Author: James Lippard (email@example.com)
Title: Sun Goes Down in Flames: The Jammal Ark Hoax
[The following article is forthcoming (perhaps in a revised form) in
_Skeptic_ magazine, vol. 2, no. 3, and is copyright 1993 by the
Skeptics Society, 2761 N. Marengo Ave., Altadena, CA 91001, (818)
794-3119 (individual subscriptions $35/year, $25/year for students).
Permission has been granted by the author and the editor of _Skeptic_
for electronic distribution.]
Sun Goes Down in Flames: The Jammal Ark Hoax
By Jim Lippard
"Will you speak falsely for God, and speak deceitfully for
him? Will you show partiality toward him, will you plead the
case for God?" --Job 13:7-8 (NRSV)
On February 20, 1993, CBS aired "The Incredible Discovery of
Noah's Ark," Sun International Pictures' rehash of its 1976
film "In Search of Noah's Ark." At the end of June,
Skeptics Society advisor Gerald Larue publicly revealed (via
Associated Press and Time magazine) that George Jammal, one
of the alleged eyewitnesses of Noah's Ark on Mt. Ararat, was
a hoaxer, and that Larue himself had played a role in the
hoax. The purpose: to demonstrate the shoddy research of
Sun International Pictures.
CBS, Sun, and the Institute for Creation Research (ICR)
set out to control the damage to their credibility by
defending the program against the criticisms of Larue. Since
Jammal was continuing to defend his story, at first the three
organizations went on the offensive against Larue. CBS
Entertainment President Jeff Sagansky stated that "There was
clearly a hoax perpetrated ... we're not sure whether it was
on Sun International and CBS or whether it was on Time
magazine." A press release from Sun called it "sad and
unfortunate that Dr. LaRue [sic], a distinguished USC
professor, would victimize Mr. Jammal and his family to
execute a third party hoax in which he was the primary
benefactor." John Morris, the Administrative Vice President
of the ICR, made much of Larue's "long association with
humanistic and anti-Christian organizations" and concluded
that "This is hardly the resume of an objective critic." All
defended the overall quality of Sun's research.
But subsequent events began to undermine a defense based
on Jammal's veracity. On August 26, 1993, the Long Beach
Press-Telegram--Jammal's hometown newspaper--ran a story
about the hoax. In the story, Jammal did not admit to a
hoax, but stated in response to a question about his
religious background that "If I told you that, you'd know the
secret." The reporter noted in the article that a poem
framed in glass on Jammal's piano begins, "Humanism is a
philosophy for people who think for themselves ...." The
September 1993 issue of Freethought Today, the monthly
publication of the Freedom From Religion Foundation (FFRF),
announced that Jammal had been a member of the Foundation
since 1986, and was scheduled to be a speaker at the group's
annual convention at the end of October--where he would
reveal his hoax. Sun's position evolved, and their press
release was revised to say that "Sun researchers now believe
[Jammal] may eventually confess to committing a hoax." It
continued to defend the quality of their research, however,
stating that Jammal's confession "would mean that he has
through an elaborate lie successfully hoaxed well-meaning
individuals, religious groups, psychiatrists, Ararat
explorers, and others since 1986. Even our exhaustive
research would have failed to uncover this hoaxer if that in
fact is what he is by his own future admission."
Now that Jammal has revealed his hoax at the FFRF
convention, to the Los Angeles Times, and on a public access
cable program produced by Atheists United, it is clear that
Sun did present false information in their program. But
is their defense sound? How extensive was their research?
Did Jammal engage in an elaborate hoax that resisted even the
most cautious investigation? Or did Sun simply present
claims which supported a particular viewpoint--that Noah's
Ark has been found on Mt. Ararat--without regard for truth or
Jammal's Hoax: 1985-1986
Several events inspired George Jammal to play the practical
joke which became a major hoax. A May 30, 1985
creation/evolution debate between Fred Edwords (now executive
director of the American Humanist Association) and Duane Gish
(vice president of the ICR) which aired on KABC radio
apparently got Jammal to thinking. While observing railroad
ties near his workplace, Jammal got the idea of telling Gish
that he had found Noah's Ark and using that wood as his
On November 1, 1985, he wrote to Gish: "Since I was a
little boy I was fascinated with the story of Noah and the
Ark. I made up my mind that when I grow up, I will do my
share as a good christian to prove the bible is the true word
of God." Jammal told a story about saving money and flying
to Greece in 1972, where he bought a Volkswagen. From
Greece, he drove to Turkey, to the village "Nakhitchevan."
There he was assisted by a man and his family, but he was
unable to find the Ark. A similar trip in 1980 was also
unsuccessful, but in 1984 he and a companion crawled into a
cave of ice which proved to be the Ark. Each chipped off a
piece of wood to prove that they had found the Ark. Disaster
then struck: Jammal's companion fell into a crevasse while
attempting to take a photograph and was killed. Jammal said
that he had kept his discovery secret until writing the
letter to Gish.
In the letter, he reports the names of those who
assisted him. The man whose family aided him was "Mr.
Asholian." His companion who died was a "Polish friend" of
Mr. Asholian's son-in-law, named "Vladimir Sobitchsky." The
son-in-law, whose full name is conspicuously absent from
Jammal's later accounts, is given in the Gish letter as
"Allis Buls Hitian." (Read that name carefully.)
In 1986, John Morris contacted Jammal about his story
and arranged to interview him at length. In an early letter
from Jammal to Morris dated January 21, 1986, Jammal gives
another hint of a hoax when he writes to give Morris his
phone number and adds: "But the people here are not
religious at all. And I think they don't believe in my story
about Noah's Ark. Please don't discuss it with them."
Jammal visited libraries and read books about Noah's Ark
claims, and about Mt. Ararat and the surrounding region,
which he had never visited. At some point, as part of his
preparation, he watched a videotape of the 1976 Sun Classic
Pictures production, "In Search of Noah's Ark."
On June 10, 1986, Morris interviewed Jammal and produced
a transcript from the tape recording. A careful examination
of this transcript reveals not only that Jammal's account
contains numerous inconsistencies, but that much of the
information flow in the conversation is from Morris to Jammal
rather than vice-versa. For example, the following is their
discussion about the size of Lake Kop, west of Ararat
(notations in brackets are Morris'):
JM: How big was Lake Kop in diameter when you saw it?
GJ: It wasn't that big like Lake Superior. It's a
JM: Is it 100 feet across? 500 feet across? It
changes every year. I was just wondering how it was in
GJ: That's it, it changes. It depends on what time of
the year you are there. [pause] I think it was 100 ft
or a little bit more than 100. I don't really know.
A few other exchanges while viewing slides of the area also
show Morris giving information to Jammal:
JM: This is up by Lake Kop. You saw something like
this? [rocky slopes]
GJ: Oh yeah.
JM: There is a prominent ice cliff here. Do you
remember that? [west side]
GJ: Yes, I remember the big cliff, okay. [not
JM: This is that same glacier with the crevasses.
Coming down to Lake Kop, down here. There is a very big
rock [A-K rock], hundreds of feet tall. You don't
remember that? There are many similar rocks, but this
big rock next to the big glacier? We are standing near
Lake Kop to take the picture.
GJ: Lake Kop is to the left of here?
JM: No, behind us.
GJ: Yes, behind us. To the left, down there.
GJ: Do you have a picture from the lake up to the
JM: Well, you can't see it from Lake Kop; you have to
climb the ridge and then look up, but I have some from
The transcript also points out some inconsistencies in
JM: Where did you start from? ...
GJ: They told me there is a city there--it's called
Nakichevan, or something, I don't remember exactly the
name. It is "where the ark was landed"--that's the
JM: That's in Russia [pointing to a map].
GJ: Well, that's what they told me; I don't know where
that city is.
JM: The one you mentioned in your letter was
GJ: Yes, that's what they told me. This is Russia?
[astonished at the location of Nakichevan]
JM: Yes. This is Russia; here's the Russia-Turkey
border; here's Mt. Ararat. So you drove to Turkey in
your VW. Did you cross over into Russia?
GJ: No, I didn't go to Russia. But that's what they
told me, if my memory is not failing me.
Morris himself gets suspicious at one point:
JM: A man in Igdir, you think? Do you remember his
JM: But that's an Armenian name. I would be surprised
if someone in Turkey had that name.
GJ: Part of Armenia is taken by the Turks, and part of
Armenia is taken by the Russians. Maybe he has a
different name, but that's what he told me. ...
JM: Please forgive me, I'm not playing the district
attorney, but for clarity, a minute ago you said you
thought you came from the south, but then in looking at
the map you thought you came from the north.
GJ: Okay, this is north. We came there, this is what I
mean we went between the two mountains and then we
started to go from the south to the north.
JM: You cannot drive across.
GJ: No, we didn't drive, we walked.
And what about Jammal's piece of wood from the Ark? What had
he done with this incredibly valuable archaeological find?
GJ: Now you saw my place; I have to look for the piece
of wood. You saw my house--you didn't see the garage.
You know it is all boxes.
Jammal's initial hoax was not very convincing, and nothing
came of it. John Morris published nothing about it, and
other Ark researchers to whom he sent tapes of the Jammal
interview, such as Bill Crouse, thought that Jammal's story
was obviously untrue. The evidence was overwhelming: Jammal
contradicted himself, but resorted to saying "that's what
they told me" when inconsistencies were pointed out to him.
He let Morris do most of the talking, and usually just agreed
with what Morris had to say. He suggested that his own
family didn't believe his story, and asked Morris not to talk
to them. His first letter to the ICR contained obviously
bogus names, one of which was a very strong hint that his
story was fabricated. And his alleged most valuable
possession, a piece of Noah's Ark, was stuffed away in a box
somewhere that he hadn't bothered to keep track of.
Morris, however, did not--and still does not--seem to
recognize the significance of this evidence. On the one
hand, he has stated that "When I first interviewed [Jammal]
..., I remember thinking he had nothing of interest to tell
us as far as searching for the Ark. He didn't know where he
was sufficiently to be of any help and his story was so
different [from other claimed Ark eyewitnesses]." On the
other hand, he wrote that
It is my impression that [Jammal] was on Mt. Ararat. He
seems to know Lake Kop and described in reasonable
detail the terrain nearby. He especially was familiar
with the loose rocks. His memory of the size of Lake
Kop is accurate. His feel for the elevation at the base
of the main ice cap is about right.
Morris continues to maintain uncertainty about whether or not
Jammal's original story was true. While he agrees that
Jammal's present position (that he is a hoaxer) is
inconsistent with his previous position (that he actually
visited Ararat and saw the Ark), he was unwilling to endorse
either position in a telephone interview.
Bill Crouse of Christian Information Ministries,
International, an Ark hunter who publishes the newsletter
Ararat Report, was not so hesitant. Crouse disbelieved
Jammal's story from the time he first heard it in 1986, and
was both surprised and disappointed to see Jammal on "The
Incredible Discovery of Noah's Ark," a program which he
thoroughly debunked in the May 1993 issue of his newsletter.
Crouse wrote on the basis of Morris' interview that Jammal
is extremely confused when confronted about the
geography of the mountain. He first claims to have
started his ascent from Nakhichevan (60 miles away!).
... whenever he was confronted with contradictions he
would defer to: 'I was told this...' ... he says he
found a man in Igdir named Asholian. An Armenia?
Living in Igdir in 1980? Highly unlikely. ... We were
at Ararat in 1984, and no climbers were allowed to climb
on any route but the southern route. He claims,
however, to have seen a group of climbers at Kop. He
claims he rented mules at Igdir. How could he do this
without getting caught? ... Does he have any proof that
he was ever in eastern Turkey, such as photos, or his
passport? Is he willing to have his wood tested for
Crouse's article shows that a critically thinking person--
even one who believes in the Ark and the Flood of Noah--had
plenty of reasons to question Jammal's story prior to public
allegations of a hoax.
Jammal's Hoax: 1992-1993
Yet when Sun International Pictures came to John Morris
asking for information about persons claiming to have seen
the Ark, Morris gave them Jammal's name, along with copies of
the material he had already collected. By this time, Jammal
and Gerald Larue had become acquainted, and Larue had
appeared on Sun's previous CBS program, "Ancient Secrets of
the Bible." Larue, who was unhappy with the way his
interview had been edited, encouraged Jammal and offered him
suggestions for carrying out his interview with Sun. Jammal
prepared a piece of wood by soaking it in a variety of sauces
including wine, teriyaki sauce, spices, alcohol, and seeds,
then microwaving and baking it. Jammal's interview with Sun
went smoothly, and he was able to keep his story fairly
consistent with his original interview in part because Morris
had provided him with a transcript. Sun expressed no doubts
about Jammal's claims, and his segment was prominently
featured on "The Incredible Discovery of Noah's Ark."
When Larue blew the whistle on the hoax in June, he
criticized Sun for making no effort to verify Jammal's story.
Sun not only overlooked the overwhelming evidence of a hoax
already in their possession, they continued to ignore it when
it was pointed out to them. Sun and the ICR have
subsequently made no mention of any of this early evidence of
a hoax, but instead referred to the early years of Jammal's
hoax as evidence against Larue's claims. This offensive
maneuver against Larue was enabled by the fact that the
initial stories reporting Jammal's hoax incorrectly described
Larue as the initiator of the hoax. CBS, Sun, and the ICR
all latched on to this incorrect claim as a means of self-
defense. CBS's Sagansky stated that "The crux of that [Time]
article was that Dr. Larue from USC apparently put Mr. Jammal
up to this hoax. And in fact, we have the exact same
testimony from Jammal dating back to 1986." Sun Executive
Producer Charles Sellier, Jr. wrote that "It is difficult for
us to understand how Dr. LaRue [sic] master-minded a hoax in
1992 based on facts first recorded in 1986." John Morris
reported that he sent his early Jammal materials to Time
magazine with the expectation that its reporters would take
it as evidence against Larue's hoax charges. He concluded:
Don't hold your breath for a Time magazine or Associated
Press retraction. If it happens, it will be buried on
an obscure page. Don't look for LaRue's [sic] fellow
humanists to insist on a higher standard of integrity.
The damage has already been done; the goal has already
been accomplished. Christianity and creation have been
given another 'black eye' in public, with no
Morris suggests that a retraction is in order for this
relatively minor mistake--reporting that Larue initiated the
hoax, rather than simply helped with its last stages--while
ignoring his own failings which contributed to the success of
the hoax in the first place.
The primary line of defense--denial that there was a
hoax by Jammal--was accompanied by a secondary line of
defense: that Sun's research was exemplary. (When it became
clear to everyone--except Morris--that Jammal was a hoaxer,
this became the primary defense. As Sun's Allan Pederson
told the Los Angeles Times after Jammal confessed, "We
certainly will be as conscientious as we can and scrutinize
sources as closely as we can in the future. But frankly,
we took the same due diligence before all this. My stance is
that it's just about impossible to defend against that kind
of well-planned and well-thought-out deception." The attacks
on Larue were completely dropped from a later revised version
of Sun's press release, except for a single paragraph which
reiterated the point about Jammal's story being told to the
ICR prior to Larue's involvement.)
The secondary defense consisted of four parts: (1) That
Sun had examined Morris' interview with Jammal. (2) That Sun
had conducted their own two-hour audio taped interview
looking for inconsistencies in Jammal's story. (3) That Sun
compared the two interviews and found them to be consistent
with each other. (4) That Sun gave Jammal's interview tapes
to psychiatrist Paul Meier, who pronounced Jammal credible.
By late September, Sun added a fifth defense: (5) That Sun
had Jammal's hand-drawn map of Ararat and his expedition
routes examined by Ararat expeditioneers who "assured us that
it could not have been drawn by anyone who did not have
experience with the mountain."
The first point of this defense is clearly no defense at
all, since Jammal's initial interview should have made it
clear that his story was not credible. The second point is
difficult to judge without knowing what questions were asked,
but it is clear that Sun did not bother to check Jammal's
passport, test his wood, or find anyone who could confirm any
part of his story. The third defense is negated by the fact
that Jammal possessed a copy of his original interview and
had ample time to prepare. The fifth defense is undercut by
the fact that Jammal had read books by Ark researchers in
preparation for his interview, several of which contain maps
of the area. It is also counteracted by Jammal's lack of
detailed knowledge of the geography of the region in his
interview with Morris.
The fourth defense is the one which Sun has placed the
most weight on and devoted the most space to in its press
releases. Quotations from Meier--who has never met or spoken
with Jammal--fill two and a half of the six pages of Sun's
initial defense against the hoax allegations. Meier's
qualifications are given by Sun as follows: "a well-known
California psychiatrist, co-founder of the 28 Minirth-Meier
clinics across America, and author of 40 books on human
behavior." It is also mentioned that Meier "served as the
field physician on Astronaut James Irwin's Noah's Ark
expedition to Mt. Ararat."
Meier, who now practices in Richardson, Texas, combines
Christianity and psychiatry in his clinics which provide "a
ministry for Christ as well as ... help hurting people."
It is not at all clear that Meier is qualified to offer a
judgment about Jammal's veracity on the basis of an audio
tape but even so, some of his own statements seem to cast
doubt on Jammal's story. He states that Jammal seems to be
"an 'obsessive-compulsive with histrionic features' ... a
perfectionist performer ... He wants fame and yet he's humble
enough to admit it. ... He wanted to feel special." But
Meier's statements also bring his own credibility into doubt.
He states that he finds Jammal to be "the most credible" of
the four alleged eyewitnesses on the program, in marked
contrast to Bill Crouse, who found Jammal to be the least
credible. Meier claimed that Jammal's "descriptions of the
customs of the people, of the Ark itself and its location,
are very accurate" and that they match "exactly what I know
to be true about the Ark from the secret government
reconnaissance photos." On the former point, Meier is at
odds not only with Crouse, but with John Morris, who found
Jammal's account unhelpful with regard to pinpointing the
location of the Ark. On the latter, Meier owes an
explanation of what "secret government reconnaissance photos"
he is talking about and how he came to have access to
Jammal's most concrete piece of evidence for his claimed
visit to the Ark was his piece of wood, and Sun's program
made much of it. Near the end of the broadcast, the
narrator's voice says, over a scene from a dramatization of
Jammal's fictional Ark visit and then a photograph of
Navarra's wood: "Samples of the wood taken from the vessel
have been dated to the time when the Bible indicates a
worldwide flood occurred." This strongly suggests that
Jammal's wood was tested, but it was not. Gerald Larue, in
Time, specifically criticized Sun for failing to perform any
tests on the wood. Sun's excuses for failing to do so have
evolved. In the original Associated Press story on the hoax,
Sun's chief researcher David Balsiger stated that "We
couldn't test the wood in time for our deadline." In the
September Long Beach Press-Telegram article, Balsiger stated
that "This is an entertainment show. We're not supposed to
make our own news or tests," a position also taken by Sun's
press releases. In a letter from Sun's Charles Sellier to
CBS Vice President Steve Warner, Sellier wrote that "Even if
we had the money and time to test every piece of evidence
presented by experts, it would not have been definitive as
there would still be those who would disagree and take
exception to the findings." The first Sun press release
expanded on this, claiming that "the sample according to the
Time article was contaminated by baking and juices. This
would have prevented obtaining accurate carbon-14 dating
As Gerald Larue has pointed out in his reply to Sun, the
contaminants would have been discovered by a dating test, and
would themselves have indicated that something fishy was
going on. He further points out that the sauces the wood was
baked in have caused it to reek of teriyaki sauce, which
could have been determined by simply smelling the wood.
Sellier's claim that a carbon-14 test would "not have been
definitive" seems to be completely without foundation.
Sun International Pictures claims that they made every
reasonable effort to validate Jammal's story, and that they
cannot be held responsible for being taken in by his hoax.
While this defense is highly implausible in light of the
evidence that was available to Sun prior to the broadcast of
their program, it becomes even more implausible when it is
noted that Jammal's story was not the only one on the program
lacking in credibility.
"The Incredible Discovery of Noah's Ark" featured the stories
of several other people who have claimed to have found the
Ark on Ararat. One of these was Ed Davis of Albuquerque, New
Mexico, who was stationed in Hamadan, Iran in 1943. Davis
claims that while there, he saw a snow-capped mountain in the
distance and was taken there by Lourd natives of the region,
including one named Abbas, who showed him the Ark. The Sun
program made much of the fact that Davis took and passed a
polygraph test. But the show failed to mention certain
relevant facts. These include: (1) Davis' polygraph test
consisted of a total of six questions, one of which showed
unusual stress. That question was "Are you lying when you
state that no one ever told you about the Ark other than
Abbas and the Bible?" (2) Davis claims he saw Ararat from
Hamadan, which is 400 miles away. (3) Davis claims his trip
to Ararat took about half a day. (4) Davis' story has
changed significantly over time--e.g., he now says Kurds, not
Lourds, took him to Ararat.
Another claimed Ark eyewitness was Ed Behling, who has
refused to talk about his claims since the early 1980's.
(His appearance on the Sun program was taken from an older
interview.) Behling claims to have been shown the Ark while
in Turkey with the Air Force. Behling's story contains
dubious details which, when he was questioned about them, he
refused to answer. For instance, he claims to have built a
campfire just below the Ark (above 13,000 feet), but would
not answer questions about the nature of the campfire and
what he used for fuel. Those who know Behling have described
him as a sincere Christian who sometimes embellishes
A third claimed Ark eyewitness was Fernand Navarra, a
Frenchman who has been variously described as a "junk dealer"
and an "industrialist." Navarra traveled to Ararat on
several occasions in the 1950's and 1960's, and claimed to
have found wood from the Ark in 1955 and 1969. The Sun
program reported that
Navarra himself had the hand-hewn wood that he had found
tested in three different laboratories. He was told
that its age was around 5,000 years, clearly in line
with the biblical account of the flood. The scientific
tests prove beyond question that something very old,
something very mysterious, was definitely on Mt. Ararat.
What the show did not say is that one of Navarra's expedition
members and his guides have said that Navarra purchased the
wood from natives in town and carried it up the mountain
himself, prior to his 1955 discovery. The show also did not
reveal that the testing methods which gave an age of 5,000
years were of dubious scientific value, and that radiocarbon
tests on Navarra's 1955 and 1969 wood by six labs yielded
ages from 1,190 to 1,690 years old. Finally, the show failed
to note that Navarra has pointed out several different
locations as where he found his wood.
All of the above information was in Sun's possession
during the production of the show. Ark researcher Bill
Crouse provided Sun with copies of all back issues of his
Ararat Report, which included critiques of these alleged Ark
eyewitnesses. Crouse, who was filmed for "The Incredible
Discovery of Noah's Ark" but was not used in the program,
says that he specifically told Balsiger when the film crew
was at his office that Jammal, Davis, and Behling were not
Is Sun Biased?
In Charles Sellier's letter to CBS defending the quality of
"The Incredible Discovery of Noah's Ark," he stated that "our
role is to present all of the known information and let the
audience decide." Sun's Allan Pederson told the Los Angeles
Times that "we don't take a point of view, creationist or
These claims, however, stand in stark contrast to the
facts. First, the program's foregone conclusion is given in
its title. It claims that Noah's Ark has been discovered,
and that therefore the creationist claim that the Flood of
Noah was a historical event is true. Ark researcher Bill
Crouse has complained of his disappointment with the program
and how he has "absolutely hated" to tell excited Christians
who viewed the program that "No, that's still premature; the
discovery of Noah's Ark has not yet been authenticated."
Second, the program was scripted by Sun; token skeptics
were given straw man arguments to read for the cameras. The
scripts for Sun's programs are written in advance and
approved by the network even before some of the actors are
selected to read their parts. In some cases, skeptics have
been allowed to write their own scripts, but Sun freely edits
the results. Skeptic Farrell Till, who appeared on the Sun
program "Ancient Secrets of the Bible II," was allowed to
write his own script for three taped segments. Sun discarded
one, edited one down to almost nothing, and aired one as
written and read by Till. The straw man script which had
originally been written for Till was read by someone
Third, the "experts" on the program were overwhelmingly
believers in the Flood of Noah and the reality of the Ark on
Ararat, even though the scientific consensus is the reverse.
I counted forty on the pro-side and only three on the con-
side. Of the forty pro-Ark "experts," at least six (John
Morris, Ken Cumming, Henry Morris, Larry Vardiman, Walter
Brown, and Carl Baugh) make their living as advocates of
creationism, the first four for the ICR. These affiliations
were not disclosed, but instead these six people were
identified as "Professor of Geology," "Professor of Biology,"
"Professor of Hydraulics," "Professor of Atmospheric
Sciences," "Professor Emeritus--Physics," and
"Paleoanthropologist," respectively. Other creationists on
the program included John Whitcomb, Ethel Nelson, Don
Shockey, and Roger Oakland. (No doubt there were many
others.) None of these experts address the numerous
scientific absurdities in the Ark story.
A fourth and related point is that credentials of
"experts" were frequently misrepresented. Just examining the
above examples, the misrepresentations get progressively
worse: John Morris is a professor of geology for the ICR's
Graduate School, but his title on ICR stationery is
"Administrative Vice President." Henry Morris has been a
professor of hydraulics at respected universities, but he
presently serves as the President of the ICR. Walter Brown's
Ph.D. is in mechanical engineering, and he is presently the
Director of the Center for Scientific Creation, which he
operates out of his home in Phoenix, Arizona. Carl Baugh,
advocate of the Paluxy River "mantracks" and the proprietor
of the Creation Evidences Museum in Glen Rose, Texas, has
claimed a remarkable assortment of degrees in theology and
science, but his credentials have been found to be of dubious
validity. He has claimed a Ph.D. in theology from the
California Graduate School of Theology, an unaccredited
school not even listed in most college directories, but he
has subsequently admitted that despite completing the
required work he never actually obtained a degree. He has
claimed other theology degrees which have also failed to
stand up under scrutiny. All of his science degrees are from
unaccredited institutions run by himself or by a former
associate, Clifford Wilson. His claimed degree in
paleoanthropology is from Pacific College, a small religious
school in Australia run by Wilson, where it is not accredited
or authorized to grant science degrees.
Perhaps the two worst misrepresentations of credentials
(apart from Baugh) were the show's on-screen identifications
of "Dr. Ethel Nelson, Chinese Pictograph Linguist" and "Dr.
Don Shockey, Professor of Anthropology." The viewer was
given the impression that both are academic researchers with
Ph.D.s in the fields identified. In fact, Ethel Nelson is a
medical doctor in Dunlap, Tennessee and Don Shockey is an
optometrist. In the latter case, at least, Sun knew full
well it was misrepresenting Shockey's credentials--in the
closing credits of the program, "Don Shockey, O.D." is
credited as a technical advisor.
Fifth, the program made statements which the producers
knew or should have known to be untrue or misleading, even
apart from the credential misrepresentations. For example,
footage at the end of the program showed a photograph
allegedly taken from the air by former astronaut James Irwin
during his last flight over Ararat. In fact, the photo shown
was taken by Bob Garbe, an Ohio pharmacist, while standing on
the mountain. The photo has been analyzed and the formation
pictured is too small to be Noah's Ark. Bill Crouse has
reported that he provided Sun with the Garbe photo and
identified its source, and that it had also been published in
a book by John Morris with the correct attribution to Garbe.
This factual error was the only one on the program which John
Morris found worthy of note for the ICR's Acts & Facts
The program devoted one lengthy segment to a reenactment
of the alleged discovery of the Ark by a Russian expedition
in 1916. This story apparently comes from an article which
appeared in New Eden magazine in 1940. Floyd M. Gurley, the
author, has admitted that the story was a hoax. Ark
researcher David Fasold says that when he tried to show a
copy of a letter from Gurley to Balsiger, Balsiger refused to
look at it. Balsiger says that he doesn't remember such an
One person on the show, Vence Will, identified as "World
War II USAF," said that he saw photos of the Ark around 1944
published in the military newspaper Stars & Stripes. The
newspaper and photos were not shown on the program, because
despite extensive searches, no such photos have ever been
discovered. Sun's Balsiger and Sellier report these negative
results in their 1976 book.
Other misleading omissions include the fact that
"Ararat" refers in the Bible to a region, not to a specific
mountain (see 2 Kings 19:37; Jeremiah 51:27). Some of the
ancient writers appealed to by the program, such as Berosus,
specifically claimed that the Ark was in the Cordyaean
mountains, more than two hundred miles south of Mt.
Sixth, Sun has produced numerous shows filled with wild
speculation and dubious factual content. Past Sun
productions have included "Ghosts from the Dead," "The
Lincoln Conspiracy" (also a book co-authored by Balsiger and
Sellier), "Hangar 18," "The Bermuda Triangle," and "The
Mysterious Monster" (about Bigfoot). Planned future
productions included "Mysteries of the Ancient World" (still
forthcoming on CBS in February), "Revelations," and "The UFO
Phenomenon." The latter two projects were canceled by CBS as
a result of the controversy over "The Incredible Discovery of
A seventh and final point bearing on whether Sun knew
what it was doing is that its researcher, David Balsiger, has
a past history of involvement with Christian hoaxes. During
the early seventies, Balsiger wrote both books and newsletter
articles for the Christian publisher Logos International. He
ghost authored or co-authored a number of "autobiographical"
books giving Christian testimonies, including Fernand
Navarra's Noah's Ark: I Touched It, self-proclaimed former
Satanist turned Christian comedian Mike Warnke's The Satan
Seller, and faith healer Morris Cerullo's The Back Side of
Satan. Warnke's story was exposed as a hoax in a lengthy
article in the Christian magazine Cornerstone in 1992, though
Balsiger continues to defend it. Cerullo, for whom both
Balsiger and Warnke worked prior to the formation of Warnke's
own ministry, has come under heavy fire from Christian
critics for his incredible claims (e.g., that he was taken
from an orphanage by angels and transported to heaven for a
face-to-face meeting with God) and unorthodox theology.
Logos International, which is no longer in business, also
published a hoaxed biography of a former rabbi turned
Christian and a book which initiated the "urban legend" about
NASA computers discovering a "missing day " and proving the
biblical account of Joshua making the sun stand still (Joshua
In David Balsiger's most recent public statement about George
Jammal's hoax, he writes that
There is something wrong with the ethics of the news
media when they glorify the acts of humanist hoaxers who
intentionally and successfully deceive 40 million TV
viewers; and then blame the show producer and CBS for
not discovering their elaborate hoax. This is not a
case in which the producer or the network is guilty of
deceiving viewers, but rather one more example of
humanists who tout themselves as 'Ethical Humanists'
being neither ethical nor honest when it comes to
advancing their hidden agenda.
Had circumstances been different, Balsiger would have had a
point. If Jammal's hoax had really been "elaborate" and
carefully constructed to resist anything less than the most
scrupulous and detailed investigation; if it had not been
filled with inconsistencies and intentional clues; if
Balsiger had not been warned about Jammal being a hoaxer
prior to the show's completion; if the show had not otherwise
misrepresented and omitted facts; if Balsiger and Sun had a
reputation for sober and accurate research, then his
criticism would carry some weight.
There are, of course, serious moral questions which
should be raised about the kind of hoax Jammal performed. Is
the intent to discredit an entire worldview, or to reveal the
inadequacies of particular organizations or individuals? If
the latter, is the hoax the only way to bring public
attention to these inadequacies, or are other methods
available which would be about as effective? Are those being
hoaxed given adequate chance to avoid falling into the
trap? Whatever Jammal's intent, his hoax has clearly
demonstrated the inadequacy of the research of Sun
International Pictures and brought it to public attention
after letter writing campaigns and even books of criticism
have failed to do so. Sun had every chance to avoid
being caught by the hoax, but disregarded the evidence and
chose to produce a program filled with inaccuracies and
misrepresentations. Now it must face the consequences.
Thanks to the following persons who provided materials and
information: Clark Adams, David Bloomberg, Bob Bryant, Bill
Crouse, L. Drew Davis, David Fasold, Alan Feuerbacher, Bill
Hamilton, George Jammal, Eric Jones, Gerald Larue, J. Dave
Lewis, John Morris, Gretchen Passantino, Robert Schadewald,
Richard Trott, and Brett Vickers.
 The earlier film was released theatrically, then shown on
NBC on May 2 and December 24, 1977 (Bailey 1978, p. 124).
Bill Crouse (1993) estimates that as much as 20% of the 1993
program was cannibalized from "In Search of Noah's Ark." For
criticisms of the earlier program, see Bailey (1978),
especially ch. 7; Montagno with Lisle (1977); and Teeple
(1978), especially pp. 125-127.
 Associated Press (1993), Jaroff (1993), Skeptic (1993).
The hoax had actually been revealed in March in a press
release from the Committee for the Scientific Examination of
Religion (CSER 1993), but hardly anyone took any notice of
 Pierce (1993), Sun International Pictures (1993a) p. 6;
Morris (1993b), p. 3.
 Wiscombe (1993), Freethought Today (1993a), Sun
International Pictures (1993b, p. 3).
 Cerone (1993), Freethought Today (1993b). The Atheists
United program, which was recorded on September 11, 1993 and
not aired until after Jammal's FFRF speech on October 23, is
available on videotape from Lee Baker, Atheists United, P.O.
Box 5329, Sherman Oaks, CA 91413.
 I obtained copies of this early material from John Morris
in October 1993. Morris said he sent the same material to
Time magazine. A large portion of Jammal's letter to Gish
was published in Freethought Today (1993b).
 Morris (1986a), p. 7.
 Ibid, pp. 11-12.
 Ibid, p. 1.
 Ibid, pp. 3-4.
 Ibid, p. 9. Morris also told me (both in a letter dated
October 8, 1993, and in a telephone interview on November 2,
1993) that he had called Jammal several times asking about
the piece of wood, but Jammal said he hadn't really bothered
to look for it.
 Morris telephone interview, November 2, 1993.
 Sun International Pictures (1993b), p. 1; Sellier
(1993), p. 3.
 Crouse (1993), p. 5. Crouse believes that the biblical
story of Noah's Ark is true, but that the Ark landed some 200
miles south of Ararat.
 Sun's press releases state that they examined Jammal's
interview with Morris as part of their investigation (Sun
International Pictures 1993b, p. 1; Sellier 1993, pp. 2-3).
Sun's researcher David Balsiger stated in a telephone
interview on December 7, 1993 that the earliest account from
Jammal that he had seen was the 1986 Morris interview, though
he also said that he had looked through Morris' files. In
light of how readily Morris has sent out copies of the 1985
Jammal-to-Gish letter to skeptics, I find it hard to believe
that he concealed the existence of this letter from Sun.
Ark researcher David Fasold, in a telephone interview on
November 27, 1993, said that Sun's researcher David Balsiger
came to his home on August 8, 1992 to discuss his (Fasold's)
appearance on the show. Fasold says that he told Balsiger on
the basis of the Morris interview transcript that Jammal's
account was clearly untrue. He was quite surprised when
Balsiger told him that Jammal was to be the show's star
eyewitness. Fasold did not appear on the program. David
Balsiger says that he does not remember any conversation with
Fasold about Jammal. Ark researcher Bill Crouse said in a
telephone interview on December 7, 1993 that he specifically
warned Balsiger that Jammal (and other claimed Ark
eyewitnesses) lacked credibility, and gave Balsiger reasons
for his opinion.
 Pierce (1993); Sellier (1993), p. 3; Morris (1993b), p.
4. Morris' (1993b) article, prior to the quoted conclusion,
claimed that "most" statements in the Sun program were
"essentially accurate"; that "Especially powerful were
interviews with several who claim to have seen the Ark,"
including Jammal; that while Time and the Associated Press
"have branded Jammal as a fraud," a "quick phone call to
Jammal proved that he had not retracted his testimony and had
offered to take a lie detector test"; that Jammal "had not
benefited financially from his story, except for a modest
interview fee paid by Sun Pictures"; that Larue is not "an
objective critic"; that "Psychiatric evaluation of Jammal's
taped interview pronounced him to be credible"; and that
Jammal's "knowledge of the mountain and its people could
hardly have been coached by someone who had never been
there." When I read Morris his strongly worded conclusion
(without the above summary) and asked him if he felt that a
retraction was in order for his defense of Jammal's story, he
answered that he didn't remember his article well enough to
know if he needed a retraction. He stated that "I don't
remember it well enough to know that I stood behind Jammal
that he saw the Ark; I don't know that I've ever thought
that, so I doubt that I said it." When pressed, he did say
that "I have no stomach for saying things that are wrong, and
if I've done that, then yeah, I'll retract."
A new article informing ICR followers of the hoax, if
not a retraction of Morris' previous article, appears to be
in order. A recent article by Morris (1993c) agreeing that
there is no good evidence of "flash frozen" mammoths is
perhaps a promising sign, but his overall record for
correction of mistakes and falsehoods is less than perfect.
For example, when the alleged human footprints at the Paluxy
River were shown to be dinosaur tracks, Morris' 1980 book on
the subject (Tracking Those Incredible Dinosaurs and the
People Who Knew Them) was officially pulled from circulation
in January 1986, but he has continued to suggest that there
is evidence of human footprints at the site (Morris 1986b,
1986c, 1988; Cole 1986; Schadewald 1986, p. 12). Also see
Cole and Godfrey (1985), Hastings (1989), and Kuban (1986,
Morris appealed to the withdrawal of his 1980 book as
evidence of his commitment to truth during my interview with
him, but he has failed to retract other erroneous statements
even after learning of his errors, e.g., the claim that
Donald Johanson has been keeping quiet the location where
"Lucy"'s knee joint was found (Morris 1989; Lippard 1990, pp.
27-28) and that there are fossil-bearing strata on Mt. Ararat
(Zindler 1989). Further, while Morris' Paluxy "mantrack"
book was officially withdrawn, the book continued to be sold-
-former Creation/Evolution editor Fred Edwords was one person
who successfully ordered a copy (personal communication from
John Cole, November 30, 1993). The book and the "mantrack"
claims continue to be touted in Henry Morris' 1993 History of
Modern Creationism (2nd edition), pp. 291-292.
 Cerone (1993); Sun International Pictures (1993a), pp.
2-5; Sellier (1993), pp. 2-4; Sun International Pictures
(1993b), pp. 1-3.
 Wiscombe (1993). Also see Cohen (1993).
 Sun International Pictures (1993a), pp. 3-5; Sellier
(1993), pp. 3-4; Sun International Pictures (1993b), p. 2.
Chapter 13 of Balsiger and Sellier (1976) is titled
"Satellite, Spy Plane and CIA Involvement." In this chapter
John Morris is quoted saying that he had interviewed the
pilot of a spy plane who claimed to have viewed secret photos
of the Ark, but that his attempts to get copies have failed.
Bill Crouse, in a telephone interview on December 7, 1993,
said that he suggested that Sun have Meier examine the
interview tapes but was quite surprised that Meier endorsed
Jammal's veracity. He also provided some information about
the spy photos, saying that an acquaintance of Meier claims
to have seen photos of Mt. Ararat taken from a U-2 plane
which bear some resemblance to a large ship. Crouse
suggested that the story about the photos may well be true,
but the object pictured was probably a "phantom Ark" basalt
formation, of which there are many on Ararat.
 Associated Press (1993); Wiscombe (1993); Sun
International Pictures (1993a), p. 5; Sellier (1993), p. 5;
Sun International Pictures (1993b), p. 3. In a telephone
interview on December 7, 1993, Sun's David Balsiger stated
that he got in some trouble with CBS for "making news" by
testing a soil sample as part of his research for one of
Sun's "Ancient Secrets of the Bible" programs, and that had
that not happened he probably would have tested the wood.
 Larue (1993), p. 62. Larue actually wrote of "soy
sauce," but Jammal has said that it was a combination of
blueberry and almond wine, iodine, sweet-and-sour barbecue
sauce, and teriyaki sauce (Cerone 1993, longer version).
Jammal also said at his FFRF convention speech on October 23
that a creationist found a seed from one of his baking sauces
on the wood, but thought nothing of it.
 Cerone (1993) also claims, apparently on the basis of
information from Jammal, that Robert Dietz, professor
emeritus of geology at Arizona State University, asked Sun
for a piece of the wood for testing, and that Jammal was told
by Sun not to give a sample to Dietz. Dietz (personal
communication, November 29, 1993) says that he never asked
Sun for a sample of the wood.
 These details and others are presented in Crouse (1993),
pp. 3-4. Crouse has also discussed Davis in more detail in
the January-February 1988 and January-February 1989 issues of
Ararat Report. Crouse suggests that Davis was taken to the
mountain "Kuh e Alvand," 60 miles west of Hamadan, which is
believed by many in the region to be where the Ark landed.
 Crouse (1993), p. 4.
 Crouse (1993), pp. 2-3; Bailey (1978), chapter 6; Fox
(1993), p. 44. Navarra's own account is given in Navarra
edited with Balsiger (1974). Balsiger and Sellier (1976),
chapter 12, discusses the tests of Navarra's wood and raises
standard creationist objections to radiocarbon dating--
objections which have now been rejected by the ICR (Aardsma
Sun International Pictures (1993a), p. 6 states that "No
one has come forward with evidence that any of these
remaining eyewitnesses [other than Jammal] are perpetrated
hoaxes on Sun International." Crouse told me in a telephone
interview on December 7, 1993 that while he never called any
of these people "hoaxers," he did present Balsiger with
considerable evidence that their stories were not credible,
prior to the completion of the show. Crouse (1993) also
predates Sun's reply.
 Sellier (1993), p. 5; Cerone (1993).
 Crouse (1993), p. 1.
 See Barker (1993), Larue (1993), Malone (1993), and Till
(1993). This practice of making skeptics into defenders of
straw men via pre-scripted positions and biased editing was a
major factor in Larue's encouragement of Jammal to hoax Sun.
Sun's David Balsiger, in a December 7, 1993 telephone
interview, stated that those who appear on Sun's shows are
given the opportunity to rewrite and improve their scripts,
and that the initial scripts reflect what they think a given
expert is likely to say on the basis of telephone interviews
and other research.
 A detailed account of the numerous scientific,
engineering, and practical problems with the Ark story is
given by Moore (1983). Problems with Ark sighting claims are
discussed in Bailey (1978), Moore (1981), and Teeple (1978).
David Balsiger has stated that the on-screen identifications
were limited by CBS to two lines: one for the person's name,
and one for some identification of their field of expertise.
 Kuban (1989b, 1989c) gives the details on Baugh's
degrees. Baugh (1989) is a reply of sorts which does not
deny any of Kuban's substantive claims. Bill Crouse, in a
telephone interview on December 7, 1993, says that he warned
David Balsiger that Baugh lacked credibility among Ark
 Nelson was the author of the ICR's Impact No. 169 (July
1987), titled "The Chinese Language and the Creative Hands of
God." In that publication she was identified as an M.D. and
as "a physician in Dunlap, Tennessee." Nelson claims that
"the ancient Chinese worshiped the same Creator-God as the
Hebrews" based on her study of Chinese pictographs.
Fox (1993) points out that a number of "experts" on the
program are not listed in directories of professionals for
the fields in which they are supposedly expert.
 Crouse (1993), p. 7; Morris (1993a). Morris wrote of
the identification of the photo as Irwin's that "While many
facts [on the program] were somewhat overstated, only one
piece of evidence was 'wrong.'" I'm afraid I must disagree
with Morris's tally.
 Telephone interview with David Fasold, November 27,
1993; with David Balsiger, December 7, 1993. Fasold says he
has a file of information about Gurley's hoax, and read me
excerpts from Gurley's letter. Some details about the New
Eden hoax have been published in Bailey (1978), pp. 55-56 and
Teeple (1978), pp. 103-107. Balsiger and Sellier (1976), pp.
102-109 and Berlitz (1987), pp. 29-41 defend the Russian
expedition story on the basis of testimony from Alexander
Koor, who did not begin telling it until 1945. The details
of Koor's story suggest that it was derived from Gurley's,
though both Berlitz (1987) and Balsiger and Sellier (1976)
reject any connection.
 Balsiger and Sellier (1976), pp. 155-157. They report
that it was supposedly in a summer 1943 issue, and one 1973
report of seeing the issue came from a woman whose husband
had been stationed in Tunisia in 1943. The Tunisia edition
(December 1943 to June 1944), Mediterranean edition (December
1943 to January 1944), the North African edition (May 1943 to
May 1944), and the Africa-Middle East-Persian Gulf edition
(April 1943 to December 1945) were all searched by a
researcher at the Army Library at Balsiger and Sellier's
request. They report that "there were nearly 25 other
editions in the European war theater which possibly could
have run the story" (p. 156) as their explanation for why
they called off the search.
 Josephus (1987), Antiquities of the Jews 1.3.5-6, p. 34.
Other errors and omissions are detailed in Fox (1993).
 Balsiger and Sellier (1976), p.218; Cerone (1993);
Rosenberg (1993b); Teeple (1978), p. 125.
 Balsiger's involvement with Cerullo and with Logos
International is discussed briefly in Trott and Hertenstein's
(1992) expos of Mike Warnke, and more extensively in their
book (Hertenstein and Trott 1993). He was the media director
for Cerullo's World Evangelism from 1970-1972 and Logos'
director of marketing from 1972-1973. They also briefly
comment on "rabbi" Michael Esses' 1973 biography, Michael,
Michael, Why Do You Hate Me?. The fabricated story about
NASA and the "missing day," which originated in Harold Hill's
1974 book How to Live Like a King's Kid, is discussed by
McIver (1986), Brunvand (1991), and Loftin (1991). A
Christian critique of Morris Cerullo and other advocates of
the "Faith" movement such as E.W. Kenyon, Kenneth Hagin,
Kenneth Copeland, Benny Hinn, John Avanzini, Robert Tilton,
Marilyn Hickey, and Paul Crouch may be found in Hanegraaff
The term "ghost author" is Balsiger's own--Balsiger and
Sellier (1976), p. 218 say that he "has authored or ghost
authored seven other books including Noah's Ark: I Touched
It, The Satan Seller, It's Good To Know, Beyond Defeat, On
The Other Side, One More Time, and The Back Side of Satan."
These books claim to be, respectively, the stories of Fernand
Navarra, Mike Warnke, Randy Bullock, James E. Johnson, Marvin
Ford, Don Musgraves, and Morris Cerullo. I have located only
the first two of these books, but Ford's is probably of
considerable interest. It is an account of Ford's near-death
experiences and supposedly includes visions and prophecies
for the future--made in 1978.
Balsiger has been politically active. He was involved
with the Coalition on Revival, which is devoted to
"rebuilding our civilization on the principles of the Bible
... until the day we die," serving on its steering committee
from 1985 to "a few years ago" when he resigned (personal
communication from Jay Grimstead, December 3, 1993). (See
Porteous 1993. Some information about the COR may be found
in McIver 1988 and Porteous 1991.) In the 1980's, he
produced a series of "Biblical Scoreboards," glossy magazines
designed to instruct fundamentalist Christians on how to vote
in accordance with the Bible. He has worked on a number of
Republican political campaigns in California and organized
and headed some political organizations (National Citizens
Action Network; the Ban the Soviets Coalition, which worked
to ban the Soviet Union from the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics;
and the Restore a More Benevolent Order Coalition, which
worked to help Soviets defect).
Balsiger sometimes identifies himself as "Dr. David W.
Balsiger," and he has letterhead which identifies him as
"David W. Balsiger, L.H.D." (doctor of humane letters). His
entry in Who's Who in America lists the source of this degree
as Lincoln Memorial University in Harrogate, Tennesee (a
four-year college which does not have any doctoral programs),
with no date given. (In the 45th (1988-89) and later
editions of Who's Who in America, this degree is identified
as an honorary degree.) Balsiger says that the degree was
awarded for his book, The Lincoln Conspiracy. Balsiger's
undergraduate career was lengthy--his Who's Who entry lists
five colleges attended between 1964 and 1977, with a B.A.
awarded by National University in San Diego in 1977. Oddly,
Balsiger's Who's Who listing says that he was a student at
Chapman College's World Campus Afloat in 1967-68 and a member
of the board of directors of the same program in 1967.
Balsiger says that he was not on the board of directors, but
a member of a student association.
 Balsiger (1993).
 See Bok (1978) for a discussion of some relevant
questions, though she does not specifically address hoaxes.
Bok (1983), chapter 16, does go into more detail about some
moral considerations involving the use of deception to expose
certain kinds of practices. MacDougall (1958), pp. 262-282
describes historical examples of "hoaxes of exposure"
designed to expose excessive credulity and other failings.
 See note 1.
Aardsma, Gerald E. (1989) "Myths Regarding Radiocarbon
Dating," ICR Impact No. 189 (March).
Associated Press (1993) "CBS Defends Untrue Show About Ark,"
Chicago Tribune (June 29).
Bailey, Lloyd R. (1978) Where Is Noah's Ark? Nashville,
Tenn.: Abingdon/Festival Books.
Balsiger, Dave and Sellier, Charles E., Jr. (1976) In Search
of Noah's Ark. Los Angeles, Calif.: Sun Classic Books.
Balsiger, David W. (1993) Letter "To Whom It May Concern,"
Barker, Dan (1993) "In Search Of 'Balance,'" Freethought
Today 9(3, April):4.
Baugh, Carl (1989) "Reverend Baugh Replies...," NCSE Reports
Bible-Science News (1993) "Alleged Hoaxes Surround CBS Noah's
Ark Special," Bible-Science News 31(5).
Bloomberg, David (1993a) "REALLity Check: Noah's Farce," The
REALL News (Rational Examination Association of Lincoln
Land) 1(2, March):5-6.
---- (1993b) "Logic Abuse and CBS--A REALLity Check Extra,"
The REALL News 1(5, June):6-7.
---- (1993c) "REALLity Check: Noah Way!" The REALL News 1(6,
---- (1993d) "Incredible Mysteries of Sun Pictures," The
REALL News 1(8, September):1,3,7-9.
Bok, Sissela (1978) Lying: Moral Choice in Public and Private
Life. N.Y.: Vintage Books.
---- (1983) Secrets: On the Ethics of Concealment and
Revelation. N.Y.: Vintage Books.
Brunvand, Jan Harold (1991) "The Missing Day in Time," paper
presented at the Committee for the Scientific
Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal 15th
Anniversary Conference in Berkeley, California, May 4.
Cerone, Daniel (1993) "Long Beach Man Admits Ark Hoax," Los
Angeles Times (October 30):F1,F17. (Another edition of
the Los Angeles Times printed a longer version of this
article on the same day with the headline "Admitting
'Noah's Ark' Hoax" on pages F1,F13.)
Church, J.R. (1993) "The Hoax Makers Are At It Again,"
Prophecy in the News 13(9, September):1-4.
Clayton, John N. (1993) "CBS Ark Story is a Hoax," Does God
Exist? 20(5, September/October). "News & Notes"
Cole, John R. and Godfrey, Laurie R., editors (1985) "The
Paluxy River Footprint Mystery--Solved,"
Creation/Evolution special issue 5(1, #15):1-56.
Cole, John (1986) "Paluxy Creek Footprints in Pittsburgh,"
Creation/Evolution Newsletter 6(5,
---- (1992) "CBS 'Documentary' Touts Scientific Creationism,"
NCSE Reports 12(4, Winter):22.
---- (1993) "Noah's Ark on CBS," NCSE Reports 13(1,
Cohen, Edmund D. (1993) "And Now--Psychiatric Wards for Born-
Again Christians Only," Free Inquiry 13(3, Summer):25-
Crouse, Bill (1993) "Figment or Fact? The Incredible
Discovery of Noah's Ark," Ararat Report #32(May):1-7.
Excellent, detailed critique of the CBS/Sun program by
Christian Information Ministries, International, 2050 N.
Collins Blvd., Suite 100, Richardson, TX 75080.
CSER (1993) "CBS Is Criticized for Airing Anti-Evolution
'Noah's Ark' Program," Free Inquiry 13(3, Summer):46.
Statement to the media from the Committee for the
Scientific Examination of Religion, originally
distributed in March.
Dietz, Robert S. (1993) "Ark-Eology: A Frightening Example of
Pseudo-Science," Geotimes 38(9, September):4.
Freethought Today (1993a) "CBS 'Hoax' To Be Exposed: Jammal
To Speak At FFRF Convention," Freethought Today 10(7,
---- (1993b) "CBS Cancels Religious Programs After Hoax
Exposed," Freethought Today 10(9, November):3.
Fox, Richard (1993) "'The Incredible Discovery of Noah's
Ark': An Archaeological Quest?" Free Inquiry 13(3,
Hanegraaff, Hendrik H. (1993) "What's Wrong with the Faith
Movement, Part One: E. W. Kenyon and the Twelve Apostles
of Another Gospel," Christian Research Journal
Harker, Kent (1993) "Dr. Zark," BASIS (Bay Area Skeptics
Information Sheet) 12(4, March):1-4.
Hastings, Ronnie J. (1989) "Creationists' 'Glen Rose Man'
Proves to be a Fish Tooth (As Expected)," NCSE Reports
Hertenstein, Mike and Trott, Jon (1993) Selling Satan: The
Tragic History of Mike Warnke. Chicago, Ill.:
Jaroff, Leon (1993) "Phony Arkaeology: In a pseudo
documentary, CBS falls victim to a hoaxer," Time 142(1,
Josephus, Flavius (1987) The Works of Josephus. Translated
by William Whiston. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson
Kuban, Glen (1986) "Review of ICR Impact Article 151,"
Origins Research 9(1):10-15.
---- (1989a) "Retracking Those Incredible Man Tracks," NCSE
Reports 9(4, July-August).
---- (1989b) "A Matter of Degree: An Examination of Carl
Baugh's Credentials," NCSE Reports 9(6, November-
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