MHPCC's primary function is to support DoD research for the Air Force Maui Optical Station--telescopes atop Mount Haleakala on Maui. Its secondary, but highly significant, aim is the development of related computing technology for the benefit of other government agencies, educational institutes, and industry. This month, it was made more widely available to researchers, mostly through expanded Internet access. Currently, more than 500 investigators from around the world are tapping into the center's computing and image-processing capabilities. MHPCC was established through a special nationwide call for proposals to U.S. universities from DoD. In September 1993, the University of New Mexico (UNM), Albuquerque, was awarded a contract from DoD's Phillips Laboratory at Kirtland Air Force Base, N.Mex., to set up and manage the facility. In addition to DoD and UNM, a team of "partners" from business and academia with expertise in scientific and engineering research, administration, and software development are collaborating on center projects. Somers, N.Y.-based IBM POWER Parallel Systems is one of the main partners, outfitting the center with its latest parallel-processing supercomputer (see accompanying story). Other major partners include the Carnegie Mellon University Imaging Group, Pittsburgh, and SETS Technology Inc. of Mililani, Hawaii, a company specializing in remote sensing and data processing. Computing Collaborations Current and potential applications for the center's resources span an array of disciplines, say the Maui center collaborators. Biomedicine is one realm in which the center will facilitate joint ventures between industry and academia, according to Irving Wladawsky-Berger, general manager at IBM POWER Parallel Systems. As yet, no formal arrangements have been established with biomedical companies; however, several projects are in discussion. "One of the main uses of parallel supercomputing has been computational chemistry, which means doing lots and lots of computing to look at the properties of different molecules," says Wladawsky-Berger. "The pharmaceutical industry has been very interested in using supercomputers so they can understand the properties of different drugs." Another application Wladaw-sky-Berger thinks pharmaceutical firms will jump at is using supercomputers to efficiently store and access the massive amount of data that is generated in the research phase of drug development. "For every drug that gets to market," he notes, "typically pharmaceutical companies have tested hundreds, if not thousands, of drugs that didn't make it." He says scientists would like to access information from previous experiments rather than having to repeat tests. "So having gigantic databases available and then having various efficient searching mechanisms is something they're very interested in," Wladawsky-Berger maintains. "Parallel computers are excellent for that both because of their ability to store gigantic amounts of data and their ability to search that data very fast." Scientists need a powerful computer to pick up the subtle interactions of the drugs they're testing, he says: "Think of it as having a powerful pair of glasses. The more powerful the glasses, the more you can see faint things." An exchange of technology between DoD and the biomedical community would be mutually beneficial, Comeau contends. "The same technology that we use to process images that come off [DoD] telescopes can be used in medical imaging," he explains. And if by using the facilities of the center, the medical community can develop faster ways of processing images, he says, "then we can also use those faster ways to process images from our telescopes." One of the first researchers to go online at the center was Brad Smith, an Air Force captain and space warfare simulation officer who is trained in computer engineering. "We're interested in how the space-debris environment affects our spacecraft," he reports. "There's a lot of junk floating around up there." Smith explains that the Phillips Laboratory has a cooperative agreement with Teladesic Corp., a Kirkland, Wash.-based telecommunications company, to help plan the deployment of 840 low-Earth-orbit satellites as part of improvements to the U.S. telecommunications infrastructure. "We're very concerned about what will happen when they put up these satellites in essentially the same orbit" as other satellites and spacecraft, he notes. The main focus of his research, he says, is to simulate what will happen if these orbiting bodies collide. This work entails running data-intensive simulations of a satellite breakup, for example. "We then take the output in the form of various dump files and view it on graphics workstations," Smith ex-plains. Building Bridges Researchers as-sociated with the center say that its location is paramount to achieving some of its goals. "I like to think of it as the center of the world information superhighway in the Pacific. It [will be] a key link in bridging the Far East high-tech centers to the technology centers on the mainland U.S.," declares Frank Gilfeather, a professor of mathematics at New Mexico who, along with UNM colleagues Brian Smith, a professor of computer science, and John S. Sobolewski, a professor of electrical engineering, are co-principal investigators at the Maui Center. Half of that link with the world information network is made through an advanced fiber-optic connection from the Hawaiian island of Oahu to the Internet backbone in Los Angeles. The transmission capacity of this link--45 million bits per second--is greater than any current connection between the U.S. and Europe. Researchers who need to solve computational problems or work with images that require great computing speed and memory are able to tap directly into the resources of the center through this high-speed link. Smith explains that, currently, for the center to connect to users in Asia, "we have to go from Maui back to the mainland and then back to the Far East" via standard telephone lines, not fiber optics. "So what we're very much trying to encourage and create is a conductivity [telecommunications link] that is direct and more reliable, robust, and faster than what we're currently working with." Smith says the center's collaborators are hoping to parlay the high-speed, fiber-optic link already in place into an additional direct, fiber-optic connection between Hawaii and the Far East to be built by one or more Pacific Rim countries in the near future. "As we create more and more demand for it by having more and more organizations use the center, that will come along," he predicts. The center is currently negotiating with IBM Asia Pacific Inc. to become one of its major users in the Far East. "IBM Asia Pacific--as one of the users of the center--would go around and say to whoever's funding it from their side: 'Wouldn't it be great if we had this conductivity?' And we at the center are going to create more and more of those subtle pressures to get that created." Smith explains that one of the reasons that the second leg of the entire U.S.-Far East connection is so necessary is that not all access to the Internet is equal. "Internet is everywhere in the U.S. and in some sense around the world, but its qualities are very, very different, depending on where you are," he says. The center is also proposing to upgrade the technology of its link to the Maui Optical Station telescopes from its current microwave transmission to high-speed fiber optics. Through these same telecommunication networks the center will also help bring novel science-education experiences to U.S. schools. "We will establish links to many schools so they will have high-speed data links directly to an off-ramp of the information highway," says Gilfeather. The center's high-capacity, fiber-optic connection will allow students in the continental U.S., as well as on the Hawaiian islands, to take advantage of the capabilities of Maui's supercomputer. Using this technology, the center is also working with the Navajo Nation to bring supercomputing experiences to native Americans. "We are bringing to the state of Hawaii a node of the Jason Project," says Gilfeather. Jason is the name of a remote-controlled submarine used in deep-sea exploration, and the Jason Project is an annual deep-sea expedition televised live to hundreds of thousands of schoolchildren in North America and Europe (F. Golden, The Scientist, May 15, 1989, page 1). The Jason Project will soon be exploring an underground volcano that is in the process of forming a new island in the Hawaiian chain, and, via the Maui Center link, Hawaiian students will be able to see the volcanic activity firsthand, Gilfeather says. Mutually Beneficial DoD investigators anticipate that, by combining resources and talent with academic and industry researchers in the private sector, the center will improve the computing capabilities of all parties involved. Comeau sums up the payoff for DoD and the research community: "Hopefully, what businesses will contribute is that they'll help develop software that DoD [and others] can use with their own research. We're hoping that we'll get a lot of public domain software out of this." Another distinctive feature of the center, according to officials, is its arrangement for information sharing. Software companies and other firms that use the center will be allowed to retain rights to their developments. "To our knowledge this is the first center where the government and a university--as the manager of the center--have both agreed to waive all intellectual rights to work brought to the center by a third party," says Gilfeather. For more information, contact the Maui High-Performance Computing Center, 550 Lipoa Pkwy., Kihei, Hawaii 96753; (808) 879-5077. Fax: (808) 879-5018. E-mail: info@mail.mhpcc.edu. (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.1, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: ------------------------------------------------------------ TI : A SUPERLATIVE SUPERCOMPUTER AU : KAREN KREEGER YOUNG TY : NEWS PG : 6 At the heart of the United States Air Force's Maui High-Performance Computing Center (MHPCC) in Hawaii lies a supercomputer called the IBM POWERparallel System, also known as the SP2. This is a scalable parallel-processing computer--a machine that, to solve a computational problem, divides it among many processors that run simultaneously. The Maui center's computer has 400 nodes, or processors, in place, making it one of the most powerful supercomputers in the world, according to MHPCC researchers. "We're at the moment only one of two supercomputer centers with an IBM POWERparallel System installed," says Margaret Williams, associate director of the center. The Cornell Theory Center, a National Supercomputing Center at Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y., is the other; Cornell scientists soon expect to bring its capacity up to 512 processors. "What parallel systems let you do is essentially put all the [processors] together and manage them effectively as one system," explains Irving Wladawsky-Berger, general manager for IBM POWER Parallel Systems in Somers, N.Y., IBM's parallel computer branch. "By being able to put it together, you have N times the processing or storage capability, where N is the number of processors." It's the speed at which computing can be accomplished that makes IBM's SP2 a giant among supercomputers. The SP2 "has a microprocessor that's about twice as fast as the previous one," says Wladawsky-Berger of SP2's predecessor--the SP1. "I've worked on the SP1 since last January, and the SP2 is almost twice as fast, even when many users are on it," notes Brad Smith, an Air Force captain and one of the first to test the center's computing power. "We did some very large simulations, and it took us a few days to run them at the Maui site. It felt like a lot of time, but it took us a few weeks to do similar things on some of the older supercomputers." Computer scientists use a unit called the flop, or floating-point (arithmetic) operation per second, to compare the rate at which computers solve problems. A personal computer with a 486 microprocessor, for example, typically runs at 2 million to 4 million flops, or 2 to 4 megaflops. SP2's capacity, on the other hand, is 50,000 times that of some 486s. "We will have a machine with 100 billion [flops]. I would say there are currently a half-dozen or fewer such machines in existence," notes Frank Gilfeather, a professor of mathematics at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, and a co-principal investigator at the center. "The national goal is that the United States will reach the teraflop level by the turn of the century. A teraflop is a trillion flops, and we're one-tenth of the way with this machine. "You need a machine that has that size to do things like weather prediction, molecular modeling to develop new drugs, and computational fluid dynamics to model a whole airplane in flight. Currently we can only do pieces at a time, and fairly slowly." --K.Y.K. (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.6, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: ------------------------------------------------------- TI : A SUPERLATIVE SUPERCOMPUTER AU : KAREN KREEGER YOUNG TY : NEWS PG : 6 At the heart of the United States Air Force's Maui High-Performance Computing Center (MHPCC) in Hawaii lies a supercomputer called the IBM POWERparallel System, also known as the SP2. This is a scalable parallel-processing computer--a machine that, to solve a computational problem, divides it among many processors that run simultaneously. The Maui center's computer has 400 nodes, or processors, in place, making it one of the most powerful supercomputers in the world, according to MHPCC researchers. "We're at the moment only one of two supercomputer centers with an IBM POWERparallel System installed," says Margaret Williams, associate director of the center. The Cornell Theory Center, a National Supercomputing Center at Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y., is the other; Cornell scientists soon expect to bring its capacity up to 512 processors. "What parallel systems let you do is essentially put all the [processors] together and manage them effectively as one system," explains Irving Wladawsky-Berger, general manager for IBM POWER Parallel Systems in Somers, N.Y., IBM's parallel computer branch. "By being able to put it together, you have N times the processing or storage capability, where N is the number of processors." It's the speed at which computing can be accomplished that makes IBM's SP2 a giant among supercomputers. The SP2 "has a microprocessor that's about twice as fast as the previous one," says Wladawsky-Berger of SP2's predecessor--the SP1. "I've worked on the SP1 since last January, and the SP2 is almost twice as fast, even when many users are on it," notes Brad Smith, an Air Force captain and one of the first to test the center's computing power. "We did some very large simulations, and it took us a few days to run them at the Maui site. It felt like a lot of time, but it took us a few weeks to do similar things on some of the older supercomputers." Computer scientists use a unit called the flop, or floating-point (arithmetic) operation per second, to compare the rate at which computers solve problems. A personal computer with a 486 microprocessor, for example, typically runs at 2 million to 4 million flops, or 2 to 4 megaflops. SP2's capacity, on the other hand, is 50,000 times that of some 486s. "We will have a machine with 100 billion [flops]. I would say there are currently a half-dozen or fewer such machines in existence," notes Frank Gilfeather, a professor of mathematics at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, and a co-principal investigator at the center. "The national goal is that the United States will reach the teraflop level by the turn of the century. A teraflop is a trillion flops, and we're one-tenth of the way with this machine. "You need a machine that has that size to do things like weather prediction, molecular modeling to develop new drugs, and computational fluid dynamics to model a whole airplane in flight. Currently we can only do pieces at a time, and fairly slowly." --K.Y.K. (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.6, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: ------------------------------------------------------------------ TI : United Nations Moving Ahead On Consolidation Of AIDS Programs AU : Neeraja Sankaran TY : NEWS PG : 3 United Nations officials expect a unification of AIDS study programs sponsored by six international organizations to significantly enhance laboratory research and other efforts to combat the disease worldwide. The program, called the Joint and Co-Sponsored U.N. Program on HIV/AIDS, was first proposed by the World Health Organization's (WHO) executive board of directors in January of this year. It was given final approval by the U.N. Economic and Social Council last month. Expected to be fully functional by January 1996, the program would link AIDS-related activities of six participating organizations: WHO; the World Bank; the U.N. Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); the U.N. Development Program (UNDP); the U.N. International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF); and the U.N. Fund for Population (UNFP). Researchers and others involved in the consolidation envision the program as a central resource to which members of the six participating organizations can turn for funding and guidance in both policy and scientific research. "What this [program] means is that the results from the research can be more readily and immediately applied where they are urgently needed," says Susan Holck, an epidemiologist at WHO headquarters in Geneva and one of the program's planners. "For example, the World Health Organization traditionally has its strengths in technical expertise and research, while UNICEF is a valuable human resource--with people already working in the developing countries where AIDS is spreading." The proposed program would enable the two groups--researchers and development workers--to remain in constant dialogue, Holck observes. Aims And Agendas With the various agencies still moving toward a consolidated program, WHO's Holck points out that it is too early to have a set agenda. The overall objective of the program will be to work at global and national levels in checking the spread of AIDS. To this end, the U.N. hopes to achieve worldwide consensus on AIDS policies and then help implement these policies, mobilizing funds for AIDS-related prevention and education activities in different countries, while also supporting research. The projected budget is about $100 million to support efforts at the global level and "much more than that at the country level," she says. According to Holck, current research efforts, mostly sponsored by WHO's Global Program on AIDS, are ongoing, both in "prevention, [including] vaccine development, and care," the latter mainly including treatment of AIDS-related illnesses. "We [are also] focusing on the needs of developing countries, particularly with respect to public-health issues." "We have to come up with pragmatic approaches to dealing with AIDS, not set mandates," says Jean-Louis Lamboray, senior public health specialist in the population, health, and nutrition department of the World Bank headquarters in Washington, D.C. "There is a need for balance between the biomedical, behavioral, and policy aspects." In defining AIDS, WHO follows the same guidelines as the Atlanta-based Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, whereby an adult or adolescent older than 12 years is considered to have AIDS if he or she is infected with HIV, and displays one or more of the diseases on a list that includes Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptococcal meningitis, and pneumonia. Because the virus is primarily transmitted sexually, many scientists consider studies on social and sexual behaviors to be a central component of AIDS research. However, some researchers not affiliated with the U.N. programs have expressed concern that investigation into the social and sexual behaviors of different populations at risk may not be receiving sufficient attention from the international organization. "Overall, [the merger] is a good idea, but I'm not convinced that the WHO is doing all it can to properly implement behavioral research programs," says Chris Tsoukas, an associate professor of medicine at McGill University in Montreal, and the associate director of the AIDS center affiliated with the university. An immunologist who does vaccine research, Tsoukas nevertheless feels that behavioral research is "really the key" to checking the spread of the disease. "We have to work on where the epicenters of infection are," he adds, referring to the different parts of the world--Thailand, and in African countries, for example--where the AIDS epidemic poses an especially serious threat. Because these locales include populations with very diverse cultural backgrounds, methods of addressing such issues as the risk of transmission through different sexual and other practices also need to be tailored to suit different social contexts, Tsoukas explains. "The idea that we can apply the same safe-sex guidelines [everywhere] is wrong," he stresses. U.N. scientists also insist that understanding the societal factors linked to the spread of HIV is an important consideration in the joint program. In fact, they point out, agencies like UNESCO and UNDP work specifically on projects dealing with social and community development and education, and hence directly address behavioral issues. Claude Rosenfeld, program specialist in the basic sciences division at UNESCO headquarters in Paris, program coordinator of the group's AIDS program, and one of its representatives in the merger, affirms that "in the U.N. system we are very aware of the importance of behavioral research." Lamboray agrees: "There is absolutely no question that societal factors are important. We need to make sure that AIDS is considered as an issue of development and not just confined to health care." The advantage of a U.N. joint program, according to Lamboray, is that "it forces us to have interactions with people working under different paradigms, [which] in turn forces us to get a common framework to deal with the pandemic." "HIV is universal in impact, and we cannot, as U.N. bodies, go about giving different advice and information," says Solomon Hailu, the coordinator for UNESCO's role in the joint program. "Our collective impact would be greater" with a unified voice, he adds. On the biomedical research front, Rosenfeld sees a need to look for possible factors in addition to HIV that may contribute to the onset of AIDS. Drawing on his experience as a cancer immunologist, he sees parallels between the contraction of cancer--which has multiple causes, including retroviruses in some cases--and AIDS. "Clearly, new ways--based on premises other than the classical tracks--need to be investigated," he maintains. Regardless of their expectations about this program, researchers, public-health specialists, policy officials, and others inside and outside the U.N. concur on one point: the urgency with which the world needs to deal with the AIDS pandemic. Tsoukas visited Japan in 1988 as part of a WHO team to assess the AIDS situation there and recently revisited the country during the 10th International Conference on AIDS, held in Yoko- hama August 7-12. He notes "how slowly things move--even in an advanced country like Japan--with respect to implementing programs dealing with behavioral change." As such, he warns that even if appropriate programs were instituted in various countries around the world now, "we are not going to see the benefits for many years to come." (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.3, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: ----------------------------------------------------------------- TI : Physicist And Geneticist Are Named Winners Of Enrico Fermi Award AU : Neeraja Sankaran TY : NEWS PG : 4 President Clinton's choices for the winners of the 1994-95 Enrico Fermi Award--Freeman Dyson, a professor, emeritus, of physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J., and Liane B. Russell, a geneticist who is a senior corporate fellow at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee--reflect a changing attitude on the part of the United States government about the benefits of nuclear power, say some scientists. The award, the U.S.'s oldest in science and technology, was established in 1956 to honor the memory of Enrico Fermi, the leader of the group of scientists that achieved the first self-sustained, controlled nuclear reaction on December 2, 1942. The honor was originally intended to recognize the development of applications in the field of nuclear energy and technology. Among the early winners, for example, was nuclear physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer, who played a central role in developing the first atomic bomb. But in the past several years, observers note, the prize has gone to scientists with theoretical interests--for instance, 1988 physics Nobelist Leon Lederman, who was a recipient in 1993. "I believe the prize has gone more towards the theoretical side in recent years," affirms A. David Rossin, who served as assistant secretary of energy in 1986-87, and was president of the American Nuclear Society, Lagrange Park, Ill., in 1992-93. Rossin, a metallurgist and nuclear engineer, is now an independent consultant based in Los Altos Hills, Calif. "The recipients this year are both exceptional people with exceptional accomplishments," he adds, "[but] the award should swing back to recognizing the practical and engineering applications of nuclear sciences. Fermi himself had the greatest ability to translate fundamental physics to practical applications." Dyson recognizes a degree of irony in his being honored with the award. "The joke is that the Fermi Award was originally established for the glorification of nuclear physics and technology, and now I am being honored for being a critic," he observes. Dyson is cited, in part, for his questioning of the risks and benefits of science and technology, including the use of nuclear energy. His book Weapons and Hope (New York, Harper and Row, 1984), in which he addressed various scientific military questions, won the National Books Critics Circle Award for Nonfiction in 1984. "I would have to agree with Professor Dyson," says Rossin about the change in the nature of the Fermi Award's focus, adding, however, his view that "Dyson's entries into policy issues were not convincing," and did not ultimately prove to be correct. Although not an aggressive critic of nuclear energy or policies, the other winner, Russell, is being recognized for her studies on mutagenesis and teratogenesis--investigations that led to discovery of the risks of nuclear energy, rather than its glorification. She was one of the first scientists to establish the relationship between various abnormalities of newborns who had been exposed prenatally to radiation. Both individuals will receive their awards--a gold medal and $100,000 each--from Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary at a ceremony to be held in Washington D.C., early next year. The prize--awarded intermittently but not more than once a year--is administered by the Department of Energy, with the president making the final selection from a list of recommendations from the energy secretary. Accidental Glory Dyson's citation for the Fermi award also recognized his contributions to the realms of theoretical physics and his achievements in communicating science to the general public. The 70-year-old physicist's interests have included quantum electrodynamics, scattering theory, and statistical physics. "I jump around from one thing to another," he says. "Nowadays my work is more mathematical." He is well known for his early association with the renowned Richard Feynman, who went on to win the 1965 physics Nobel. Dyson's articles for lay audiences have appeared frequently in such popular magazines as the New Yorker and Scientific American. Among his well-known books are Disturbing the Universe (New York, Harper and Row, 1979), an autobiographical work; Origins of Life (Cambridge University Press, 1986); Infinite in All Directions (Harper and Row, 1988), for which he received the Phi Beta Kappa Award in Science in 1988; and, most recently, an anthology of essays titled From Eros to Gaia (New York, Pantheon Books, 1992). Last year, he also appeared in the public television science series "The Glorious Accident." Having earned his B.A. in mathematics from Cambridge University, England, Dyson did graduate studies at Cambridge's Trinity College and Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y., for one year each. He does not have a formal doctoral degree but has received honorary Ph.D.'s from several notable universities around the world, including Princeton University; the University of Glasgow, Scotland; and the City University of London. He has been at the Institute for Advanced Study since 1953 and is currently visiting at Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H., as a Montgomery Fellow. He was elected as a fellow to England's Royal Society in 1952, and as a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1964. Radiation Biologist Only the second woman to receive the Fermi Award, Russell, 71, is being honored for her contributions in basic genetics, radiation mutagenesis, and teratogenesis--which refers to the development of congenital defects owing to mutations induced in different stages of the embryo. In the early 1950s, Russell conducted extensive studies on the effects of prenatal radiation exposure in mice, and made specific recommendations for avoiding exposure to X-rays. In addition, she pioneered a number of mammalian mutagenesis tests currently used in various diagnostic as-says worldwide. An example is the "spot test," which Russell says uses the appearance of colored spots on the skin as an indicator of a mutation introduced in the gene of the animal. Among her most cited papers are: L.B. Russell, "X-ray-induced developmental abnormalities in the mouse and their use in the analysis of embryological patterns," Journal of Experimental Zoology, 114:545-602, 1950; and L.B. Russell, "Genetics of mammalian sex chromosomes," Science, 133: 1795- 1803, 1961. Each paper has received more than 200 citations. Over the years Russell has worked on characterizing various mutations induced by radiation. "Instead of throwing away [destroying] the mice, we held on to them, and today they are a very valuable mutational resource for studying various disorders," she explains. Currently, she is studying a variety of mutations that cause such genetic disorders as polycystic kidney disease, diabetes, and congenital cleft palates in mice. Born in Vienna, Russell attended Hunter College in New York City, where she obtained a bachelor of arts degree, summa cum laude, in 1945, and then went on to receive a Ph.D. in genetics from the University of Chicago in 1949. She has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1986. (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.4, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: NOTEBOOK ------------------------------------------------------------ TI : HIV Vaccines Get Second Chance TY : NEWS (NOTEBOOK) PG : 4 The World Health Organization (WHO), based in Geneva, will back large-scale clinical trials of two experimental HIV vaccines that failed earlier this year to win similar approval in the United States. In June, Anthony S. Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), chose not to support the complex and costly trials because "the science wasn't there to justify it." Each vaccine relies on stimulating an immune response to the surface protein gp120 on the virus thought to cause AIDS. Apparently, the international health organization looked at the same data Fauci did, from smaller trials in humans, and saw sufficient immune system improvement demonstrated to warrant further studies. "The World Health Organization, in contrast to the NIAID, has decided to go ahead and test these vaccines in efficacy trials and put their blessing on that," says Don Francis, the clinical scientist managing the trials for Genentech. According to WHO, the trials probably will not get under way until 1996 and data from them will not be available until seven years after that. (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.4, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- NXT: ------------------------------------------------------------ TI : Take Deux Aspirines TY : NEWS (NOTEBOOK) PG : 4 Raven Press, a medical and scientific publishing house based in New York, is about to release its Medical Dictionary in Six Languages, a compilation of more than 7,500 commonly used words and phrases from medical and clinical trials literature translated from English into French, Spanish, Italian, German, and Japanese. Included are terms relating to clinical trials, statistics, and drug development, as well as obscure medical phrases. For more information, contact Raven Press at (212) 930-9500. Fax: (212) 869-3495. (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.4, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- NXT: -------------------------------------------------------------- TI : Momentous Challenge TY : NEWS (NOTEBOOK) PG : 4 Over the years, the national laboratories have wrought nearly miraculous research and innovations in numerous areas. But a team of investigators from Upton, N.Y.-based Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) along with scientists from Polytechnic University in Brooklyn may be tackling their toughest assignment yet--trying to unsnarl rush-hour traffic on Long Island's highways. Using a computer software package called Advanced Traffic Occupancy Prediction, the researchers feel they can produce up-to-the-minute forecasts of traffic volume and advise motorists accordingly. The computer modeling system takes into account such elements as historical traffic-flow patterns and data about the current state of the highway. The investigators are combining their efforts with the New York Department of Transportation's INFORM system, an advanced traffic-management system that collects and evaluates roadway data. INFORM already has computerized signs in place on Long Island highways to inform motorists about current conditions. With the two systems combined, BNL scientists believe they will be able to warn motorists of what to expect--and, possibly, avoid--at certain destinations. (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.4, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- NXT: ------------------------------------------------------------------ TI : Weighty Matter TY : NEWS (NOTEBOOK) PG : 4 Researchers who study environmental pollutants have a new and unusual measuring tool--or standard reference material (SRM)--available to them, thanks to the National Institute of Standards and Technology. NIST has recently announced that scientists can order 15-gram samples of Whale Blubber SRM 1945, which can be used by investigators analyzing the tissue of marine mammals and fish for the presence of organic pollutants. The whale SRM comes with a certificate verifying the concentration of the 42 pollutants it contains; the blubber can thus be used as a control. (In general, fatty tissue--of which whale blubber is a prime example --accumulates toxins, especially chlorine-containing pesticides like PCBs.) NIST scientists say researchers prefer naturally derived standards over synthetic ones because the natural standards more closely match the composition of samples they are usually trying to analyze. The source of the blubber is a pilot whale that was stranded on a Massachusetts beach in 1991. To order the whale SRM, contact the NIST Standard Reference Materials Program, 204 Engineering Mechanics Building, Gaithersburg, Md. 20899-0001; (301) 975-6776. Fax: (301) 948-3730. (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.4, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- NXT: ------------------------------------------------------------------ TI : SURF's Up In Gaithersburg TY : NEWS (NOTEBOOK) PG : 4 The 1995 SURF, or Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships, program in physics at the National Institute of Standards and Technology is seeking applicants. Undergraduates and graduating college seniors in science and engineering who are interested in a career in physics are eligible. For 10 to 12 weeks each summer, about 20 students conduct research alongside mentor-scientists at the NIST Physics Laboratory in Gaithersburg, Md. Each fellowship includes a $3,600 stipend, housing, and transportation. Applications are due on February 1. For more information, contact David King, B266 Physics Building, Gaithersburg, Md. 20899-0001; (301) 975-2369. Fax: (301) 975-3038. E-mail:king@enh.nist.gov. Jean Research Hate the idea of tossing those well-worn, comfortable old jeans into the trash, even though they are falling apart? So do environmentalists and the textile industry. To that end, researchers from North Carolina State University's College of Textiles and Burlington Industries Denim Division in Greensboro, N.C., are collaborating on a process to salvage some of the estimated 70 million pounds of denim scrap dumped each year into U.S. landfills. The NCSU's College of Textiles' Applied Research Program team developed a method for spinning together short fiber ends to form a yarn suitable for weaving into denim fabric that will perform efficiently on looms. The result was Burlington's "Reused Denim," which contains 50 percent reclaimed denim and 50 percent virgin cotton yarn. The material has already been sold to a number of jeans manufacturers. (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.4, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- NXT: ------------------------------------------------------------------ TI : Peaceful Coexistence TY : NEWS (NOTEBOOK) PG : 4 The Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Wash., has finally begun work on a $230 million Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory. Construction of the 200,000-square-foot lab was suspended last spring after the discovery of a Native American burial ground on the original site. The facility, which is expected to be completed in 1997 and house nearly 270 permanent researchers, is now being built on a new location one mile away from the burial ground. Research there will focus on developing technologies to clean up environmental hazards at government and industrial sites and is expected to lead to advances in such disciplines as energy, material, biomedical, and agricultural sciences. (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.4, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- NXT: ------------------------------------------------------------------ TI : Engineering Collaborations TY : NEWS (NOTEBOOK) PG : 4 The National Science Foundation recently announced that it will establish or renew six interdisciplinary research centers to advance knowledge of state-of-the-art engineering systems, processes, and devices. The new Engineering Research Centers will join 18 already-established centers. These research institutions will be involved in, among other areas of study, biotechnology and bioengineering as well as materials and energy science. The centers are supported by and collaborate on research with academia, government, and industry, including, thus far, some 720 small- to medium-sized firms. Of the six, three are new and three are reestablishments of centers started in 1985. The new facilities are located at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, the University of Florida in Gainesville, and the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta. The reestablished centers are on the campuses of the University of Maryland in College Park, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, and Purdue University in West Lafayette, Ind. (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.4, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: ------------------------------------------------------------ TI : HIGH IMPACT PAPERS (INFORMATION) TY : PRODUCT INFORMATION PG : 7 The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) announces... High Impact Papers published from 1981 through 1993 ... a bibliographic and citation database for your PC of the 300 most-cited papers of each year For the first time ever, ISI is able to offer a diskette database of the most influential papers in specific fields of the sciences and social sciences, as reflected by citation counts tabulated through 1993. For High Impact Papers, 1981-93,ISI has identified, for the three fields listed below, the 300 most-cited reports of each year from 1981 to 1993. Each file contains the bibliographic information for 3,900 papers (including all author names, up to a maximum of 16; all author addresses, up to 15; journal name; title of paper; volume; initial page number; year of publication) plus year-by-year and total citation counts for each paper. What's more, this database comes with a graphical user interface that allows users to search the set and create rankings of authors, institutions, journals, nations, etc. The database requires an IBM-compatible PC running Windows 3.1 (a version without the user interface is available in dBase for DOS). Are your papers listed? What about your colleagues' papers? How many has your institution fielded each year? Has the nation's share of most cited papers changed much during the period? Who published the largest number of high impact papers? These and many other questions can now be answered easily. Three editions are now available: * Molecular Biology & Genetics * Neurosciences * Immunology For more information, contact David A. Pendlebury (215-386-0100, x1411; or, fax 215-387-1266; or, Internet: dpendle@isinet.com) (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.7, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: ------------------------------------------------------------- TI : THE LEADERS OF SCIENCE THE READERS OF SCIENCE PG : 10 BRITTON CHANCE, Eldridge Reeves Johnson University Professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry and Radiologic Physics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia "My work ranges from human disease to biological structures, and encompasses many disciplines .... THE SCIENTIST provides much of the information I need in convenient, capsule form." Britton Chance has been called the father of rapid, quantitative spectrophotometry. He developed radar technology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, during World War II, and studied rapid enzyme ractions in the early 1950s. Inventing the double-beam or dual-wavelength spectrophotometer, Chance made it possible to measure the dynamics of enzyme action in isolated organelles and tissues with reliability and precision, which led to many key developments in biochemistry and biophysics. Since then, Chance's research on metabolic changes in the muscle, liver, brain, heart, adrenal glands, and corneal tissue in vivo has ranked among the leaders in the Science Citation Index. He now applies his spectroscopic techniques to imaging tumors in the brain and breast with rapidly varying "deep red" light. This new, noninvasive imaging has stimulated widespread interest in developing a safe, economical, and efficient technique for imaging diseases of the brain, breast, and muscles. In addition to his scientific accomplishments, Chance is especially proud of the close relationships he has developed with students and colleagues over the years. He continues to maintain active correspondence with former students, most of whom have themselves become leaders in scientific research. Chance attributes the respect he has earned from his peers to "doing good science and doing it well." Chance says: "The hallmarks of good science are veracity, morality, and longevity. My work ranges from human disease to biological structures, and it encompasses many disciplines. With this holistic view, I read everything. THE SCIENTIST provides much of the information I need in convenient, capsule form." (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg. 10, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: OPINION ----------------------------------------------------------------- TI : Bitter Ironies Confound Career Hopes Of Today's Young Researchers AU : Mark H. Paalman TY : OPINION PG : 12 Young scientific researchers are coming to a major crossroads, a "best of times, worst of times" of tremendous proportions. From one standpoint, being a part of the numerous revolutions occurring in nearly all scientific disciplines is as exciting for us as it is promising. There is much for us to anticipate as fresh thinking and new technological innovations bring once diverse disciplines together, creating avenues of exploration not even imagined a decade ago. Confidence and ambition, however, are ceding to worry and resignation. We see increasing numbers of our comrades getting stuck in perpetual postdoctoral appointments while they apply over and over for rare faculty jobs. Even if one attains a cherished tenure-track position, the chances of earning a competitive research grant have seldom been worse. The situation is clearly discouraging, since fewer and fewer biomedical faculty under age 37 are applying for life-blood National Institutes of Health research grants. And on the industrial side, layoffs and forced retirements by the likes of IBM and Dow Chemical parallel those in the defense industry and lead young scientists to wonder if there are any stable career choices left. Whether doctoral candidates or postdoctoral fellows, with designs on industry or academe, we--the fledgling researchers of the wealthiest country on Earth--are now struggling with grim prospects for gainful employment in the near future. We must look carefully at the issues that have created this bitterly ironic situation, and we must take a stand for bringing about change. Illiteracy Breeds Mistrust The ostensible cause of the situation has been tightened federal purse strings mixed with a peer-review process that tends to favor established investigators over nov-ices. In my opinion, two oddly coexisting factors also impinge heavily on the future of young scientists in America: science illiteracy in American society and the unchecked flow of young researchers through the so-called academic pipe-line. Scientist/educator Carl Sagan noted in a Washington Post article early this year that, while we as a society "profoundly depend on science and technology," virtually no Americans really understand them ("Book World" section, Jan. 9, 1994, page 1). Developing countries view science as the path out of poverty, as demonstrated by the huge numbers of international science graduate students in United States institutions. Yet Americans--taught as children that "science is hard"--too often fall down the slope of superstition and ignorance. Statistics abound decrying the state of science and math education in the U.S. as an embarrassment compared to that in, for example, Japan and Germany. However, in underscoring this problem, Sagan directed a good portion of the blame at the bulk of scientists who, given all of their grant-writing and their general "ivory-tower" reclusiveness, do not have the time, the energy, or the desire to do something to correct it. Why should we, as young scientists, care whether nonscientists truly understand basic scientific concepts? Simply because our careers will depend on it. Without an appreciation of both math and basic scientific principles, people tend to become frightened, mistrustful, and less supportive of scientific progress. Given such recently publicized improprieties as the breast cancer research debacle at the University of Pittsburgh and government-sponsored radiation experiments, good scientists are finding this negative impression increasingly harder to debunk. Today's science policymakers warn that the future of our scientific enterprise may be jeopardized as public skepticism translates into voter retaliation and reduced research funding support. Therefore, all scientists must come to see the importance of open, informative dialogue with a public capable of understanding even the most difficult concepts if they are presented clearly and conscientiously. Saturated Job Market Given the degree to which the American public, through its science illiteracy and mistrust, are alienated from science, there is a growing class of Americans who, owing to their dedication to this field, are in a professional quandry. I am speaking of the thousands of college students in the last decade who loved science enough (and were encouraged by erroneous predictions of imminent shortages in the scientific work force) to pursue the noble career path of academic research despite the limited income potential that the field offers. We students, having invested more than five years and much personal and federal money into our hard-earned Ph.D.'s, now find upon graduation a saturated scientific job market and little hope for future advancement. What seems most inconsistent--and unfair--is that the number of doctoral candidates in the sciences grows despite the lack of a well-defined need: Graduate training is encouraged under the assumption that jobs will eventually appear. One reason for this might simply be that very few studies have focused on supply and demand for employment in the sciences. In one that did--a 1989 study sponsored by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation--the authors suggested that, given reasonable projections of both the nation's economic growth and the attrition rate of existing faculty, there could well be a 100 percent surplus of professorial candidates in the biological and psychological sciences through 1997 (W.G. Bowden, J.A. Sosa, Pros-pects for Faculty in the Arts and Sciences: A Study of Factors Affecting Demand and Supply, Princeton University Press, 1989). Ph.D. students and postdoctoral fellows in the biomedical sciences today are seeing abundant evidence of the projected oversupply in their ranks. (Just ask even exceptionally talented postdocs about the number of academic job offers they've received for every 100 job letters sent.) This problem is not unique to bioscientists, either, as all indications are that basic chemistry and physics postdocs in the pipeline fare no better, and perhaps worse, in the job market. Given current trends, it is easy to imagine that some scary scenarios are just around the corner. In one, a disappearing job market, exacerbated by funding cutbacks from lawmakers with skeptical constituencies, creates a class of scientists that is simply forced to "adjust" in a free-market sense, with only the strong and lucky few able to survive. This phenomenon is certainly familiar; witness the fall of the superconducting supercollider and the resultant layoffs of physicists. Another, perhaps even more demoralizing, scenario: The bulk of young science Ph.D.'s within the glutted pipeline serve merely as "McScientists," struggling at pathetic hourly wages as the virtual hands and brains of their masters, the laboratory franchise owners. The growing number of postdocs unable to secure treasured faculty positions year after year has already led to rising underemployment rates in most academic science fields; yet year after year, the number of Ph.D. candidates steadily increases. A cynic might even propose that it is academia's thirst for cheap labor that keeps the pipeline flowing at all. A Serious Matter It seems ridiculous that the two social crises of science illiteracy and scientist oversupply coexist. Both problems will continue to fester without a major overhaul of our national science and education policy. Fortunately, demands for science education reform are indeed spreading across the U.S., and with much support from the scientific societies and industry. As for the oversupply of Ph.D.'s, further studies are needed to fully define the problem--but the studies that have already been undertaken must, at some point, be taken seriously. Granted, the truly exceptional and ambitious among the ranks of young scientists must be encouraged to go as far as their aspirations will allow. This nation will always need superior researchers and so must foster excellence. However, with job prospects for Ph.D.'s in many cases worse than for B.S. or M.S. recipients, it seems irresponsible for doctoral programs to encourage more and more college graduates to matriculate as basic scientists. If new data argue that graduate research institutions must curb admissions in the short run to better serve the long-term interests of prospective students, granting agencies, and an unsure economy, then policymakers must act accordingly. A time of reckoning has come for the youth of science. No more can we afford to hide in academia and allow others to decide our fate. All young researchers in the pipeline must realize that unemployment and servitude will be real-life career possibilities unless we learn to adapt to today's spartan economic environment. But how can we adapt? One thing we must learn is to speak out--to our university administrators, scientific society leaders, and congressional representatives. A concerted, government-led effort could address shortcomings in U.S. science education at all levels and at the same time provide alternative careers, such as teaching, for young scientists who want to leave the academic pipeline from a different outlet. Survival Fortunately, some people in power do care about the Ph.D.-oversupply issue. At last April's Science and Technology Policy Colloquium sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, for example, Sen. John D. Rockefeller IV (D-W.Va.) intoned that academic mentors in science must "break away from the tendency of creating Ph.D. students in the image of the professor," and that the tenure track "should not be viewed as the only [career] path" but one of many, including education, industry, and government. Rockefeller went on to urge faculty to "foster [alternative career] areas, not look down on them." During the same meeting, NIH director Harold Varmus also commented on the need to "open up the pipeline" that seems so fixed on ushering forth professorial clones. Given that bureaucratic change is a particularly slow process, however, we cannot rely exclusively on policymakers for a remedy. We must also adapt by making ourselves more marketable. In a Darwinian sense, "more" often means "better" for survival purposes. Careers that mix science with business, law, and government policy are currently in a growth phase, so the more diversified one's rsum, the less likely one is to get stuck in the pipeline with no place else to go. Since the behind-the-scenes consensus in Washington is that the funding of scientific research--especially for independent investigators--isn't going to improve in the near future, perhaps young researchers should also reconsider carefully their true motives for entering the pipeline in the first place. Mark H. Paalman is a graduate student in the department of biological chemistry at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore. E-mail: mhunter@welchlink.welch.jhu.edu. (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.12, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: COMMENTARY ---------------------------------------------------------------- TI : The Science Education Paralysis:Let's Fix What Needs To Be Fixed AU : Shirley Malcom TY : OPINION PG : 13 I joined the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1975 as a research assistant for a National Science Foundation-supported project designed to identify and analyze programs that had been successful in increasing the number of minorities in science, engineering, and biomedical careers. Although I had no special credentials for this work at the time, I was intensely curious about it, since during my undergraduate and graduate days I had been troubled by the fact that, as an African American woman, I had often been the only minority student in my science and mathematics classes. The project unearthed a vast array of successful efforts throughout the United States to connect African American, Latino, and American Indian students with science and engineering. A subsequent project concentrated on successful efforts to do the same for girls and women. In general, my colleagues and I discovered, these efforts--or "interventions"--had been developed to ensure that at least a few people from underrepresented groups could survive the inhospitable educational system to become scientists, engineers, and health professionals. For K-12 students, the interventions often took the form of measures created specifically to help them fit into and negotiate the existing educational system, no matter how flawed it might be. At no educational level, however, did these efforts challenge the institutions themselves to change. Over the years, those of us interested in reform programs have become convinced that we can no longer afford to select only a few students to guide through a faulty educational system, while leaving their colleagues to founder. It is time for a revised approach to education reform that focuses on fixing the system rather than the students. The nation's systems for teaching mathematics and the sciences are under stress overall; they are not doing an adequate job of preparing students to participate in an increasingly technology-driven, scientifically advanced economy. It is now time to fix what needs fixing, rather than that which is easy to fix. We are convinced that the lessons learned during the years of intervention on behalf of underrepresented students will be valuable to us as we move forward on behalf of the system at large. From the earlier efforts, we learned much about the necessary elements of systemic reform that, sooner or later, must be addressed: teacher education, curriculum development, assessment methods, and so forth. What is novel about the current reform is that all of the necessary elements, such as the following, must be addressed simultaneously: y We must adequately educate our future science teachers so that they do not emerge from our colleges and universities in immediate need of additional professional training. We cannot achieve this by precept alone; we must also provide practical examples in the context of the science and mathematics classes as models that they take into their teaching. y We must devise science curricula that will hold students' attention and make science connect to their daily lives. y We must provide students the time they need to achieve higher standards of competence in science and mathematics. y We must budget appropriately to provide the physical tools for learning science, as well as the classrooms and labs in which to do so. y We must make parents, communities, and businesses significant partners in our educational efforts. y We must maintain high expectations for all our students. y We must learn to gauge students' progress by measuring not only the information they have acquired, but also the valuable work habits and attitudes toward learning they have gained. We don't know exactly what it would take to effect change in all cases, but we believe it will involve policymakers at local, state, and federal levels as well as a community convinced that reform is necessary to its well-being as a whole and to the future of its children. Shirley Malcom, an ecologist and former high school teacher, is director of the American Association for the Advancement of Science's Education and Human Resources Directorate. She has been a member of the National Research Council's National Committee on Science Education and Assessment, and is a recent appointee to the President's Committee of Advisers on Science and Technology (PCAST). (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.13, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: LETTERS ------------------------------------------------------------ TI : Research's Future AU : SUZANNE NESS TY : OPINION (LETTERS) PG : 13 As president of the California Biomedical Research Association, I read with great interest and appreciation the Commentary of July 11, 1994 [E. Garfield, The Scientist, page 13] and its support for the recent consensus statement urging federal funding increases for biomedical research. Equally appealing is the suggestion for developing arguments for research support based upon scientists' own case histories of research experience. It is not only reduced funding, however, that threatens the future of biomedical research, but also the chilling effect of continued negative public relations, legal and regulatory actions, and physical harassment by the radical animal rights community that deters postdocs from following in the footsteps of senior research faculty. The resulting level of anxiety reduces constructive collegial exchange about research questions and the appropriate use of animal models, which can encourage curiosity and new investigation. The cost and regulatory hurdles associated with the use of animals affect even the choice of research topics, with resulting negative effects on human health. Perhaps we can encourage people to once again trace the entire history of research proj-ects, including the research animals involved, describing why the particular animal models used are necessary, and why certain research results are so totally dependent on the use of animals. Perhaps scientists who share their experiences could also speak to the reasons why they care about their animals, why they reduce the use of them wherever possible, and why they develop attachments to animals used in long-term studies. Part of the reason why the animal rights activists are ableto portray research scientists as cold and sadistic is because we don't say often--or publicly--enough just how important those animals are to the research that benefits both humans and animals. "Curiosity-driven" forays into the scientific wilderness that reveal breakthrough advances benefiting public health should include the role of animals if we are to dispel myths and increase public understanding and support. Suzanne Ness President California Biomedical Research Association 1008 10th St., Suite 328 Sacramento, Calif. 95814 (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.13, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: ------------------------------------------------------------ TI : WHAT DEBATE? AU : MARTIN L. STEPHENS TY : OPINION (LETTERS) PG : 13 Your point/counterpoint on "The Use Of Animals In Laboratory Research" (K.P. Stoller, S.E. Paris, The Scientist, Sept. 5, 1994, page 12) was subtitled "Debate Presses Forward," but "Debate Fails to Materialize" would have been more appropriate. Susan Paris ("Animal Rights Advocates' Actions Pose Big Threat To Public Health") ignores Kenneth Stoller's ethical and technical critique of animal modeling ("Experimentation On Animals Retards Progress Of Science") and, instead, recycles the animal activists-as-menace theme that she and other defenders of the status quo have been advancing for nearly 10 years. Small wonder that a recent analysis of the animal research controversy (A.N. Rowan, F.M. Loew, J.C. Weer, The Animal Research Controversy: Protest, Process and Public Policy, North Grafton, Mass., Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine, 1994, page 141) concluded that "[the] current debate over the use of animals in research may be intense, but it is largely unproductive." I say let the real debate begin. Let's debate not only the issue of whether or not animals should be exploited in laboratories, but also the pragmatic issue of what can and should be done to minimize the suffering and killing of animals so long as they are being used. It is the latter issue that the Humane Society of the United States pursues. Martin L. Stephens Vice President Laboratory Animal Issues Humane Society of theUnited States 2100 L St., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20037 (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.13, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: RESEARCH ------------------------------------------------------------------ TI : So Far, Fullerene Studies Dominate Chemical Citations In The 1990s TY : RESEARCH PG : 14 ----- Editor's Note: According to a comprehensive citation analysis of chemistry papers published from 1991 to 1993 and reported in the July/August 1994 issue of the newsletter Science Watch, articles on fullerenes and related molecules still are among the most cited in the field. The dominance of fullerenes aside, several other areas of chemistry are also on the move: asymmetric synthesis, surface chemistry, computational chemistry, macromolecular structures, and new reagents. This analysis was conducted using the Science Citation Index of the Philadelphia-based Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). Following is Science Watch's report, written for the newsletter by John Emsley, science writer in residence at the department of chemistry, Imperial College, London. The article is reprinted with the permission of Science Watch and ISI, its publisher. ------ Government agencies need an objective assessment of the scientists and research that they are expected to fund. So do independent or charity-based research institutes, whose trustees must also closely monitor what their staff is achieving. And so does industry--although people there are often better placed to understand what is going on, whom to sponsor, and what the return on the investment will be. The Science Citation Index (SCI) provides one means of objective assessment. SCI logs every new paper as it appears and subsequently records its citations by other researchers. In general, the more a paper is cited, the more important that piece of work is. It is part of my role as science writer in residence at Imperial College, London, to keep in touch with the active areas of my subject--chemistry. If I were asked to indicate the most interesting areas at the moment I would say asymmetric synthesis, surface chemistry, new materials, molecular recognition, self-replication, catalysis, analysis, and molecular modeling. I would also include fullerenes (sometimes called buckminsterfullerenes, after architect R. Buckminster Fuller), the best example of which is the C60 carbon soccerball-shaped molecule. But I would not give them undue emphasis. When I spoke to the editors of Science Watch and asked if there was any way of confirming my intuitive choices, they offered to carry out a three-year analysis of chemistry papers and their citations. There duly arrived a complete printout of all chemistry papers published for the years 1991-93 that had collected 10 or more citations. What was I to make of these raw data? There were thousands of papers, but relatively few that were highly cited. The top-cited papers for 1991-93 are shown in the table on page 15. Of these, 29 had attracted more than 100 citations. All of these papers were published in 1991, as we might expect. Most are about fullerene chemistry. Discovered in the mid-1980s, fullerenes immediately seized the imagination of chemists in all branches of the field: organic, inorganic, physical, and theoretical. A more detailed analysis of the papers of each year is needed to eliminate the distorting presence of fullerenes. I chose a progressively less demanding cut-off point for each year: 50 citations or more for 1991 papers; 25 or more for 1992 papers; and 10 for 1993 papers. I then grouped them under several subject headings (see table on this page). 1991: Proteins And Fullerenes In 1991's crop of papers, 29 were cited more than 100 times, with 21 of these devoted to fullerenes. The nonfullerene papers fall into the following categories: computational chemistry, protein structure, molecular recognition, substituent constants, mass spectra of biopolymers, and the immunosuppressant FK-506. The most-cited paper of 1991--cited 280 times (attracting 227 of these in 1993)--is about protein structure and was published in the Journal of Applied Crystallography. It was by Per Kraulis, then of Cambridge University, United Kingdom, and describes a program to produce schematic plots of protein structures. Although this paper appeared in what is essentially a structural chemistry journal, it has naturally also been cited by molecular biologists. It might have been expected that many of these highly cited papers would be review articles, which tend to attract more citations than individual papers, but this appears not to be the case. Of the top 10 for 1991, only two papers fall into this category (one in Chemical Reviews and one in Angewandte Chemie International Edition). Of the others, two are in Nature, two in Science, and one in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. Nature and Science, of course, publish across all branches of science and are eagerly read by all kinds of scientists. Clearly, if you want to be highly cited in chemistry, it pays to be published where there are the most readers. Another surprising feature of the top 29 papers is the high proportion that originate from industrial laboratories. AT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, N.J., has four on fullerenes; IBM Almaden Research Center in San Jose, Calif., has three, again all on fullerenes; and Dupont Co., Wilmington, Del., has one, also on fullerenes. The papers published in 1991 with between 50 and 100 citations give a better picture of the year. There were 102 that fell into this group. Although fullerenes still account for 39 of them, other areas were clearly represented, including surface chemistry (12 papers); asymmetric synthesis (12 papers); theoretical or computational chemistry (nine papers); biologically active molecules and natural products (nine papers); organometallics/clusters (seven papers); and analytical techniques (six papers). Surface chemistry has received a boost with the introduction of such new techniques as scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), which now allow surfaces to be examined atom by atom. Asymmetric synthesis and its importance in the preparation of biologically active molecules both have commanding positions on the list. 1992: More Fullerenes Again in 1992 it is possible to impose the more demanding test of 50 or more citations, but only 16 papers that were published in 1992 fall into this category. The most-cited paper of 1992 collected 95 citations and is about fullerenes--and so is the second-most-cited paper. Paper No. 3, however, is about an organic process--asymmetric dihydroxylation--which is catalyzed by osmium. This work was done by K. Barry Sharpless's group at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, Calif. Of the remaining papers, 11 are devoted to fullerenes, and three involve organometallic compounds. Clearly, imposing a higher number of citations does not reveal other key areas, so I fell back on a more reasonable limit of 25-50 citations. This produced a further 109 papers, and these were grouped in general classes that reflect those of 1991. The most significant change between 1991 and 1992 was the emergence of protein chemistry as an active area. 1993: Even More Fullerenes No paper in 1993 collected 50 citations, which would be a truly remarkable feat. Indeed, only one paper collected more than 25 citations, whereas 16 papers collected 10 or more citations. Ten of these 16 are about fullerenes or the related carbon tubules. The remaining six papers deal with subjects previously mentioned: spectroscopic analytical techniques (two papers); biologically important systems--specifically the enzyme nitrogenase and porphyrins (two papers); the immunosuppressant FK-506 (one paper); and luminescent silicon colloids (one paper). This last paper on colloids comes from the AT&T Bell Labs. Closer inspection also reveals a noticeable change in the direction of fullerene research in 1993. Several papers are about ways of making more stable derivatives. This is a worthwhile goal to aim for because C60 itself decomposes in air. One paper from 1993--authored by C.C. Henderson and P.A. Cahill of the Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, N.M.--claims the first C60 hydrocarbon of formula C60 H2. Fullerenes Aside So what do citations tell us about chemistry in the 1990s? They reveal that fullerenes are of great interest and that those in the fullerene field tend to cite a few papers disproportionately often. Pulling aside the veil of fullerenes reveals other active areas in chemistry: y asymmetric synthesis and the objects of this--such as new drugs and natural products; y surface chemistry, which impinges on semiconductors, catalysts, and the techniques for monitoring matter at the atomic level, such as STM; y computational chemistry, which has been brought to the desktop level, making molecular modeling a powerful technique in designing and understanding molecules and their behavior; y macromolecular structures such as polymers and biopolymers, in particular proteins; and y new reagents, such as organometallic compounds that can act as templates for molecular synthesis and self-assembly systems that can direct the construction of other molecules. (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.14,October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: ------------------------------------------------------------ TI : MOST CITED PAPERS IN CHEMISTRY 1991-93, BY SUBJECT TY : RESEARCH PG : 14 MOST CITED PAPERS IN CHEMISTRY 1991-93, BY SUBJECT (percent of total) Subject 1991* 1992** 1993*** Fullerenes and carbon tubules 46 42 63 Surface chemistry and semiconductors 9 12 0 Organic and asymmetric synthesis 9 11 6 Theory (includes computational) 9 9 0 Natural and biologically 8 6 13 active products Organometallic chemistry 5 4 0 Analytical techniques 5 3 13 Molecular recognition 4 3 0 and self-assembly Polymers 3 0 0 Proteins 2 5 0 Others 1 4 6 * Papers attracting 50 or more citations; n = 131 ** Papers attracting 25 or more citations; n = 125 *** Papers attracting 10 or more citations; n = 16 Source: ISI's Science Indicators Database, 1991-93 (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.14, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: ------------------------------------------------------------ TI : THE MOST-CITED CHEMISTRY PAPERS OF 1991-1993 TY : RESEARCH PG : 15 Rank 1991 Total Number of Citations 1 P.J. Kraulis, "Molscript: a program to produce 280 both detailed and schematic plots of protein structures," Journal of Applied Crystallography, 24:946-50, 1991. [Uppsala University, Sweden] 2 R.C. Haddon, A.F. Hebard, M.J. Rosseinsky, D.W. Murphy, S.J. Duclos, K.B. Lyons, B. Miller, J.M. Rosamilia, R.M. Fleming, A.R. Kortan, 280 S.H. Glarum, A.V. Makhija, A.J. Muller, R.H. Eick, S.M. Zahurak, R. Tycko, G. Dabbagh, F.A. Theil, "Conducting films of C60 and C70 by alkali-metal doping," Nature, 350:320-2, 1991. [AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, N.J.] 3 K. Holczer, O. Klein, S.M. Huang, R.B. Kaner, 279 K.J. Fu, R.L. Whetton, F. Diederich, "Alkali-fulleride superconductors: Synthesis, composition, and diamagmentic shielding," Science, 252:1154-7, 1991. [University of California, Los Angeles] 4 J.M. Hawkins, A. Meyer, T.A. Lewis, S. Loren, 229 F.J. Hollander, "Crystal structure of osmylated C60: Confirmation of the soccer ball framework," Science, 252:312-3, 1991. [University of California, Berkeley] 5 H.W. Kroto, A.W. Allaf, S.P. Balm, "C60: 222 Buckminsterfullerene," Chemical Reviews, 91:1213-35, 1991. [University of Sussex, Brighton, U.K.] ------------------------------------------------------------ 1992 1 K.M. Creegan, J.L. Robbins, W.K. Robbins, 95 J.M. Millar, R.D. Sherwood, P.J. Tindall, D.M. Cox, A.B. Smith, J.P. McCauley, D.R. Jones, R.T. Gallagher, "Synthesis and characterization of C60O, the first fullerene epoxide," Journal of the American Chemical Society, 114:1103-5, 1992. [Exxon Corp., Annandale, N.J.; University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia] 2 F. Wudl, "The chemical properties of buckminsterfullerene C60 and the birth and infancy of fulleroids," Accounts of Chemical Research, 74 25:157-61, 1992. [University of California, Santa Barbara] 3 K.B. Sharpless, W. Amberg, Y.L. Bennani, 72 G.A. Crispino, J. Hartung, K.S. Jeong, H.L. Kwong, K. Morikawa, Z.M. Wang, D.Q. Xu, X.L. Zhang, "The osmium- catalyzed asymmetric dihydroxylation: a new ligand class and process improvement," Journal of Organic Chemistry, 57:2768-71, 1992. [Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, Calif.] 4 T.W. Ebbesen, P.M. Ajayan, "Large-scale synthesis 71 of carbon nanotubes," Nature, 358:220-2, 1992. [NEC Corp., Tsukuba, Japan] 5 K. Kikuchi, N. Nakahara, T. Wakabayashi, S. Suzuki, 70 H. Shiromaru, Y. Miyake, K. Saito, I. Ikemoto, M. Kainosho, Y. Achiba, "NMR characterization of isomers of C78, C82, and C84 fullerenes," Nature, 357:142-5, 1992. [Tokyo Metropolitan University] ----------------------------------------------------------------- 1993 1 Y. Rubin, S. Khan, D.I. Freedberg, C.Yeretzian, 30 "Synthesis and x-ray structure of a Diels-Alder adduct of C60," JACS, 115:344-5, 1993. [University of California, Los Angeles] 2 R.S. Ruoff, D.C. Lorents, B. Chan, R. Malhotra, S. 20 Subramoney, "Single-crystal metals encapsulated in carbon nanoparticles," Science, 259:346-8, 1993. [SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif.; Dupont Co., Wilmington, Del.] 3 P. Belik, A. Gugel, J. Spickermann, K. Mullen, 18 "Reaction of buckminsterfullerene with ortho- quinodimethane: a new access to stable C60 derivatives, "Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 32:78-80, 1993. [Max Planck Institute, Mainz, Germany] 4 M. Prato, T. Suzuki, H. Foroudian, Q. Li, 18 K. Khemani, F. Wudl, J. Leonetti, R.D. Little, T. White, G. Rickborn, S. Yamago, E. Nakamura, "[3+2] and [4+2] Cycloaddition of C60," JACS, 115:1594-5, 1993. [University of California, Santa Barbara] 5 Y. Saito, T. Yoshikawa, M. Inagaki, M. Tomita, 15 T. Hayashi, "Growth and structure of graphitic tubules and polyhedral particles in arc discharge," Chemical Physics Letters, 204:277-82, 1993. [Mie University, Japan; NTT Interdisciplinary Research Laboratories, Musashino, Japan] 6 C.C. Henderson, P.A. Cahill, "C60H2: Synthesis 15 of the simplest C60 hydrocarbon derivative," Science, 259:1885-7, 1993. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.Mex.] Note: Because two papers shared fifth place with 15 citations each, six papers are listed for 1993. Source: ISI's Science Indicators Database, 1991-93 (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.15, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: HOT PAPERS ----------------------------------------------------------------- TI : CELL BIOLOGY TY : RESEARCH (HOT PAPERS) PG : 16 K. Burridge, C.E. Turner, L.H. Romer, "Tyrosine phos-phorylation of paxillin and pp125fak accompanies cell adhesion to extracellular matrix: A role in cytoskeletal assembly," Journal of Cell Biology, 119:893-903, 1992. Keith Burridge (Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill): "The extracellular matrix (ECM) influences the growth, differentiation, motility, and morphology of cells. In culture, most cells develop sites of adhesive interaction--known as focal adhesions--with ECM molecules that are adsorbed to the underlying plastic or glass surface. At their cytoplasmic face, focal adhesions serve to anchor bundles of actin filaments to the plasma membrane. "It has been apparent for some time that signals must be generated in focal adhesions, but until recently the nature of the signals has been obscure. Our study examined the signaling of the tyrosine phosphorylation triggered by cell adhesion to ECM. Previous work by Lori Kornberg in Rudy Juliano's lab (L. Kornberg et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 88:8392-6, 1991), and by Jun-Lin Guan in Richard Hynes's lab (J.L. Guan et al., Cell Regulation, 2:951-64, 1991) had demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation of a 125-kilodalton protein accompanied both the clustering of receptors--b1 integrins--for ECM proteins and integrin-dependent cell-ECM adhesion. "We extended these observations and further demonstrated that cell adhesion to several ECM proteins led to elevated tyrosine phosphorylation in a number of proteins. We identified two of these as the focal proteins paxillin and pp125fak (the focal adhesion kinase). The identification of pp125 fak in this context was performed in parallel by several other groups, including those of Guan and of Kornberg and Juliano. It was made possible by the cloning, sequencing, and description of this novel tyrosine kinase by Mike Schaller and Tom Parsons (M.D. Schaller et al., PNAS, 89:5192-6, 1992). "Our study further examined the role of tyrosine phosphorylation in adhesion-associated cytoskeletal organization. When this pathway was blocked with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, cells were unable to assemble focal adhesions or their associated bundles of actin filaments. Our more recent work has included the identification of tensin as another focal-adhesion protein that becomes tyrosine phosphorylated in response to adhesion (S.M. Bockholt, K. Burridge, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 268[14]:565-7, 1993). Since tensin is an actin-binding protein, this may have a critical role in nucleating the assembly of the cytoskeleton in focal adhesions. "In studying endothelial cells, we have also found an association of tyrosine phosphorylation, pp125fak activation, and cell migration (L.H. Romer et al., Mo-lecular Biology of the Cell, 5:349-61, 1994). The cloning and sequen-cing of paxillin have revealed protein motifs typical of many signaling proteins, such as several LIM do-mains--sites that may be involved in binding SH2 and SH3 domains in other proteins, as well as a binding site for pp125fak(C.E. Turner, J.T. Miller, Journal of Cell Science, 107:1583-91, 1994). The role of paxillin and its tyrosine phosphorylation remains to be determined, as do many of the consequences and downstream events triggered by the activation of pp125fak in response to cell adhesion." (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.16, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: ------------------------------------------------------------ TI : STATISTICS TY : RESEARCH (HOT PAPERS) PG : 16 A.F.M. Smith, G.O. Roberts, "Bayesian computation via the Gibbs sampler and related Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo methods," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, 55:3-23, 1993. Gareth Roberts (Statistical Laboratory, University of Cambridge, England): "The Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC) methodology has been around for more than 40 years. However, until recently, its applications have been largely confined to statistical physics and image analysis. "A very natural area of application of these techniques, especially the Gibbs sampler and the Hastings-Metropolis algorithm, is in numerical calculations for larger-dimensional posterior distributions in Bayesian statistical analyses. Our paper brings together the MCMC methodology with its natural application in Bayesian statistics. We describe the basic technique and discuss some of the important implementational and convergence issues associated with the algorithms--which necessarily produce correlated output, even after 'convergence'--from both a theoretical and a practical point of view. Key areas of application are highlighted, including problems with constrained parameters, hierarchical models, problems with incomplete data sets, and finite mixture models. Throughout, we emphasize the ease of implementation and flexibility of MCMC methods and their suitability for commonly occurring types of posterior distributions, such as those from generalized linear models and time-series models. "Our paper is published as part of a collection of three papers appearing in the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society on Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo algorithms in statistics, with extensive discussion from more than 50 contributors. The other two papers--'Spatial statistics and Bayesian computation' (J. Besa, P. Green, 55:25-37, 1993) and 'Modelling complexity: Applications of Gibbs sampling in medicine' (W.R. Gilks et al., 55:39-52, 1993)--are closely related to our work and complement our article effectively. "The papers and discussion describe the state-of-the-art of MCMC methodology in statistics. Since the publication of these papers, MCMC has become an indispensable tool in statistical computation. "Moreover, it has strongly influenced statistical modeling itself, now that the analysis of increasingly complex models is becoming computationally feasible." (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.16, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: ------------------------------------------------------------ TI : COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY TY : RESEARCH (HOT PAPERS) PG : 16 J. Gao, X. Xia, "A priori evaluation of aqueouspolarization effects through Monte-Carlo QM-MMsimulations," Science, 258:631-5, 1992. Jiali Gao (Department of Chemistry, State University of New York, Buffalo): "Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations of such biological macromolecules as proteins and nucleic acids in aqueous solution can provide a detailed understanding of their structure, function, and dynamics. One of the critical factors that underlies the success of computer simulations is the accuracy of the force field used to determine the energy of the system and the forces on its constituent atoms. "Empirical potential functions are traditionally used to describe intermolecular interactions in solution, which can provide valuable insights into equilibrium properties. However, they are inappropriate for modeling chemical reactions, electron transfers, and other processes in which electronic reorganizations occur. Furthermore, a great challenge in these simulations is to explicitly incorporate the solvent polarization effect into the potential surface. "This article highlighted the utility of a combined, quantum-mechanical and molecular-mechanical (QM/MM) potential in condensed-phase simulations and formulated an energy-decomposition method for determining the aqueous polarization effect on organic compounds. In this combined QM/MM approach, the solute molecule is treated according to the principles of quantum mechanics, while the surrounding solvent is represented by an MM force field. Taking advantage of the accuracy of QM methods and the computational efficiency of MM, the combined QM/MM method has demonstrated its suitability to study chemical reactions in solutions and in enzymes (J. Gao, X. Xia, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 115:9667-75, 1993). "The other key feature of this work was the determination of the solvent polarization effect. Molecules are polarized in polar solvents owing to a change in their surrounding environment; however, quantitative contributions to the total energy are not clear, particularly for proteins and DNA in aqueous solution. The study revealed that the polarization effect is significant (ranging from 10 percent to 20 percent in total energy) for biomolecules in aqueous solution. The results suggest that it is important to consider the effect of electronic polarization in discussing protein allosteric mechanisms, molecular recognition, and ligand-substrate binding in which functional groups are often transferred from aqueous exposure into the hydrophobic protein core. The quantitative results from this study may be used to calibrate empirical, yet computationally fast, potentials by incorporating polarizability terms into our algorithms." (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.16, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: TOOLS & TECHNOLOGY ------------------------------------------------------------ TI : Latest Stat And Math Software Taps Windows For Ease Of Use AU : Caren D. Potter TY : TOOLS & TECHNOLOGY PG : 17 Recent advances in mathematical and statistical software have little to do with math or stat and a lot to do with Microsoft's Windows user interface. Ease of use is what people have always wanted from these packages, and ease of use is what they are finally getting, thanks to the nearly wholesale adoption of Windows by software developers. "We are trying to make a statistics program that everyone can use, and Windows, in particular, is helping us do that," says Paul Portrey, assistant manager of technical support at Stat-Soft Inc. in Tulsa, Okla. "If developers take advantage of the features of Windows, they can make a package that's very easy to work with." Windows is not an operating system but an add-on to the DOS operating system that drives IBM and compatible PCs. With Windows, these computers take on a more graphical look, similar to that of the Apple Macintosh computer. Upgrading a PC to Windows involves buying the Windows software; for most people, it also means adding more memory to the computer. Math and stat software for Windows made its appearance a few years ago, soon after the release of Windows itself in 1990. However, most early releases didn't take much advantage of Windows. In fact, they looked and functioned like the vendor's old DOS software. That has changed. Most current versions of stat and math software now incorporate the graphical user interface of Windows, and support most of its advanced functions, as well. For scientists, there are definite benefits to upgrading to Windows and taking advantage of these new releases. They are easier to operate in every way, from importing data to producing publication-quality output. "When I show people this software [Statistica/Windows from Stat-Soft], their eyes get huge," says Tim Denton, associate cardiologist at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles. "Most of these programs have been extremely difficult to use, but I can download some data into Statistica, click on a button--for logistic regression, for instance--then enter a few settings, and off it goes. And I have never looked at the documentation--never." Like so many things in life, however, there is another side to this coin. While software users may see Windows as a positive development that brings easy-to-use programs in its wake, software developers see it as an enormous challenge. They have become so busy just keeping up with Microsoft and scrambling to support each new wrinkle of Windows that there's hardly time left for development of richer stat and math functionality. It's difficult to predict how this situation will affect scientists in the long run, so it's probably best at this time to appreciate the good side of Windows--stat and math software that's actually easy to use. Taking The Sting Out Until recently, most statistical and mathematical programs would have taken top honors in any competition for user-unfriendly software. Statistics and mathematics by nature are complicated endeavors, and these programs tended to be large and intimidating. Their documentation hogged a good portion of a bookshelf. How the user was required to interact with the software also contributed to its unfriendliness. Giving a command involved typing long, nonintuitive strings of keystrokes, programming knowledge was often required, and getting data into and out of the program was time-consuming and inefficient. "The old way it was done with SAS- and SPSS [Statistical for Social Sciences]-type programs was that you typed out commands and worked with lists of data," says Portrey of Stat-Soft. "You had to learn a programming language such as the classic SAS or some other programming language to use those packages," adds Denton. With Windows, the way a user interacts with software--any software--has changed dramatically. Long strings of perfectly typed, arcane commands have been replaced by the simple action of pointing at an object on the screen and clicking the mouse. Elizabeth Nugent, director of product marketing at MathSoft Inc. in Cambridge, Mass., offers a comparison between the older DOS-based version of her company's Mathcad software and the newer Windows version: "To enter a symbol such as an integral sign in the DOS version, users had to memorize a series of keystrokes or look them up from a reference card kept nearby. With the Windows version, they just go to the palette on the screen and click on whatever symbol they want." Another benefit of Windows is that it has forced software developers to follow certain conventions in the way they design a user interface, so that all Windows-based programs now work similarly. The commands to print a file and save a file are at basically the same location in every package. Since users no longer waste time struggling to perform simple tasks, they can concentrate more on what they bought the software for in the first place--math or statistics. "Windows packages are becoming more alike, so once users learn one approach, they can apply it to other programs," says Portrey. "That's the real advantage I see for users. Once they get the hang of one program, they can use any other Windows program that comes along, as long as the developer has kept compatible with the standards of Windows." Sharing Information Ease of operation and cross-program compatibility are two of the obvious ways that Windows makes stat and math software more attractive. They free scientists from investing a great deal of time learning to operate a piece of software when what they really want to do is analyze data or solve equations. Windows-based programs let them do that very quickly. There are a number other capabilities built into Windows that developers have tapped to make their software easier to use. Some of these capabilities are obvious to researchers, while others work behind the scenes, with users rarely if ever aware of their presence. But these innovations go a long way toward easing the tedium formerly associated with analyzing data or solving mathematical equations. "The ability to exchange information with other programs is a big factor in making a statistics package easy to use," says C.P. Yang, president of MicroCal Software Inc. in Northhampton, Mass. "This can be done very easily between Windows-based packages." Thanks to Windows, the act of writing a report and leaving a big space in the text and then coming along later and manually taping in a graph is a thing of the past. Any graphics produced in a Windows-based stat or math package can be placed directly into a Windows-based word processor through the software's cut-and-paste function. Windows goes quite a bit further, however, in providing ways to transfer information between software packages. Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) and Object Linking and Embedding (OLE), for example, are features of Windows that developers can tap to permit their programs to exchange information with other programs in real time. Explains Portrey, "DDE, which we support and I assume most other applications support, also, allows you to do things like connect your spreadsheet work to your stat data block. The stat data block is automatically updated when the spreadsheet is updated. Or you can create a graph and cut and paste it to a word-processing document, then link it using DDE, so that any time you edit the graph in the stat software, the changes are automatically reflected in the word processor document." OLE takes information sharing between applications even further, so that not only data but also "objects"--which might represent an entire analysis routine, for example--can be shared between programs. Like DDE, this is something the developer must incorporate into the software; it doesn't come automatically with the Windows environment. According to Portrey, his company's Statistica/Windows supports most functions of OLE, with expanded support to come in the next release. "There are several components of OLE version 2 that only Microsoft products support right now," he says. Easy Input, Good Output One of the nicest features of Windows-based stat and math programs is how they simplify the process of getting data into the program in the first place. With these packages, it is no longer necessary to supply the computer with a list of data arranged in some rigid format. Most of the Windows-based packages can take data directly from a spreadsheet or database, and some of them have strong spreadsheet capabilities of their own. One stat package even has an intelligent data input function that can look at a string of numbers and figure out the format with no help from the user. "I haven't found anything that Statistica can't import," says Cedars-Sinai's Denton, who uses three or four databases as well as the Excel spreadsheet. However, Statistica is one of the programs that includes a spreadsheet editor of its own. "We think it is nicer for people to be able to do all their work in the stats program, rather than in a spreadsheet or database," says Portrey. "For our next release, we are trying to think of anything that Excel does that one would possibly want to do with stat data." "We support most of the standard spreadsheet packages," says MicroCal's Yang, who feels that compatibility with other programs is an important component of ease of use. But Origin, the company's stat package, also includes an intelligent ASCII import routine. "This routine imports almost any style of ASCII file with minimal input from the user," Yang says. "The ability to deal with an ASCII file is one of the things I needed in a stat package," declares Mark Wensnahan, a graduate student in the department of atmospheric Sciences at the University of Washington, Seattle. "I'm reading satellite data off a CD and doing various things to it, then writing it out to the hard disk as an ASCII file. I import it to the Origin stat package from there. Origin will go through the format of the file I'm trying to import and more or less figure it out without any problem. Occasionally I'll either have to modify the file or tell the software a few more things about it, but it eventually figures it out on its own." No matter how well a stat or math program imports data, it eventually must manipulate the data in some way and then present it to the user in a form that makes sense. For most scientists, this means tables at the very least and preferably graphs. Most DOS-based packages can produce rudimentary graphs and plots, but Windows-based packages deliver publication-quality graphics. Now it is not necessary to do what many scientists have traditionally done--produce rough graphs with a stat package and then re-create them in other software designed specifically for graphics. As usual, Windows is at the base of this improvement, at least in part. Windows includes something called TrueType fonts. As long as the software developer designs the application to take advantage of the fonts, the quality of graphs is greatly improved because users can select from many type styles and sizes. "Our DOS software only supports the Courier font," explains Nugent of MathSoft. "Our Windows version supports the TrueType fonts so the output is much nicer." High-quality three-dimensional graphics are relatively new to stat and math packages, and many of the Windows-based packages support 3-D output. "This is almost a requirement now," says Yang. "Some people don't need 3-D, but most vendors are trying very hard to come up with it because that is what everybody expects." "Three-dimensional graphs remind me of the line from the movie [Field of Dreams]: 'If you build it, they will come,' " says Denton, the cardiologist. "If vendors add a tool to a package, it will get used. I'm interested in the assessment of quality of life, and when I plot quality-of-life measurements on a 3-D graph, I actually see some interesting outcomes that I wouldn't be able to see in 2-D. 3-D looks a little flashy, but there are times when it does add to your understanding." Software For The Future Windows has made such an improvement in stat and math software that developers see no turning back. Many have announced that they will no longer be upgrading the DOS versions of their programs. "To my understanding, all the major vendors have already moved their DOS packages to Windows, with the exception of one or two," says Yang. "And there are claims from some of our competitors that they are not going to support a DOS version any longer. All future versions will be for Windows." Indeed, the latest challenge for the software developers is to get their programs ready to support the upcoming release of Windows 4.0, also called Chicago. Microsoft is expected to release Chicago in the first quarter of 1995. "We are now developing a new version of Statistica that we have been working on for some time, and we'll release that in a few months," says Portrey. "But at the same time, we're already working toward the Chicago version of Windows that is coming." Does this focus on keeping up with Windows detract from other aspects of software development? "Like a lot of other companies, we're trying to keep up with Windows," says Mark Anderson, vice president and general manager of Minneapolis-based Stat-Ease Inc. "It requires a very intensive effort. A large amount of attention is being diverted from adding more [statistics] applications to adapting the interface to the standards set by Windows. For smaller software manufacturers like ourselves, it has a bigger impact, but for nearly everyone it is a consuming problem." Scientists needing to produce good-looking plots quickly will probably see Windows-based software as a godsend. For statisticians pushing the edge of their field and hoping to see new releases incorporating Bayesian statistics or neural networks, the current focus on Windows may turn out to be a hindrance, at least temporarily. This is because development efforts are currently directed at Windows-based presentation rather than the math or stat applications themselves. But there is no question that Windows-based stat and math software is easier to use than its predecessors, and for many scientists, that's reason enough to love it. Caren D. Potter is a freelance science writer based in McKinleyville, Calif. (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.17, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------------------------- NXT: --------------------------------------------------------- TI : STATISTICAL AND MATHEMATICAL SOFTWARE SUPPLIERS TY : TOOLS & TECHNOLOGY PG : 19 Abacus Concepts Berkeley,CA Circle No. 151 on Reader Service Card Advanced Graphics Software Inc. Carlsbad, CA Circle No. 152 on Reader Service Card Beckman Instruments Inc. Fullerton, CA Circle No. 153 on Reader Service Card Bimillennium Los Gatos, CA Circle No. 154 on Reader Service Card BioSoft Ferguson, MO Circle No. 155 on Reader Service Card Brendan Scientific Grosse Pointe, MI Circle No. 156 on Reader Service Card DataTranslation Marlboro, MA Circle No. 157 on Reader Service Card DeltaGraph Monterey, CA Circle No. 158 on Reader Service Card DSP Development Corp. Cambridge, MA Circle No. 159 on Reader Service Card Galactic Industries Corp. Salem, NH Circle No. 160 on Reader Service Card GraphPad San Diego, CA Circle No. 161 on Reader Service Card Hanson Research Corp. San Jose, CA Circle No. 162 on Reader Service Card Horstmann Software San Jose, CA Circle No. 163 on Reader Service Card Intelligenetics Inc. Mountain View, CA Circle No. 164 on Reader Service Card Jandel Scientific San Raphael, CA Circle No. 165 on Reader Service Card Logical Devices Deerfield Beach, FL Circle No. 166 on Reader Service Card Manugistics Inc. Rockville, MD Circle No. 167 on Reader Service Card MathSoft Cambridge, MA Circle No. 168 on Reader Service Card The Math Works Natick, MA 01760 Circle No. 169 on Reader Service Card MicroCal Software Inc. Cambridge, MA 01060 Circle No. 170 on Reader Service Card Molecular Devices Corp. Sunnyvale, CA Circle No. 171 on Reader Service Card National Instruments Austin, TX Circle No. 172 on Reader Service Card Perkin-Elmer Corp., Applied Biosystems Div. Norwalk, CT Circle No. 173 on Reader Service Card Scanalytics Billercia, MA Circle No. 174 on Reader Service Card Scientech Inc. Boulder, CO 80303 Circle No. 175 on Reader Service Card Softshell Grand Junction, CO Circle No. 176 on Reader Service Card Soft Warehouse Honolului, HI Circle No. 177 on Reader Service Card Stat-Ease Inc. Minneapolis, MN Circle No. 178 on Reader Service Card Statistical Programs Houston, TX Circle No. 179 on Reader Service Card Statistical Science Seattle, WA Circle No. 180 on Reader Service Card Stat-Soft Inc. Tulsa, OK Circle No. 181 on Reader Service Card Strawberry Tree Sunnyvale, CA Circle No. 182 on Reader Service Card Synergy Software Reading, PA Circle No. 183 on Reader Service Card TransNetCorp. Somerville, NJ Circle No. 184 on Reader Service Card TriMetrix Inc. Seattle, WA Circle No. 185 on Reader Service Card Tripos St. Louis, MO Circle No. 186 on Reader Service Card Visual Numerics Houston, TX Circle No. 187 on Reader Service Card Waterloo Maple Software Ontario, Canada Circle No. 188 on Reader Service Card (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.19, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: NEW PRODUCTS -------------------------------------------------------- TI : NEW PRODUCTS PG : 22 DSP Launches New Modules For Graphical Data-Analysis Spreadsheet Software Package The DADiSP graphical software and engineering spreadsheet package has been expanded with the release of three new add-on modules. DADiSP/AdvDSP 1.0 is a digital signal-processing (DSP) program that offers a variety of DSP algorithms, including advanced FFT analysis, power spectral density estimation, digital interpolation, and cepstrum analysis. DADiSP/Filters 3.0 is a digital filtering module that provides full finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse response (IIR) filtering capabilities and includes Kaiser Window filtering. DADiSP/Neural Net enables users to build and train backpropagation neural networks, which facilitate pattern-recognition tasks involving multidimensional datasets. DSP Development Corp., Cambridge, MA Circle No. 190 on Reader Service Card ------------------------- National Instruments Offers Updated Versions Of LabVIEW Graphical Instrumentation Software LabVIEW Version 3.1 is the latest upgrade to National Instruments' graphical instrumentation software for Windows PCs, Macintosh computers, Sun SPARCstations, and Hewlett-Packard 9000 Series 700 workstations. It features new configuration-management tools; direct calls to dynamic-link libraries (DLLs) and shared libraries; new capabilities for automated test equipment and process-control needs; and various editing, debugging, and online help features. LabWindows/CVI Version 3.0.1 is designed for developers and experienced C programmers interested in using interactive C programming to build instrumentation systems. The software enables users to automatically create stand-alone executable programs and distribution kits with installer programs. National Instruments, Austin, TX Circle No. 191 on Reader Service Card ------------------------ Molecular Dynamics' Stand-Alone Confocal Software ImageSpace 3.1 confocal software for three-dimensional visualization and 3-D quantitation is now available as a separate program with import routines for images from all confocal systems. The software, previously available only as part of the company's Confocal laser scanning microscope systems, offers an integrated environment for rendering, processing, analyzing, and displaying confocal images with an intuitive graphical user interface. Its analytical capabilities include automated object counting, seeding, and segmentation; it also features tools for quantitative co-localization studies. Molecular Dynamics, Sunnyvale, CA Circle No. 192 on Reader Service Card -------------------------- Antigenix Provides Human VCAM Antibody Reagent The new monoclonal antibody reagent is specific for human vascular cell-adhesion molecule (VCAM-1). This antibody has recently been clustered to CD106, and reacts with lymphocytes, fibroblasts, monocytes, neural crest cells, and other cell types. The reagent inhibits cellular adhesion and has applications in functional studies, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA development. It is supplied as a highly purified monoclonal antibody and is directly conjugated to FITC or R-PE. Antigenix America Inc., Franklin Square, NY Circle No. 193 on Reader Service Card ---------------------------- Hamamatsu Introduces Series Of Photomultiplier Tubes The R3809U series of microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are designed for use in molecular-structure analysis, optical computer tomography, fast gene sequencing, semiconductor analysis, crystal research, and other applications. They have rise times of 150 picoseconds (ps) and transit time spread (TTS) of 25 ps. Seven standard models cover various bandwidths from 115 nm to 1,200 nm. The tubes are supported by a range of accessories, including a thermoelectric cooling unit, PMT holder, high-speed 50-kHz-to-1.5-GHz amplifier, and high-voltage power supply. Hamamatsu Corp., Bridgewater, NJ Circle No. 195 on Reader Service Card ---------------------------- Protein Analysis Kits For Capillary Electrophoresis The MicroCoat Protein Analysis Kit contains a reagent that produces a positively charged surface by coating the capillary wall, thereby permitting free migration of proteins through the capillary and subsequent detection. The kit includes this charge-reversal reagent, capillaries, a neutral marker, standards, and a protocol. The ProSort SDS-Protein Analysis Kit is designed to eliminate gel preparation, staining, and other labor-intensive requirements of the standard SDS-PAGE method. Proteins ranging from 14 to 205 kilodaltons can be separated in one run. The kit also facilitates glycoprotein separations. Perkin-Elmer Corp., Norwalk, CT Circle No. 196 on Reader Service Card ------------------------------ Analtech Unveils Sample Application Device For TLC The AUTOSPOTTER is a semiautomated device for applying samples on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. It can apply up to 18 samples at a time at variable rates, using TLC syringes with blunt, Teflon-tipped needles. Solvent evaporation is aided by an integral heater strip that runs beneath the TLC plate at the point of sample delivery. Small sample zones may be obtained through adjustment of delivery rate and heater strip temperature. Analtech Inc., Newark, DE Circle No. 197 on Reader Service Card ------------------------------- Bibliographic Data Software From PBS BiblioLink II Version 1.0.1 for Windows and Version 1.1 for Macintosh are utility programs for ProCite reference-management software. BiblioLink II uses configuration files to transfer bibliographic records, downloaded from various secondary information services, into a ProCite database. The records can then be searched, sorted, and printed in any bibliographic style. The software's configuration files are designed for the most commonly used bibliographic reference databases. Researchers can also create their own configuration files for other electronic databases. Personal Bibliographic Software Inc., Ann Arbor, MI Circle No. 194 on Reader Service Card ---------------------------- (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.22, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: PEOPLE ------------------------------------------------------------ TI : International Society Honors Two Researchers For Breakthrough Work In Cancer Diagnostics AU : NEERAJA SANKARAN TY : PROFESSION (PEOPLE) PG : 24 Two pioneers in the field of cancer imaging and monoclonal antibody therapy--David M. Goldenberg, president of the Garden State Cancer Center, a cancer research institution in Newark, N.J., and Jean-Pierre Mach, a professor of biochemistry in the faculty of medicine at Lausanne University, Switzerland--were honored last month with the 1994 Abbott Award. The award was presented at the 22nd meeting of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology (ISOBM), held in Groningen, the Netherlands. ISOBM, currently headquartered in Freiberg, Germany, is an international scholarly society for immunologists and cancer biologists who have an interest in tumor markers. It produces a monthly research journal, Tumor Biology, published by S. Kargers Publishers Inc. of Basel, Switzerland. The annual Abbott Award was established by Abbott Park, Ill.-based Abbott Laboratories five years ago to recognize ISOBM members for their research and service to the society. Goldenberg and Mach worked independently but along parallel lines to develop a technique for detecting cancers using radioactive antibodies specific for certain molecules--called markers--present on the surface of tumor cells. Goldenberg published the clinical paper that demonstrated the use of the technique (D.M. Goldenberg et al., New England Journal of Medicine, 298:1384-8, 1978), and Mach's group followed closely with a critical evaluation of the technique, demonstrating the specificity of localization of the antibodies (J.P. Mach et al., NEJM, 303:5-10, 1980). "When we started in the 1970s it was just the two of us," Goldenberg recalls. "Today about 15,000 to 20,000 patients all over the world have been exposed to this diagnostic method." "Back then the field was not yet mature--but I've never been pessimistic," adds Mach. Over the years, both scientists continued to work on and improve the technique, incorporating advances in im-munology as well as other areas. "We are now attempting to use radiolabeled antibodies for therapy, which are giving very nice results in the case of certain lymphomas which are no longer responsive to chemotherapy," says Goldenberg. Mach was the first in the world to report the use of a monoclonal antibody in localizing a human tumor (J.P. Mach et al., Immunology Today, 2:239-49, 1981) and has also worked on immunophotodetection, a related technique using photoactive antibodies as an alternative to the more harmful radiolabeling (S. Folli et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 89:7973-7, 1992). Currently, he says, his group is working on "increasing the immunogenicity of tumors, to enlarge the field of the target recognized by the antibodies." Born in Brooklyn, N.Y., Goldenberg, 56, received a bachelor's degree in science from the University of Chicago, and then went to Germany, where he received an Sc.D. from the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg Faculty of Natural Sciences in 1965, and an M.D. from the University of Heidelberg School of Medicine in 1966. Returning to the United States in 1968, he taught at several universities in Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, and Kentucky before moving to his present position in Newark. He is also an adjunct professor of microbiology and immunology at the New York Medical College in Valhalla. Mach, 59, a native of Switzerland, received a diploma in medicine from the University of Geneva in 1961. He was a clinical fellow at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston from 1963 to 1966 and has been at Lausanne since 1967. He served on the review committee of the Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London, in 1985-87 and is a member of the Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research. --Neeraja Sankaran (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.24, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. -------- NXT: ------------------------------------------------------------ TI : Roche Institute Recognizes Scientist For Protein Transport Studies AU : NEERAJA SANKARAN TY : PROFESSION (PEOPLE) PG : 24 James E. Rothman, chairman of the cellular biochemistry and biophysics program at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and vice chairman of the Sloan-Kettering Institute in New York City, has received the 1994 V.D. Mattia Award from the Roche Institute of Molecular Biology of Nutley, N.J. The award, which includes a $10,000 cash prize, was presented to Rothman on October 13 at the Roche institute, where he also delivered a talk on his research entitled "Mechanisms of Intracellular Protein Transport." The Mattia award was established in 1972 by Hoffmann La-Roche Inc. in honor of V.D. Mattia, who served as president and CEO of the company from 1965 to 1971 and was instrumental in setting up the molecular biology institute. Nine of the 25 winners to date have gone on to receive the Nobel Prize, the most recent being 1989 chemistry Nobelist Thomas Cech of the University of Colorado, Boulder, who received the Mattia award in 1987. Rothman, whose work has led to a better understanding of transmission of signals between brain cells and mechanisms of hormone release into the bloodstream, has devoted most of his career to elucidating the methods by which proteins are transported within cells. Over the course of his investigations, which began while he was at Stanford University in the late 1970s, he has studied all the stages involved in the process. He proposed a single underlying mechanism to explain the transport of proteins via vesicles, from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus on to their final destinations in the cell. Rothman's laboratory was the first to develop a cell-free experimental system, with an intact Golgi apparatus that simulated the transport of proteins (E. Fries, J. Rothman, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 77:3870-4, 1980). He also discovered the involvement of vesicles in protein transport, and found that these vesicles have a simple protein coat that is similar in structure across evolution from yeasts to higher animals. He has studied various phases of vesicle transport in detail, from the "budding" process, whereby the coat is formed on the surface of the ER or Golgi membrane and virtually sucks out a vesicle enclosing the protein; to "docking," which enables the vesicles to recognize specific locations of the target organelle; and finally the "fusion" process, in which the vesicle releases the protein to its destination. Rothman, 43, received his Ph.D. in biological chemistry in 1976 from Harvard Medical School, Boston. He was at Stanford from 1978 to 1988 as assistant, associate, and full professor of biochemistry. He then moved to Princeton University in New Jersey, where he was a professor of molecular biology until 1991, when he came to the Sloan-Kettering Institute. Last year, he was elected to membership in the National Academy of Sciences. --Neeraja Sankaran (The Scientist, Vol:8, #21, pg.24, October 31, 1994) (Copyright, The Scientist, Inc.) ---------- WE WELCOME YOUR OPINION. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO COMMENT ON THIS STORY, PLEASE WRITE TO US AT EITHER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ADDRESSES: garfield@aurora.cis.upenn.edu 71764.2561@compuserve.com The Scientist, 3600 Market Street, Suite 450, Philadelphia, PA 19104 U.S.A. --------

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