:define_vars +gt; .define[su] +gt; .define[L1su] +gt; .define[to_place] +gt; .define[to_pl

```

:define_vars
> .define[su]
> .define[L1su]
> .define[to_place]
> .define[to_place_1]
> to_place = Intro
> to_place_1 = Intro
> su = 0
> L1su = 0
>  topic = Intro

:Intro
> to_place = Intro

Grand

The purpose of this work is to define a grand unified theory
that is simple enough to allow a computer to do modeling of atoms
and molecules.
I will also attempt to explain the *theory in as much detail
as possible, more detailed explanations may be read by selecting
the words that have an asterisk preceding them.

written by *Ron Heath

:Time
> to_place = Time

I would like to start by defining a few things. The first thing
that I will define is time.

Time can be defined as the relative motion between masses.

The first measurement of time had to do with the relative
motion between the earth and the sun. The current way that time
is measured is by counting the vibrations of an atom, why an atom
should vibrate is explained in later topics. Vibration can be
considered as a motion between two masses because, in order to
observe the vibration, a reference point that is not vibrating
must be used and this point is defined in relation to other
masses. *note_1
Time is not an absolute rate everywhere. We can observe time
differences directly by looking at the light emitted from massive
objects. The more massive the object is, the more the spectrum of
the light is shifted towards the *red.

:time1
>to_place = time1

If it was only time that varied, this would not be enough to
explain the red shift. If the massive body had a slower time rate
it would give off light at a slower rate but each wave crest
would be more massive, these more massive wave crests could not
exist at the same frequency outside of the influence of the
massive object, so the wavelength must change *note_2.
To illustrate the point, suppose that you were to become very
small and you sat on a wave crest of light after it was emitted
from a massive object. You would simply whip out your trusty
ruler and measure the distance to the next wave crest. This would
tell you the exact wavelength. The thing is that the distance
that you measure would stay the same as you went farther away
from the massive object. This is because each atom in your ruler
gets less massive as it travels farther from the massive object.
You might at first think that this would make each atom
smaller, but if the atom retains the same energy, the different
parts of the atom will spread out as it gets less massive ( a
given amount of energy will push a ball twice as *far as it will
a similar ball of twice the mass). What all this means is that
your ruler will get longer as the light shifts towards the red
and the distance that you measure from crest to crest will stay
the same.
:time2
>to_place = time2
Now suppose that you got off of the wave crest and began
measuring the speed that the light was travelling. At different
distances from the massive object both the rate of your *clock
and the length of your ruler would change, but the speed that you
measure for light would remain the same.
Luckily, the answers that you get with your digital calculator
will be unaffected by the change in the speed of it's clock,
accept that the calculation will take longer. You would not
notice that the calculations took any longer because your mind
would also be operating at a slower rate.
:time3
> to_place = time3
The only thing that is different about this from what Einstein
said is the massiveness of the atoms near a massive object as
opposed to their massiveness close to the speed of light. Also in
the books that I have read the size of a ruler is usually viewed
by an observer who watches the ruler as it zips by at light
speed. It is usually left unclear as to the ruler's actual length
if there were such a thing as an absolute measure of length that
was the same at all points within the universe.
Einstein did say (repeatedly) that the speed of light will be
the same when measured by any observer, this seems to be Ok as
long as time and distance vary, but, because both time and
distance vary, this may remain unproven for a while ( at least
the formula for wavelength, time and speed is constant at all
points in the universe).

:_energy
> to_place = _energy

Next, I will define energy.
Energy is what causes mass to move or become more compressed
(compression also requires motion, but is included for clarity).

If a mass changes it's motion or it's size or shape, it has
done this because energy was expended. Energy may be measured and
quantified by the relation force = mass X acceleration
When the reference quantity of *energy is defined it cannot be
separated from the point in space where the reference is.

:mass
> to_place = mass

Next, I will define mass (hold onto your seat-belts because
this is when it really starts getting weird).

Before I give you the definition, I will lead up to it so that
you are more likely to continue reading after you here it (I
don't think that you will like it).
First, by definition, there can be no time unless there is mass
to measure it with. Second there can be no energy unless there is
mass present in order to measure it's effects.
Let's start just prior to the big bang. According to present
day physics, there was a singularity. In order for something to
exist it must occupy space. This space is so small  that there
can be no space between the particles of present day physics.
There is one inescapable conclusion that can be drawn from this:
If there was a singularity at all, all matter must be made of the
same stuff. Further, this stuff is able to combine with itself.
The stuff also is able to expand into empty space.

:mass1
> to_place = mass1
Let's postulate that the universe is cyclic and go through one
cycle.
Everyone seems to think that if the singularity is to expand at
all, it must blow apart into billions and billions of little
bits, this is not a necessary assumption. Suppose that the
singularity was simply at the smallest area that it could be
compressed into, with the amount of energy that it had, and that
it simply began to expand again. The beginning of the expansion
would be a bit violent and the substance of the singularity would
probably be a bit grainy, there may even be cavitations.
The larger cavitations would meet with compressions and they
would collapse into bursts of vibrations, or become unstable and
break apart into smaller *cavitations.
After a while the graininess would become smoother and the
substance would return to a mostly uniform state. The stuff would
expand until it was stretched to the point where it's elasticity
overcame it's outward momentum and then it would begin to
collapse. The rate of collapse would accelerate until a
singularity was again formed, this singularity would be larger
then the original and may not even fit the definition of
"singularity".

:mass2
> to_place = mass2

As the universe continues expanding and contracting, the
smallest point will get larger and the largest point smaller
until, after many cycles, there may be just a large, unmoving
blob (this would surely be the end of time).
One recent discovery that supports this model is the discovery
of the *blue galaxies.
By now you probably think that my theory is the same as the
ether theory that was disproved by the Michelson-Morely
experiment. The Michelson Morely experiment proved that light
speed did not change when it was measured in two different
directions at a point near the earth. Using my theory, you would
expect this because the ambient mass would not be flowing by the
earth at a point near the earth. The distance from the earth
would have to be increased before any motion of the ambient mass
relative to the earth could be detected. The experiment should
also fail because light speed is supposed to be a *constant
If the Michelson Morely experiment had been done at a large
distance from any large mass, say outside of the solar system,
the experiment would have had a greater chance of success.

:mass3
> to_place = mass3

The reason that the distance from the earth should be increased
is that the substance (ambient mass) would build up (become more
dense) near massive objects, so that the ambient mass would not
be flowing by a point near the massive object. Or, as Einstein
would say, the space-time is curved near a massive object. Light
may not be the best way to measure weather the ambient mass is
flowing by because the change in it's speed (if any) would be
very small unless the ambient mass was flowing by at near light
speed and this is highly unlikely.
The absolute speed of light depends only on the density of the
ambient mass (although the density as related to particles
increases as the speed of the particles approach light speed).
The tools used to measure light speed also change as the mass
density changes, so light speed may be thought of as a constant
(there isn't any way to measure the absolute speed of anything if
you have no absolute clock, so it would be difficult to prove
otherwise).

Ok, here is the definition of mass:

Mass is a substance. This substance when compressed becomes
matter. The substance is elastic (if you stretch it and then let
it go, it will go back to it's previous density). The substance
has a propagation speed (light speed). The ambient mass is
getting less dense as the universe continues expanding.

:gravity
> to_place = gravity
Gravity
This definition of mass can be used to explain gravity. Gravity
does not need to be defined because it is just an affect of mass
and energy acting over a span of time.
Mass will become more dense around matter. The ambient mass
will be less dense at a point far from the matter. This density
difference will obey Newton's inverse square law and look like
Einstein's curved space-time. If a piece of matter is near
another piece of mater, the two gradients of mass density will
meet and attempt to form a single gradient (because of
elasticity, any irregular shape tends to form a sphere after some
amount of time).

:photon
> to_place = photon
The Photon
We now have defined enough things that we can describe light.
It has been said (many times) that light acts like both a wave
and a particle, this may be due to our definition of a particle.
If you really think that light is a particle, at what color
does it become a particle ?. Let's decrease the frequency into
the radio spectrum and see if radio waves are particles also. All
of the formulas still work the same. Although the lower
frequencies of radio don't bounce off of things as easily as
light, they do bounce off of some things. What about very low
frequencies ?
At very low frequencies the definitions of energy and mass will
still work so long as the mass exists prior to the energy being
applied. luckily in the model of the universe described above,
this is the case, mass exists throughout the universe except in
spots where there are cavitations.
This means that even very low frequency radio waves can be
described as particles.
Clearly, we need to change the definition of a particle:
A particle is a compression or a rarefaction in the ambient
mass, where a rarefaction is described as an anti-particle.
The photon is the simplest type of particle because it can be
easily visualized as a wave where the crests are the particles
and the troughs are the anti-particles. The problem with this
type of particle is that it spreads as it travels because there
is no strong boundary to hold it together. It is easy to first
visualize it as a wave in two dimensions and then add the third
dimension, there is nothing to keep it from spreading into the
third dimension.

:electron
> to_place = electron
The Electron
If you had an area of compressed mass (visualize this as a
sphere) and you let it expand into the ambient mass, it would
seem that it would just expand until it became the same density
as the ambient mass at which point it would simply be transformed
into an expanding compression wave as is the case with the
photon.
If there was no momentum or elasticity, the area of compressed
mass would expand until it reached the same density as the
ambient mass and then become combined with the ambient mass. But,
there is momentum and there is elasticity, further, the
elasticity increases as the density increases.
So, you start with a compressed *area of mass and let it expand
into the ambient mass. The rate of expansion is determined by the
difference between the density of the compressed mass and the
density of the ambient mass. The sphere will expand past the
point where the outward force due to the density difference
becomes zero, because of the momentum of the expanding mass. When
the elastic force towards the center of the sphere is equal to
the momentum of the expanding sphere, the sphere will stop
expanding.
:electron1
> to_place = electron1
Now there is a large elastic force towards the center of the
sphere so that the sphere cannot combine with the ambient mass,
but must collapse. As the sphere collapses, the compressing mass
takes on speed and so has momentum. This momentum forces the
collapsing sphere to collapse to a smaller sphere then is
warranted by the density difference between it and the ambient
mass. The sphere will stop collapsing when the outward elastic
force equals the inward momentum. The sphere must now expand
again.
We now have a stable particle and I will call it an electron
(because I gave it more mass and mass density (energy) then a
"quark" and less energy then an atom ).
Before rushing on into the atom, I will explain the anti-
electron. That the anti-electron can exist at all has direct
bearing on explaining the atom.
Instead of a sphere of compression, this time let's start with
a sphere of rarefaction (not cavitation as this would make the
speed of collapse try to exceed light speed, I will deal with
this case later).
:electron2
> to_place = electron2
As we let the ambient mass rush in towards the center of the
rarefaction, the incoming mass gains speed and also momentum,
this momentum causes the rarefaction to be compressed passed the
point where elasticity alone would dictate. Now the rarefaction
must expand again.
This forms a stable anti-particle.
So how would you be able to tell if the particle was a particle
or an anti-particle, short of having them collide head-on and
analiate ?
Suppose that you had an electron moving through a region of
mass that was not uniformly stretched. This would mean that there
was a gradient of stress. Where gravity is an effect of a simple
mass density gradient, this gradient would also incorporate
elastic stress.
The particle would be drawn towards the rarefied stress
direction due to the fact that it's outer edge is compressively
stretched and this edge will expand more in an area of rarefied
stretch.
The anti-particle would move towards the area of compressive
stretch because it's outer edge is rarefied and it will collapse
more in an area of more compressed stretch.
:electron3
> to_place = electron3
So, in other words, you put them into an "electric field",
well, everyone knows that.
Lets examine the outer edge of the particle more closely. The
outer edge is not a sharp sphere. In the case of the particle (as
opposed to the anti-particle) the outer edge is being pushed
outward periodically. When the edge pushes outward, the ambient
mass is pushed out of the way, because the outer edge is a sphere
there is only one way for the ambient mass to be pushed, outward
from the expanding sphere. This outward push increases the
density of the surrounding mass so that there is an
outward *stretch of the ambient mass in the compressive
direction.
This stretch is propagated outward from the expanding sphere at
light speed and the stretch forms a gradient that conforms to the
inverse square law.
It is important to think in three dimensions and visualize an
area of compression that expands outward until the center becomes
rarified to the point where the inward elasticity is equal to the
outward momentum. At this point the compression collapses until
the center becomes compressed to the point where the outward
elastic force is equal to the inward momentum. At this point the
compression begins expanding again.
:electron4
> to_place = electron4
It should become clear from this discussion that this type of
particle has no sharply defined spherical edge. That this is true
is evidenced by the fringe patterns as a single electron passes
through two slits.
:atom
> to_place = atom

The atom
Suppose that you had a sphere of compressed mass that was so
compressed that the deference in density between the inside of
the sphere and the ambient mass would like to cause the sphere to
expand at a rate close to light speed.
The sphere would begin expanding rapidly and, while it was
expanding, the ambient mass would be compressing around it. when
the rate of expansion became closer to light speed the outer edge
of the expanding sphere would have a layer of compressed mass
forming just outside of it's boundary.
As the layer becomes more dense the elasticity of the layer
increases. As the rate of expansion becomes closer to the speed
of light, the energy that it takes to move the layer of
compressed mass rises sharply. This sharp rise in required energy
causes the expanding sphere to act like it had hit the proverbial
brick wall. The expanding sphere hits this sharp rise in required
energy and it bounces off of the layer of compressed mass.
When the sphere bounces off of the layer, it's size decreases
and this leaves a gap of cavitation between the sphere and the
layer.
:atom1
> to_place = atom1
The layer will continue to expand for a short distance, due to
momentum, and then it will begin to collapse due to it's own
elasticity and the elasticity of the ambient mass that the layer
is compressing.
When the sphere has collapsed to the point where the inward
momentum can no longer continue the collapse, the sphere will
expand again.
The layer is at this time collapsing towards the sphere.
When the expanding sphere meets the collapsing layer, the
sphere bounces off and the layer is pushed outward again. This
becomes a stable system of oscillation.
Many layers can be formed in this way. Each layer of compressed
mass will be separated from the next innermost layer by a layer
of rarefied mass as it expands, and bounce off of the next
outermost layer before contracting again.
These layers will only be able to exist at certain distances
from the center mass. These distances may be visualized as the
spherical wave crests set up by the oscillating center mass,
although this is not quite accurate because of the expanding and
collapsing motion of each crest. It would be more accurate to
call them spherical compression layers, or shells for shortness.
:atom2
> to_place = atom2
The shells, or "electron orbits" farthest from the center mass
do not need to be totally "full", but can exist in a number of
energy states. If a crest becomes too full it will eventually
emit a blob of compressed mass. This blob of compressed mass will
appear to us as a photon or electron depending only on the amount
of mass and the mass density of the released blob. It should also
be said that the shells would only absorb photons at certain
energy levels.
Electrons would be absorbed by shells of different density
depending on the speed of the electron and the difference between
the shell's density and the electron's density. If an electron
travels at a high enough speed and smashes into the shell, the
part of the electron that increases it's density close to the
density of the shell will be absorbed by the shell, even if the
shell is of a high density. An example is the outer shell of neon
where the part of the electron that was absorbed is soon released
as a photon.

:atom3
> to_place = atom3

With some amount of thought, this is fairly easy to visualize.
It would be even easier to write a program that modeled the
ambient mass and watch as you released a highly compressed zone.
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle will not hold true inside of
a computer model because you no longer need to use the
interactions of compressions in order to view other compressions,
but are able to view the compressions as colors on a monitor
without affecting the model. The strong force is apparent as the
dynamic oscillation of the center mass as it collides with the
sharp energy increase (e=mc^2). The week force is the dynamic
expanding and contracting of the spherical shells, or electron
orbits and is based on elasticity and compression. The *electric
and *magnetic forces will also become apparent as more particles
are added to the model.

:atom4
> to_place = atom4

One consequence of having a cavitation between the inner sphere
and the first layer is that the inner sphere may collapse to such
a density that it's center may change state. This would create
another two types of possible particles.
Suppose that the atom broke apart and a piece of the center
sphere was able to be "viewed" directly. If this piece was a
piece of mass that had been so compressed that it had changed
state, it could be compared to a droplet of liquid or perhaps
even solid air that was let go into the atmosphere. This particle
would not be stable, but would slowly vaporize back into the
ambient mass out of which it had been originally formed. The
particle would have a positive charge if it was a liquid and was
vaporizing because this would increase the density of the
surrounding ambient mass, and therefore cause a stretch in the
positive direction. If the particle was a solid it would slowly
become a liquid, but before it had done so, it would be a very
strange particle. This particle would have no electric charge
because it would not be either increasing or decreasing the
density of the ambient mass.

:atom5
> to_place = atom5

What is more strange (and I don't know if this has been tested)
is that the particle may not be attracted by gravitational force.
The reason is that if the particle was a solid form of the
ambient mass, a gradient in the ambient mass would not have much
affect on the particle because the particle would be producing no
gradient of it's own. *note3

:applications
> to_place = applications

Applications and Predictions
The most interesting prediction of the theory, aside from
allowing computer modeling of atoms and molecules, is the
possibility of causing motion in the ambient mass. If a way to
move the ambient mass is found, the method would be useful for
driving spacecraft. Although I have not yet discovered a method
that would produce useful amounts of *thrust, a few possibilities
are discussed below.
If you take two *disks that are close together and rotate them
at a high rate of speed, the system created will appear to weigh
less when the disks are rotating then when the disks are stopped.
The effect, if it exists, will not be very large.
If you take a disk and put a deflector around it so that the
deflector forms a 45 degree angle to the disk (in a cross
sectional view the disk is represented by a thick line, at the
outer edge of the disk represented by the end points of the line,
there is the deflector at a 45 degree angle with respect to the
thick line), any flow that was produced by the rotating disk
would be deflected against the angle so that a force would be
created parallel to the shaft that the disk was mounted on. This
force is very small, if it exists, because there is much space
between the atoms of any known matter and so a proper deflector
could not be made (or if there was a material to make the
deflector out of, there are much better ways of generating
thrust, see below).

One possible application of this theory is the use of collapsed
mater. I will call the solid state of mass "collapsed mater" out
of respect for a science fiction novel that I once read (I don't
remember the title). This application is a bit far-fetched and I
doubt if it is even possible due to the difficulty of making
collapsed mater.
Collapsed mater exists today in the form of neutrons and is
present in large amounts inside of black holes. The most useful
quality of collapsed mater is that the ambient mass is not able
to pass through it or combine with it. This would mean that
collapsed mater would not be heavy (it would probably not be
affected by gravity at all) but it would be outrageously massive,
this making for many engineering headaches.
Suppose that you were able to construct a thin walled box out
of collapsed mater. You could then fill the box to any desired
density of ambient mater (so long as wall strength was able to
withstand the pressure difference). The more ambient mass that
you put into the box, the slower the rate of time would be inside
of the box. This would be useful as a sort of stasis chamber.
Another useful device would be to make an entire turbine out of
collapsed mater. If both the blades and the outer casing were
made out of collapsed mater, the turbine could be used to pump
the ambient mass. One use for this would be to fill the above
mentioned box. Another use would be as a component of a starship
engine. If the device was able to pump ambient mass, no reaction
mass need be carried for the purpose of propelling the ship.
The most interesting use for collapsed mater is to break the
light speed barrier. If an entire ship was constructed out of
collapsed mater such that it's forward edge was sharp and
pointed, you could drive the ship through the ambient mass at
speeds greater then light. This would be the same as an airplane
being able to exceed the speed of sound. What happens is that you
have a sharp edge that deflects the substance around the craft,
instead of trying to make the substance itself travel faster then
it's propagation speed.
As mentioned in the discussion of the box above, the time rate
inside of the craft would not be affected by the increase past
light speed, in fact, you could make the time rate whatever you
wanted by varying the density of the ambient mass inside of the
ship, this would come in handy for those long distance trips. The
time rate could not be made to run backwards or to stop
completely because if you were to stop an atom from oscillating
it's energy would be released as a compression wave and instead
of stopping time you would have a box full of ambient mass at a
uniform density (assuming that the box did not blow apart).

:begin_subs
>  topic = Intro

:lvl_1_subs
> topic = Intro

:blue
> .if [ L1su == 1 ]
> .then [ topic = end_subs_1 ]
> .if [ L1su <> 2 ]
> .then [ to_place_1 = ^to_place ]
> to_place = blue
> L1su = 1

The blue galaxies were discovered far away from the distant red
shifted galaxies.
In order for their light to be shifted towards the violet with
present day physics, these blue galaxies would have to be moving
towards us at a very high rate of speed. This would mean that the
collapse of the universe had already begun.
If light is shifted towards the red as it leaves a massive
object, it follows that light should be shifted towards the
violet as it approaches a massive object.
In the model of the universe that I am describing, the ambient
mass of the universe is more dense at the center of the universe
then it is at the outer *edge.
If a galaxy was out towards the edge of the universe and it's
light was viewed from a point near the center of the universe,
the light from the galaxy would appear to be shifted towards the
violet because the light would start out in the low ambient mass
density that is present near the outer edge of the expanding
sphere of the universe and the light would travel through higher
and higher mass densities in order to reach the observer near the
center of the universe. This would be the same as if the light
was approaching a very massive object, which we know will shift
the light towards the violet, and so the galaxies will appear
blue.
This does not tell us weather the collapse of the universe has
started or not, only that the speed of an object can not be
accurately determined based on the shift of it's light alone. It
may be that the only way to determine whether the collapse has
started or not is to watch these blue galaxies for a long time
and see if they are moving apart from each other.
If this is a better model then other models, it means that
stars that are viewed by us in the direction of the center of the
universe are traveling away from us at a slower rate then is
calculated based on the red shift of the star alone. It also
means that stars that are viewed by us in the direction of the
expansion are moving away from us at a faster rate then is
calculated based on their red shift alone.
This model would also seem to predict a large wave in the
ambient mass (or gravity wave) when the universe begins to
collapse. The reason is that the collapsing edge will move very
fast at first and this will cause a compression wave that will
travel to the center of the universe at light speed. The wave may
be reflected at the center of the universe and begin traveling
back towards the edge. The effects of this wave could be
devastating.

:area
> .if [ L1su == 1 ]
> .then [ topic = end_subs_1 ]
> .if [ L1su <> 2 ]
> .then [ to_place_1 = ^to_place ]
> to_place = area
> L1su = 1

It may be helpful to visualize the electron by thinking of a
box that starts with absolutely nothing inside of it. Fill the
box with some ambient mass. The mass will expand to fill the box
so that the box contains mass of a uniform density. The mass
should have no particles in it yet.
If you were to slightly compress an area on one side of the box
and let it go, there would be a vibration that would propagate to
the other side of the box. These vibrations would be equivalent
to photons, where the compressions or crests of the waves are the
photons and the rarefactions are the anti-photons.
Let's add some mass at the center of the box and let it expand.
The added mass should be of a much higher density then the rest
of the mass inside of the box.
As the center mass expands, the mass will gain speed and
momentum in a direction away from it's center. The mass will also
decrease in density.

:area1
> to_place = area1
> L1su = 1

There will also be a layer of compression that will build up as
the center mass expands, this layer is composed of the mass that
was in the box to begin with and is being pushed outward by the
expanding center mass. The reason that the layer exists is
because the density inside of the box cannot become uniform
instantaneously, but must propagate any change at the propagation
speed. The propagation speed is determined based on the density
and the elasticity of the mass inside of the *box. The mass
inside of the box cannot move fast enough to avoid becoming
compressed near the center mass as the center mass expands.
As the center mass expands, there is an increase in the elastic
force towards the center of the expanding mass.
A point is reached when the elastic force towards the center of
the expanding mass and the inward force of the compression layer
combined becomes greater then the outward momentum of the
expanding mass. When this happens, the center mass must collapse.
A stable oscillation is set up as the center mass expands and
contracts. The frequency of the oscillation depends on the
density of the mass in the box and the density of the center
mass.
If you were to add some more ambient mass to the inside of the
box this would increase the density of the mass and decrease the
frequency that the center mass is oscillating at. The reason that
the frequency would decrease is because the layer of compression
would become more massive and the center mass would not be able
to expand as fast.
Because we define time in terms of relative motion, and all
motion inside of the box slows with the addition of more ambient
mass, you can say that time inside of the box will slow down as
you add more ambient mass.

:end_subs_1
> L1su = 0
> to_place = ^to_place_1
> topic = ^to_place

:Ron
> .if [ su == 1 ]
> .then [ topic = end_subs ]
Ron Heath
P.O. Box 4833,
Santa Clara CA 95054

prodigy number jdxc99a
> su = 1

:note_1
> .if [ su == 1 ]
> .then [ topic = end_subs ]
The non-vibrating reference point must be defined as the average
of many vibrating masses because all matter is either vibrating
or moving in some direction.

> su = 1

:red
> .if [ su == 1 ]
> .then [ topic = end_subs ]

As the frequency of light changes, it appears to us as a change
in the color of the light. Also the energy present in the crests
of each wave (or particle, if you prefer) gets higher as the
light frequency increases. Red light is the lowest energy light
that we can see, and violet the highest.
A body that is heated will give off a distinct set of colors
(spectrum). If every part of the body's spectrum is shifted
downwards in energy (compared to a reference body of the same
temperature) we call it a red shift because the light should
appear to us to be more reddish, although no human being would be
able to notice it because it is a very slight change.
> su = 1

:note_2
> .if [ su == 1 ]
> .then [ topic = end_subs ]

The reason that the wave crests will be more massive when time
is slower is given throughout the rest of this work. Basically it
is because the mass of all objects goes up as their time rate
goes down, or more accurately, when the rate of time slows it is
because all the particles and atoms that we measure time by
become more massive and therefore move slower. If an atom that is
more massive emits a wave crest, the wave crest will be more
massive then if it was emitted by the same atom when the atom was
less massive.
> su = 1

:clock
> .if [ su == 1 ]
> .then [ topic = end_subs ]

Your clock should be a cesium clock and not one that has a
wheel whose motion is governed by the tension of a spring. I am
not sure if the spring tension will change properly as the atoms
change their mass.
This may be taken as a prediction of the theory that if you
took one cesium clock and one reliable wind-up clock they would
change at different rates as time changed it's rate. In fact, if
I were to guess, I would say that the metal of the spring would
get stronger as the rate of time slowed and the spring's tension
would become less. The lessening of tension combined with the
more massive wheel would cause the clock to slow down more then a
cesium clock would.
> su = 1

:energy
> .if [ su == 1 ]
> .then [ topic = end_subs ]

example:
If you define a pound of force to be the energy required to
accelerate a pound of mass at 32cm/sec squared, and then build a
scale to measure this energy, you also need to measure the
position of the earth and the sun and moon at the time that the
zero point on the scale is adjusted. The scale will give
different readings for the same definition at every other point
in the universe. Once you have defined everything and set your
scale, you can still watch the scale reading change by itself due
to entropy and the changing gravity as the solar system moves
through the universe.
> su = 1

:theory
> .if [ su == 1 ]
> .then [ topic = end_subs ]

This theory, along with all other theories, is wrong. More
accurately, theories are better theories if they are simpler and,
at the same time, explain more things. I am not going to claim
that this theory is any better then any other theory, only that
it will allow an easier way to understand the universe. If at
some time someone actually does a computer model of this theory,
please let me know because this will determine whether this work
was worth the effort or not.
At the present stage of complexity of man's knowledge it is
very difficult for a single person to write a single page that
has no errors. This may make it seem pointless to attempt to
write a paper such as this. It is not pointless, if a single
statement in this text causes another person to think about
things in a way that more closely matches the real world, this
text would be worth the read for that person.

> su = 1

:cavitations
> .if [ su == 1 ]
> .then [ topic = end_subs ]

These cavitations and compressions make up all of the antimatter
and mater that we observe today. The way that a cavitation or
compression can be stable is explained later in this text.
> su = 1

:edge
> .if [ su == 1 ]
> .then [ topic = end_subs ]

The edge of the expanding sphere of the universe is the border
between the ambient mass on the inside and nothingness on the
outside. If there is nothingness on the outside, no light or time
or energy (as we measure it) could exist beyond the edge and so
there would be no light entering the universe from outside. If
you want to take this a bit farther, perhaps there is ambient
mass of a still lower density beyond the edge of our universe,
and perhaps there are other universes besides ours.

> su = 1

:far
> .if [ su == 1 ]
> .then [ topic = end_subs ]

The reason that "far" is used here instead of "fast" is that the
size of the atoms is being discussed. Each electron that is
around the nucleus is pushed outward against the electron's
inward elasticity (discussed at length later).
"Far" as used here can be restated as the distance that an
object moves while compressing a spring, so that an object of
higher mass would require more energy to accelerate the object
against the spring and therefore would not move as far as a less
massive object.

> su = 1

:constant
> .if [ su == 1 ]
> .then [ topic = end_subs ]
This idea of light speed being a constant becomes difficult to
interpret at the event horizon of black holes, if a light ray
left the surface of a black hole and it didn't arrive at a point
some distance from the black hole, what happened to it ?
If it stops entirely, this breaks the law of conservation of
energy.
It may be said that the time difference is so large that it
just takes a near infinite amount of time for the light ray to
reach the point, but then one must know how long that the black
hole existed and then could predict at what time the light would
reach the point.
The frequency of the light ray may be shifted so far that it
would not be observable accept as some sort of gravity wave.
The light ray may be bent back towards the surface of the black
hole. This would not work in all cases. Suppose that the light
ray was traveling directly away from the center point of the
black hole. If this were the case, the effects of gravity would
all act in a direction directly opposite from the direction of
travel of the light ray and so the gravity would not be able to
bend the light ray.
Or, perhaps the Michelson Morely experiment should be redone at
a good distance from any large mass.
> su = 1

:note3
> .if [ su == 1 ]
> .then [ topic = end_subs ]

In the section dealing with the Michelson Morely experiment I
said that light may not be the best thing to measure whether the
ambient mass was moving past a point or not.
Because the neutron is unaffected by gradients in the ambient
mass, it would make a good instrument to measure any actual flow
of the ambient mass because any flow would deflect a stream of
neutrons. A device could be built that would measure the
deflection of a beam of neutrons. This device could also be used
to prove weather or not the neutron is affected by gravity.

It should be remembered that the device would not pick up much
flow when it was near the earth. Perhaps the device could be
included in a future satellite.

> su = 1

:thrust
> .if [ su == 1 ]
> .then [ topic = end_subs ]

The easy way to force against the ambient mass has already been
done. Einstein predicted that a particle would increase it's mass
as it approached light speed. This is no deferent then my theory
in it's application as a device that produces thrust, accept that
I would say that the particle was compressing the ambient mass so
that the ambient mass combines with the particle's forward edge.
Any way that you look at it, if you supply enough energy to each
particle that leaves your "exhaust nozzle" you will get free
reaction mass. The only problem is the amount of equipment
required to accelerate the particles and the efficiency of the
equipment. The ion drive is an example of this type of drive.

> su = 1

:disks
> .if [ su == 1 ]
> .then [ topic = end_subs ]

This device could be called a lighter then ambient medium
device, as opposed to a lighter then air device, it is kind of
like a hot air balloon accept that there is no possibility of it
ever rising off of the lab bench.
The two disks are each mounted on the shaft of a motor and then
the two motors with their mounted disks are moved so that the
disks nearly touch each other. The motors are then mounted onto a
base plate and this base plate is turned so that the disks are
horizontal, or parallel to the surface of the earth. When set on
the scale, the shafts of the motors will be vertical, one on top
of the other. The motors are turned on and the system is weighed
on a very sensitive scale.
The reason that the system should weigh less is that the mater
in the disks will impart some centrifugal motion to the ambient
medium. The disks will each stretch the ambient medium towards
the outer edge of the disk. In the space between the disks an
area of lower density will be created. This lower density zone
will have an upward force due to the gradient of the ambient mass
density, the density of the ambient mass is greater close to the
earth then it is farther away from the earth.
If this device works it should prove that the ambient mass
exists, but if it doesn't work it could be that the friction of
the ambient mass as it moves past the atoms in the disks is not
great enough to cause sufficient stretch in the area between the
two disks.
It could be that the friction is high enough to create an
actual flow in the ambient mass. If this were the case the device
that I discuss next could be built.

> su = 1

:stretch
> .if [ su == 1 ]
> .then [ topic = end_subs ]

The reason that the ambient mass becomes stretched instead of
just becoming a higher density is light speed, or more precisely,
the propagation speed of the medium. A stretch of the ambient
mass can propagate at light speed, but the substance of the
ambient mass itself can't be forced to move at this speed through
itself. In other words, consider an airplane wing traveling
through the air at a speed just lower then the speed of sound.
The waves of sound (stretch) travel outward from the wing at the
speed of sound. When the speed of the wing is increased to the
speed of sound, the air can no longer travel through itself at
this speed and so the air becomes compressed past the point where
it can be defined as air (the air may change it's state to a
liquid).
As the propagation speed is approached, the energy required to
compress the substance further increases in a non-linear fashion
until the energy required for further collapse cannot be
described in terms relating to the compression of that substance.
In other words, suppose that we had no other way to measure
energy then air pressure. If this were the case, how much air
pressure would it take to move the air past the speed of sound ?.
It would require an amount of air pressure that could not be
described without referring to liquid air (building a nozzle out
of some non-air material is beyond the scope of this example). If
you did try to move the liquid air faster, more liquid air would
build up on the forward edge (the blob of liquid air would
increase it's mass as it approached the propagation speed of the
air).

> su = 1

:box
> .if [ su == 1 ]
> .then [ topic = end_subs ]

Weather the ambient mass is composed of very small particles
(gravitons) or is a substance that is totally without a grain
structure is a question that I am not able to answer. We may
never be able to determine this because I think that it would
work the same either way.

> su = 1

:electric
> .if [ su == 1 ]
> .then [ topic = end_subs ]

An electric field from one atom is not a steady field, but
oscillates with the frequency of the outer shell. If the outer
shell is not full, there will be a stretch of rarefaction in the
surrounding ambient mass. This stretch will be in the positive
direction (only because electrons are said to flow from negative
to positive, so that a rarefaction of electrons must be labeled
as "positive"). If the outer shell is too full there will be a
stretch in the opposite direction.
The reason that the stretch is an oscillation is that if the
stretch were to remain in place, the ambient mass would move and
there would be no stretch. This can be used to infer that if you
left an atom, whose outer shell was not full, alone in the
ambient mass, the atom would eventually fill up it's outer shell.
With many atoms of positive charge forming a plate near a plate
of negative charge, the field appears to be steady.
There may be a self discharge of the field due to a motion
being set up in the ambient mass. It would be an interesting
experiment to put a flat plate type capacitor with a large
voltage applied across the plates into a vacuum with an
accelerometer. If the self discharge actually represents a motion
from the negatively charged plate to the positively charged
plate, there should be an acceleration of the capacitor in the
direction of the negative plate.
> su = 1

> su = 1

:magnetic
> .if [ su == 1 ]
> .then [ topic = end_subs ]

As an electron travels through a wire it will set up a stretch
in the ambient mass that resembles the flow of water down a
drain. The ambient mass closest to the electron will be the most
stretched and there will be less stretch farther away from the
electron.
I think that the magnetic field in a permanent magnet is due to
the outer shells of the atoms spinning. A rotation of the outer
shells of many atoms could set up a stretch similar to the
stretch caused by a moving stream of electrons.
The difference between this type of stretch and the stretch
caused by an electric force is that the magnetic force has a
circular component as well as a simple gradient.

> su = 1

:test2
> .if [ su == 1 ]
> .then [ topic = end_subs ]

test 2 page is here
> su = 1

:end_subs
> su = 0
> .if [ L1su == 1 ]
> .then [ L1su = 2 ]
> topic = ^to_place

```

E-Mail Fredric L. Rice / The Skeptic Tank