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Skeptic Tank!

:define_vars > .define[su] > .define[L1su] > .define[to_place] > .define[to_place_1] > to_place = Intro > to_place_1 = Intro > su = 0 > L1su = 0 > topic = Intro :Intro > to_place = Intro Grand The purpose of this work is to define a grand unified theory that is simple enough to allow a computer to do modeling of atoms and molecules. I will also attempt to explain the *theory in as much detail as possible, more detailed explanations may be read by selecting the words that have an asterisk preceding them. written by *Ron Heath :Time > to_place = Time I would like to start by defining a few things. The first thing that I will define is time. Time can be defined as the relative motion between masses. The first measurement of time had to do with the relative motion between the earth and the sun. The current way that time is measured is by counting the vibrations of an atom, why an atom should vibrate is explained in later topics. Vibration can be considered as a motion between two masses because, in order to observe the vibration, a reference point that is not vibrating must be used and this point is defined in relation to other masses. *note_1 Time is not an absolute rate everywhere. We can observe time differences directly by looking at the light emitted from massive objects. The more massive the object is, the more the spectrum of the light is shifted towards the *red. :time1 >to_place = time1 If it was only time that varied, this would not be enough to explain the red shift. If the massive body had a slower time rate it would give off light at a slower rate but each wave crest would be more massive, these more massive wave crests could not exist at the same frequency outside of the influence of the massive object, so the wavelength must change *note_2. To illustrate the point, suppose that you were to become very small and you sat on a wave crest of light after it was emitted from a massive object. You would simply whip out your trusty ruler and measure the distance to the next wave crest. This would tell you the exact wavelength. The thing is that the distance that you measure would stay the same as you went farther away from the massive object. This is because each atom in your ruler gets less massive as it travels farther from the massive object. You might at first think that this would make each atom smaller, but if the atom retains the same energy, the different parts of the atom will spread out as it gets less massive ( a given amount of energy will push a ball twice as *far as it will a similar ball of twice the mass). What all this means is that your ruler will get longer as the light shifts towards the red and the distance that you measure from crest to crest will stay the same. :time2 >to_place = time2 Now suppose that you got off of the wave crest and began measuring the speed that the light was travelling. At different distances from the massive object both the rate of your *clock and the length of your ruler would change, but the speed that you measure for light would remain the same. Luckily, the answers that you get with your digital calculator will be unaffected by the change in the speed of it's clock, accept that the calculation will take longer. You would not notice that the calculations took any longer because your mind would also be operating at a slower rate. :time3 > to_place = time3 The only thing that is different about this from what Einstein said is the massiveness of the atoms near a massive object as opposed to their massiveness close to the speed of light. Also in the books that I have read the size of a ruler is usually viewed by an observer who watches the ruler as it zips by at light speed. It is usually left unclear as to the ruler's actual length if there were such a thing as an absolute measure of length that was the same at all points within the universe. Einstein did say (repeatedly) that the speed of light will be the same when measured by any observer, this seems to be Ok as long as time and distance vary, but, because both time and distance vary, this may remain unproven for a while ( at least the formula for wavelength, time and speed is constant at all points in the universe). :_energy > to_place = _energy Next, I will define energy. Energy is what causes mass to move or become more compressed (compression also requires motion, but is included for clarity). If a mass changes it's motion or it's size or shape, it has done this because energy was expended. Energy may be measured and quantified by the relation force = mass X acceleration When the reference quantity of *energy is defined it cannot be separated from the point in space where the reference is. :mass > to_place = mass Next, I will define mass (hold onto your seat-belts because this is when it really starts getting weird). Before I give you the definition, I will lead up to it so that you are more likely to continue reading after you here it (I don't think that you will like it). First, by definition, there can be no time unless there is mass to measure it with. Second there can be no energy unless there is mass present in order to measure it's effects. Let's start just prior to the big bang. According to present day physics, there was a singularity. In order for something to exist it must occupy space. This space is so small that there can be no space between the particles of present day physics. There is one inescapable conclusion that can be drawn from this: If there was a singularity at all, all matter must be made of the same stuff. Further, this stuff is able to combine with itself. The stuff also is able to expand into empty space. :mass1 > to_place = mass1 Let's postulate that the universe is cyclic and go through one cycle. Everyone seems to think that if the singularity is to expand at all, it must blow apart into billions and billions of little bits, this is not a necessary assumption. Suppose that the singularity was simply at the smallest area that it could be compressed into, with the amount of energy that it had, and that it simply began to expand again. The beginning of the expansion would be a bit violent and the substance of the singularity would probably be a bit grainy, there may even be cavitations. The larger cavitations would meet with compressions and they would collapse into bursts of vibrations, or become unstable and break apart into smaller *cavitations. After a while the graininess would become smoother and the substance would return to a mostly uniform state. The stuff would expand until it was stretched to the point where it's elasticity overcame it's outward momentum and then it would begin to collapse. The rate of collapse would accelerate until a singularity was again formed, this singularity would be larger then the original and may not even fit the definition of "singularity". :mass2 > to_place = mass2 As the universe continues expanding and contracting, the smallest point will get larger and the largest point smaller until, after many cycles, there may be just a large, unmoving blob (this would surely be the end of time). One recent discovery that supports this model is the discovery of the *blue galaxies. By now you probably think that my theory is the same as the ether theory that was disproved by the Michelson-Morely experiment. The Michelson Morely experiment proved that light speed did not change when it was measured in two different directions at a point near the earth. Using my theory, you would expect this because the ambient mass would not be flowing by the earth at a point near the earth. The distance from the earth would have to be increased before any motion of the ambient mass relative to the earth could be detected. The experiment should also fail because light speed is supposed to be a *constant If the Michelson Morely experiment had been done at a large distance from any large mass, say outside of the solar system, the experiment would have had a greater chance of success. :mass3 > to_place = mass3 The reason that the distance from the earth should be increased is that the substance (ambient mass) would build up (become more dense) near massive objects, so that the ambient mass would not be flowing by a point near the massive object. Or, as Einstein would say, the space-time is curved near a massive object. Light may not be the best way to measure weather the ambient mass is flowing by because the change in it's speed (if any) would be very small unless the ambient mass was flowing by at near light speed and this is highly unlikely. The absolute speed of light depends only on the density of the ambient mass (although the density as related to particles increases as the speed of the particles approach light speed). The tools used to measure light speed also change as the mass density changes, so light speed may be thought of as a constant (there isn't any way to measure the absolute speed of anything if you have no absolute clock, so it would be difficult to prove otherwise). Ok, here is the definition of mass: Mass is a substance. This substance when compressed becomes matter. The substance is elastic (if you stretch it and then let it go, it will go back to it's previous density). The substance has a propagation speed (light speed). The ambient mass is getting less dense as the universe continues expanding. :gravity > to_place = gravity Gravity This definition of mass can be used to explain gravity. Gravity does not need to be defined because it is just an affect of mass and energy acting over a span of time. Mass will become more dense around matter. The ambient mass will be less dense at a point far from the matter. This density difference will obey Newton's inverse square law and look like Einstein's curved space-time. If a piece of matter is near another piece of mater, the two gradients of mass density will meet and attempt to form a single gradient (because of elasticity, any irregular shape tends to form a sphere after some amount of time). :photon > to_place = photon The Photon We now have defined enough things that we can describe light. It has been said (many times) that light acts like both a wave and a particle, this may be due to our definition of a particle. If you really think that light is a particle, at what color does it become a particle ?. Let's decrease the frequency into the radio spectrum and see if radio waves are particles also. All of the formulas still work the same. Although the lower frequencies of radio don't bounce off of things as easily as light, they do bounce off of some things. What about very low frequencies ? At very low frequencies the definitions of energy and mass will still work so long as the mass exists prior to the energy being applied. luckily in the model of the universe described above, this is the case, mass exists throughout the universe except in spots where there are cavitations. This means that even very low frequency radio waves can be described as particles. Clearly, we need to change the definition of a particle: A particle is a compression or a rarefaction in the ambient mass, where a rarefaction is described as an anti-particle. The photon is the simplest type of particle because it can be easily visualized as a wave where the crests are the particles and the troughs are the anti-particles. The problem with this type of particle is that it spreads as it travels because there is no strong boundary to hold it together. It is easy to first visualize it as a wave in two dimensions and then add the third dimension, there is nothing to keep it from spreading into the third dimension. :electron > to_place = electron The Electron If you had an area of compressed mass (visualize this as a sphere) and you let it expand into the ambient mass, it would seem that it would just expand until it became the same density as the ambient mass at which point it would simply be transformed into an expanding compression wave as is the case with the photon. If there was no momentum or elasticity, the area of compressed mass would expand until it reached the same density as the ambient mass and then become combined with the ambient mass. But, there is momentum and there is elasticity, further, the elasticity increases as the density increases. So, you start with a compressed *area of mass and let it expand into the ambient mass. The rate of expansion is determined by the difference between the density of the compressed mass and the density of the ambient mass. The sphere will expand past the point where the outward force due to the density difference becomes zero, because of the momentum of the expanding mass. When the elastic force towards the center of the sphere is equal to the momentum of the expanding sphere, the sphere will stop expanding. :electron1 > to_place = electron1 Now there is a large elastic force towards the center of the sphere so that the sphere cannot combine with the ambient mass, but must collapse. As the sphere collapses, the compressing mass takes on speed and so has momentum. This momentum forces the collapsing sphere to collapse to a smaller sphere then is warranted by the density difference between it and the ambient mass. The sphere will stop collapsing when the outward elastic force equals the inward momentum. The sphere must now expand again. We now have a stable particle and I will call it an electron (because I gave it more mass and mass density (energy) then a "quark" and less energy then an atom ). Before rushing on into the atom, I will explain the anti- electron. That the anti-electron can exist at all has direct bearing on explaining the atom. Instead of a sphere of compression, this time let's start with a sphere of rarefaction (not cavitation as this would make the speed of collapse try to exceed light speed, I will deal with this case later). :electron2 > to_place = electron2 As we let the ambient mass rush in towards the center of the rarefaction, the incoming mass gains speed and also momentum, this momentum causes the rarefaction to be compressed passed the point where elasticity alone would dictate. Now the rarefaction must expand again. This forms a stable anti-particle. So how would you be able to tell if the particle was a particle or an anti-particle, short of having them collide head-on and analiate ? Suppose that you had an electron moving through a region of mass that was not uniformly stretched. This would mean that there was a gradient of stress. Where gravity is an effect of a simple mass density gradient, this gradient would also incorporate elastic stress. The particle would be drawn towards the rarefied stress direction due to the fact that it's outer edge is compressively stretched and this edge will expand more in an area of rarefied stretch. The anti-particle would move towards the area of compressive stretch because it's outer edge is rarefied and it will collapse more in an area of more compressed stretch. :electron3 > to_place = electron3 So, in other words, you put them into an "electric field", well, everyone knows that. Lets examine the outer edge of the particle more closely. The outer edge is not a sharp sphere. In the case of the particle (as opposed to the anti-particle) the outer edge is being pushed outward periodically. When the edge pushes outward, the ambient mass is pushed out of the way, because the outer edge is a sphere there is only one way for the ambient mass to be pushed, outward from the expanding sphere. This outward push increases the density of the surrounding mass so that there is an outward *stretch of the ambient mass in the compressive direction. This stretch is propagated outward from the expanding sphere at light speed and the stretch forms a gradient that conforms to the inverse square law. It is important to think in three dimensions and visualize an area of compression that expands outward until the center becomes rarified to the point where the inward elasticity is equal to the outward momentum. At this point the compression collapses until the center becomes compressed to the point where the outward elastic force is equal to the inward momentum. At this point the compression begins expanding again. :electron4 > to_place = electron4 It should become clear from this discussion that this type of particle has no sharply defined spherical edge. That this is true is evidenced by the fringe patterns as a single electron passes through two slits. :atom > to_place = atom The atom Suppose that you had a sphere of compressed mass that was so compressed that the deference in density between the inside of the sphere and the ambient mass would like to cause the sphere to expand at a rate close to light speed. The sphere would begin expanding rapidly and, while it was expanding, the ambient mass would be compressing around it. when the rate of expansion became closer to light speed the outer edge of the expanding sphere would have a layer of compressed mass forming just outside of it's boundary. As the layer becomes more dense the elasticity of the layer increases. As the rate of expansion becomes closer to the speed of light, the energy that it takes to move the layer of compressed mass rises sharply. This sharp rise in required energy causes the expanding sphere to act like it had hit the proverbial brick wall. The expanding sphere hits this sharp rise in required energy and it bounces off of the layer of compressed mass. When the sphere bounces off of the layer, it's size decreases and this leaves a gap of cavitation between the sphere and the layer. :atom1 > to_place = atom1 The layer will continue to expand for a short distance, due to momentum, and then it will begin to collapse due to it's own elasticity and the elasticity of the ambient mass that the layer is compressing. When the sphere has collapsed to the point where the inward momentum can no longer continue the collapse, the sphere will expand again. The layer is at this time collapsing towards the sphere. When the expanding sphere meets the collapsing layer, the sphere bounces off and the layer is pushed outward again. This becomes a stable system of oscillation. Many layers can be formed in this way. Each layer of compressed mass will be separated from the next innermost layer by a layer of rarefied mass as it expands, and bounce off of the next outermost layer before contracting again. These layers will only be able to exist at certain distances from the center mass. These distances may be visualized as the spherical wave crests set up by the oscillating center mass, although this is not quite accurate because of the expanding and collapsing motion of each crest. It would be more accurate to call them spherical compression layers, or shells for shortness. :atom2 > to_place = atom2 The shells, or "electron orbits" farthest from the center mass do not need to be totally "full", but can exist in a number of energy states. If a crest becomes too full it will eventually emit a blob of compressed mass. This blob of compressed mass will appear to us as a photon or electron depending only on the amount of mass and the mass density of the released blob. It should also be said that the shells would only absorb photons at certain energy levels. Electrons would be absorbed by shells of different density depending on the speed of the electron and the difference between the shell's density and the electron's density. If an electron travels at a high enough speed and smashes into the shell, the part of the electron that increases it's density close to the density of the shell will be absorbed by the shell, even if the shell is of a high density. An example is the outer shell of neon where the part of the electron that was absorbed is soon released as a photon. :atom3 > to_place = atom3 With some amount of thought, this is fairly easy to visualize. It would be even easier to write a program that modeled the ambient mass and watch as you released a highly compressed zone. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle will not hold true inside of a computer model because you no longer need to use the interactions of compressions in order to view other compressions, but are able to view the compressions as colors on a monitor without affecting the model. The strong force is apparent as the dynamic oscillation of the center mass as it collides with the sharp energy increase (e=mc^2). The week force is the dynamic expanding and contracting of the spherical shells, or electron orbits and is based on elasticity and compression. The *electric and *magnetic forces will also become apparent as more particles are added to the model. :atom4 > to_place = atom4 One consequence of having a cavitation between the inner sphere and the first layer is that the inner sphere may collapse to such a density that it's center may change state. This would create another two types of possible particles. Suppose that the atom broke apart and a piece of the center sphere was able to be "viewed" directly. If this piece was a piece of mass that had been so compressed that it had changed state, it could be compared to a droplet of liquid or perhaps even solid air that was let go into the atmosphere. This particle would not be stable, but would slowly vaporize back into the ambient mass out of which it had been originally formed. The particle would have a positive charge if it was a liquid and was vaporizing because this would increase the density of the surrounding ambient mass, and therefore cause a stretch in the positive direction. If the particle was a solid it would slowly become a liquid, but before it had done so, it would be a very strange particle. This particle would have no electric charge because it would not be either increasing or decreasing the density of the ambient mass. :atom5 > to_place = atom5 What is more strange (and I don't know if this has been tested) is that the particle may not be attracted by gravitational force. The reason is that if the particle was a solid form of the ambient mass, a gradient in the ambient mass would not have much affect on the particle because the particle would be producing no gradient of it's own. *note3 :applications > to_place = applications Applications and Predictions The most interesting prediction of the theory, aside from allowing computer modeling of atoms and molecules, is the possibility of causing motion in the ambient mass. If a way to move the ambient mass is found, the method would be useful for driving spacecraft. Although I have not yet discovered a method that would produce useful amounts of *thrust, a few possibilities are discussed below. If you take two *disks that are close together and rotate them at a high rate of speed, the system created will appear to weigh less when the disks are rotating then when the disks are stopped. The effect, if it exists, will not be very large. If you take a disk and put a deflector around it so that the deflector forms a 45 degree angle to the disk (in a cross sectional view the disk is represented by a thick line, at the outer edge of the disk represented by the end points of the line, there is the deflector at a 45 degree angle with respect to the thick line), any flow that was produced by the rotating disk would be deflected against the angle so that a force would be created parallel to the shaft that the disk was mounted on. This force is very small, if it exists, because there is much space between the atoms of any known matter and so a proper deflector could not be made (or if there was a material to make the deflector out of, there are much better ways of generating thrust, see below). One possible application of this theory is the use of collapsed mater. I will call the solid state of mass "collapsed mater" out of respect for a science fiction novel that I once read (I don't remember the title). This application is a bit far-fetched and I doubt if it is even possible due to the difficulty of making collapsed mater. Collapsed mater exists today in the form of neutrons and is present in large amounts inside of black holes. The most useful quality of collapsed mater is that the ambient mass is not able to pass through it or combine with it. This would mean that collapsed mater would not be heavy (it would probably not be affected by gravity at all) but it would be outrageously massive, this making for many engineering headaches. Suppose that you were able to construct a thin walled box out of collapsed mater. You could then fill the box to any desired density of ambient mater (so long as wall strength was able to withstand the pressure difference). The more ambient mass that you put into the box, the slower the rate of time would be inside of the box. This would be useful as a sort of stasis chamber. Another useful device would be to make an entire turbine out of collapsed mater. If both the blades and the outer casing were made out of collapsed mater, the turbine could be used to pump the ambient mass. One use for this would be to fill the above mentioned box. Another use would be as a component of a starship engine. If the device was able to pump ambient mass, no reaction mass need be carried for the purpose of propelling the ship. The most interesting use for collapsed mater is to break the light speed barrier. If an entire ship was constructed out of collapsed mater such that it's forward edge was sharp and pointed, you could drive the ship through the ambient mass at speeds greater then light. This would be the same as an airplane being able to exceed the speed of sound. What happens is that you have a sharp edge that deflects the substance around the craft, instead of trying to make the substance itself travel faster then it's propagation speed. As mentioned in the discussion of the box above, the time rate inside of the craft would not be affected by the increase past light speed, in fact, you could make the time rate whatever you wanted by varying the density of the ambient mass inside of the ship, this would come in handy for those long distance trips. The time rate could not be made to run backwards or to stop completely because if you were to stop an atom from oscillating it's energy would be released as a compression wave and instead of stopping time you would have a box full of ambient mass at a uniform density (assuming that the box did not blow apart). :begin_subs > topic = Intro :lvl_1_subs > topic = Intro :blue > .if [ L1su == 1 ] > .then [ topic = end_subs_1 ] > .if [ L1su <> 2 ] > .then [ to_place_1 = ^to_place ] > to_place = blue > L1su = 1 The blue galaxies were discovered far away from the distant red shifted galaxies. In order for their light to be shifted towards the violet with present day physics, these blue galaxies would have to be moving towards us at a very high rate of speed. This would mean that the collapse of the universe had already begun. If light is shifted towards the red as it leaves a massive object, it follows that light should be shifted towards the violet as it approaches a massive object. In the model of the universe that I am describing, the ambient mass of the universe is more dense at the center of the universe then it is at the outer *edge. If a galaxy was out towards the edge of the universe and it's light was viewed from a point near the center of the universe, the light from the galaxy would appear to be shifted towards the violet because the light would start out in the low ambient mass density that is present near the outer edge of the expanding sphere of the universe and the light would travel through higher and higher mass densities in order to reach the observer near the center of the universe. This would be the same as if the light was approaching a very massive object, which we know will shift the light towards the violet, and so the galaxies will appear blue. This does not tell us weather the collapse of the universe has started or not, only that the speed of an object can not be accurately determined based on the shift of it's light alone. It may be that the only way to determine whether the collapse has started or not is to watch these blue galaxies for a long time and see if they are moving apart from each other. If this is a better model then other models, it means that stars that are viewed by us in the direction of the center of the universe are traveling away from us at a slower rate then is calculated based on the red shift of the star alone. It also means that stars that are viewed by us in the direction of the expansion are moving away from us at a faster rate then is calculated based on their red shift alone. This model would also seem to predict a large wave in the ambient mass (or gravity wave) when the universe begins to collapse. The reason is that the collapsing edge will move very fast at first and this will cause a compression wave that will travel to the center of the universe at light speed. The wave may be reflected at the center of the universe and begin traveling back towards the edge. The effects of this wave could be devastating. :area > .if [ L1su == 1 ] > .then [ topic = end_subs_1 ] > .if [ L1su <> 2 ] > .then [ to_place_1 = ^to_place ] > to_place = area > L1su = 1 It may be helpful to visualize the electron by thinking of a box that starts with absolutely nothing inside of it. Fill the box with some ambient mass. The mass will expand to fill the box so that the box contains mass of a uniform density. The mass should have no particles in it yet. If you were to slightly compress an area on one side of the box and let it go, there would be a vibration that would propagate to the other side of the box. These vibrations would be equivalent to photons, where the compressions or crests of the waves are the photons and the rarefactions are the anti-photons. Let's add some mass at the center of the box and let it expand. The added mass should be of a much higher density then the rest of the mass inside of the box. As the center mass expands, the mass will gain speed and momentum in a direction away from it's center. The mass will also decrease in density. :area1 > to_place = area1 > L1su = 1 There will also be a layer of compression that will build up as the center mass expands, this layer is composed of the mass that was in the box to begin with and is being pushed outward by the expanding center mass. The reason that the layer exists is because the density inside of the box cannot become uniform instantaneously, but must propagate any change at the propagation speed. The propagation speed is determined based on the density and the elasticity of the mass inside of the *box. The mass inside of the box cannot move fast enough to avoid becoming compressed near the center mass as the center mass expands. As the center mass expands, there is an increase in the elastic force towards the center of the expanding mass. A point is reached when the elastic force towards the center of the expanding mass and the inward force of the compression layer combined becomes greater then the outward momentum of the expanding mass. When this happens, the center mass must collapse. A stable oscillation is set up as the center mass expands and contracts. The frequency of the oscillation depends on the density of the mass in the box and the density of the center mass. If you were to add some more ambient mass to the inside of the box this would increase the density of the mass and decrease the frequency that the center mass is oscillating at. The reason that the frequency would decrease is because the layer of compression would become more massive and the center mass would not be able to expand as fast. Because we define time in terms of relative motion, and all motion inside of the box slows with the addition of more ambient mass, you can say that time inside of the box will slow down as you add more ambient mass. :end_subs_1 > L1su = 0 > to_place = ^to_place_1 > topic = ^to_place :Ron > .if [ su == 1 ] > .then [ topic = end_subs ] Ron Heath P.O. Box 4833, Santa Clara CA 95054 Comments welcome prodigy number jdxc99a PC-Link RonaldH42 > su = 1 :note_1 > .if [ su == 1 ] > .then [ topic = end_subs ] The non-vibrating reference point must be defined as the average of many vibrating masses because all matter is either vibrating or moving in some direction. > su = 1 :red > .if [ su == 1 ] > .then [ topic = end_subs ] As the frequency of light changes, it appears to us as a change in the color of the light. Also the energy present in the crests of each wave (or particle, if you prefer) gets higher as the light frequency increases. Red light is the lowest energy light that we can see, and violet the highest. A body that is heated will give off a distinct set of colors (spectrum). If every part of the body's spectrum is shifted downwards in energy (compared to a reference body of the same temperature) we call it a red shift because the light should appear to us to be more reddish, although no human being would be able to notice it because it is a very slight change. > su = 1 :note_2 > .if [ su == 1 ] > .then [ topic = end_subs ] The reason that the wave crests will be more massive when time is slower is given throughout the rest of this work. Basically it is because the mass of all objects goes up as their time rate goes down, or more accurately, when the rate of time slows it is because all the particles and atoms that we measure time by become more massive and therefore move slower. If an atom that is more massive emits a wave crest, the wave crest will be more massive then if it was emitted by the same atom when the atom was less massive. > su = 1 :clock > .if [ su == 1 ] > .then [ topic = end_subs ] Your clock should be a cesium clock and not one that has a wheel whose motion is governed by the tension of a spring. I am not sure if the spring tension will change properly as the atoms change their mass. This may be taken as a prediction of the theory that if you took one cesium clock and one reliable wind-up clock they would change at different rates as time changed it's rate. In fact, if I were to guess, I would say that the metal of the spring would get stronger as the rate of time slowed and the spring's tension would become less. The lessening of tension combined with the more massive wheel would cause the clock to slow down more then a cesium clock would. > su = 1 :energy > .if [ su == 1 ] > .then [ topic = end_subs ] example: If you define a pound of force to be the energy required to accelerate a pound of mass at 32cm/sec squared, and then build a scale to measure this energy, you also need to measure the position of the earth and the sun and moon at the time that the zero point on the scale is adjusted. The scale will give different readings for the same definition at every other point in the universe. Once you have defined everything and set your scale, you can still watch the scale reading change by itself due to entropy and the changing gravity as the solar system moves through the universe. > su = 1 :theory > .if [ su == 1 ] > .then [ topic = end_subs ] This theory, along with all other theories, is wrong. More accurately, theories are better theories if they are simpler and, at the same time, explain more things. I am not going to claim that this theory is any better then any other theory, only that it will allow an easier way to understand the universe. If at some time someone actually does a computer model of this theory, please let me know because this will determine whether this work was worth the effort or not. At the present stage of complexity of man's knowledge it is very difficult for a single person to write a single page that has no errors. This may make it seem pointless to attempt to write a paper such as this. It is not pointless, if a single statement in this text causes another person to think about things in a way that more closely matches the real world, this text would be worth the read for that person. > su = 1 :cavitations > .if [ su == 1 ] > .then [ topic = end_subs ] These cavitations and compressions make up all of the antimatter and mater that we observe today. The way that a cavitation or compression can be stable is explained later in this text. > su = 1 :edge > .if [ su == 1 ] > .then [ topic = end_subs ] The edge of the expanding sphere of the universe is the border between the ambient mass on the inside and nothingness on the outside. If there is nothingness on the outside, no light or time or energy (as we measure it) could exist beyond the edge and so there would be no light entering the universe from outside. If you want to take this a bit farther, perhaps there is ambient mass of a still lower density beyond the edge of our universe, and perhaps there are other universes besides ours. > su = 1 :far > .if [ su == 1 ] > .then [ topic = end_subs ] The reason that "far" is used here instead of "fast" is that the size of the atoms is being discussed. Each electron that is around the nucleus is pushed outward against the electron's inward elasticity (discussed at length later). "Far" as used here can be restated as the distance that an object moves while compressing a spring, so that an object of higher mass would require more energy to accelerate the object against the spring and therefore would not move as far as a less massive object. > su = 1 :constant > .if [ su == 1 ] > .then [ topic = end_subs ] This idea of light speed being a constant becomes difficult to interpret at the event horizon of black holes, if a light ray left the surface of a black hole and it didn't arrive at a point some distance from the black hole, what happened to it ? If it stops entirely, this breaks the law of conservation of energy. It may be said that the time difference is so large that it just takes a near infinite amount of time for the light ray to reach the point, but then one must know how long that the black hole existed and then could predict at what time the light would reach the point. The frequency of the light ray may be shifted so far that it would not be observable accept as some sort of gravity wave. The light ray may be bent back towards the surface of the black hole. This would not work in all cases. Suppose that the light ray was traveling directly away from the center point of the black hole. If this were the case, the effects of gravity would all act in a direction directly opposite from the direction of travel of the light ray and so the gravity would not be able to bend the light ray. Or, perhaps the Michelson Morely experiment should be redone at a good distance from any large mass. > su = 1 :note3 > .if [ su == 1 ] > .then [ topic = end_subs ] In the section dealing with the Michelson Morely experiment I said that light may not be the best thing to measure whether the ambient mass was moving past a point or not. Because the neutron is unaffected by gradients in the ambient mass, it would make a good instrument to measure any actual flow of the ambient mass because any flow would deflect a stream of neutrons. A device could be built that would measure the deflection of a beam of neutrons. This device could also be used to prove weather or not the neutron is affected by gravity. It should be remembered that the device would not pick up much flow when it was near the earth. Perhaps the device could be included in a future satellite. > su = 1 :thrust > .if [ su == 1 ] > .then [ topic = end_subs ] The easy way to force against the ambient mass has already been done. Einstein predicted that a particle would increase it's mass as it approached light speed. This is no deferent then my theory in it's application as a device that produces thrust, accept that I would say that the particle was compressing the ambient mass so that the ambient mass combines with the particle's forward edge. Any way that you look at it, if you supply enough energy to each particle that leaves your "exhaust nozzle" you will get free reaction mass. The only problem is the amount of equipment required to accelerate the particles and the efficiency of the equipment. The ion drive is an example of this type of drive. > su = 1 :disks > .if [ su == 1 ] > .then [ topic = end_subs ] This device could be called a lighter then ambient medium device, as opposed to a lighter then air device, it is kind of like a hot air balloon accept that there is no possibility of it ever rising off of the lab bench. The two disks are each mounted on the shaft of a motor and then the two motors with their mounted disks are moved so that the disks nearly touch each other. The motors are then mounted onto a base plate and this base plate is turned so that the disks are horizontal, or parallel to the surface of the earth. When set on the scale, the shafts of the motors will be vertical, one on top of the other. The motors are turned on and the system is weighed on a very sensitive scale. The reason that the system should weigh less is that the mater in the disks will impart some centrifugal motion to the ambient medium. The disks will each stretch the ambient medium towards the outer edge of the disk. In the space between the disks an area of lower density will be created. This lower density zone will have an upward force due to the gradient of the ambient mass density, the density of the ambient mass is greater close to the earth then it is farther away from the earth. If this device works it should prove that the ambient mass exists, but if it doesn't work it could be that the friction of the ambient mass as it moves past the atoms in the disks is not great enough to cause sufficient stretch in the area between the two disks. It could be that the friction is high enough to create an actual flow in the ambient mass. If this were the case the device that I discuss next could be built. > su = 1 :stretch > .if [ su == 1 ] > .then [ topic = end_subs ] The reason that the ambient mass becomes stretched instead of just becoming a higher density is light speed, or more precisely, the propagation speed of the medium. A stretch of the ambient mass can propagate at light speed, but the substance of the ambient mass itself can't be forced to move at this speed through itself. In other words, consider an airplane wing traveling through the air at a speed just lower then the speed of sound. The waves of sound (stretch) travel outward from the wing at the speed of sound. When the speed of the wing is increased to the speed of sound, the air can no longer travel through itself at this speed and so the air becomes compressed past the point where it can be defined as air (the air may change it's state to a liquid). As the propagation speed is approached, the energy required to compress the substance further increases in a non-linear fashion until the energy required for further collapse cannot be described in terms relating to the compression of that substance. In other words, suppose that we had no other way to measure energy then air pressure. If this were the case, how much air pressure would it take to move the air past the speed of sound ?. It would require an amount of air pressure that could not be described without referring to liquid air (building a nozzle out of some non-air material is beyond the scope of this example). If you did try to move the liquid air faster, more liquid air would build up on the forward edge (the blob of liquid air would increase it's mass as it approached the propagation speed of the air). > su = 1 :box > .if [ su == 1 ] > .then [ topic = end_subs ] Weather the ambient mass is composed of very small particles (gravitons) or is a substance that is totally without a grain structure is a question that I am not able to answer. We may never be able to determine this because I think that it would work the same either way. > su = 1 :electric > .if [ su == 1 ] > .then [ topic = end_subs ] An electric field from one atom is not a steady field, but oscillates with the frequency of the outer shell. If the outer shell is not full, there will be a stretch of rarefaction in the surrounding ambient mass. This stretch will be in the positive direction (only because electrons are said to flow from negative to positive, so that a rarefaction of electrons must be labeled as "positive"). If the outer shell is too full there will be a stretch in the opposite direction. The reason that the stretch is an oscillation is that if the stretch were to remain in place, the ambient mass would move and there would be no stretch. This can be used to infer that if you left an atom, whose outer shell was not full, alone in the ambient mass, the atom would eventually fill up it's outer shell. With many atoms of positive charge forming a plate near a plate of negative charge, the field appears to be steady. There may be a self discharge of the field due to a motion being set up in the ambient mass. It would be an interesting experiment to put a flat plate type capacitor with a large voltage applied across the plates into a vacuum with an accelerometer. If the self discharge actually represents a motion from the negatively charged plate to the positively charged plate, there should be an acceleration of the capacitor in the direction of the negative plate. > su = 1 > su = 1 :magnetic > .if [ su == 1 ] > .then [ topic = end_subs ] As an electron travels through a wire it will set up a stretch in the ambient mass that resembles the flow of water down a drain. The ambient mass closest to the electron will be the most stretched and there will be less stretch farther away from the electron. I think that the magnetic field in a permanent magnet is due to the outer shells of the atoms spinning. A rotation of the outer shells of many atoms could set up a stretch similar to the stretch caused by a moving stream of electrons. The difference between this type of stretch and the stretch caused by an electric force is that the magnetic force has a circular component as well as a simple gradient. > su = 1 :test2 > .if [ su == 1 ] > .then [ topic = end_subs ] test 2 page is here > su = 1 :end_subs > su = 0 > .if [ L1su == 1 ] > .then [ L1su = 2 ] > topic = ^to_place


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