Author: Ted Holden The basic Holden article on dinosaur enigmas, in its entirity, was feat

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====================================================================== Author: Ted Holden ====================================================================== The basic Holden article on dinosaur enigmas, in its entirity, was featured in a recent issue of The Velikovskian. It was very well received from all indications. Among the comments which came back was one letter which I found particularly interesting; it read, in part: "Are you aware of the "expanding earth" theory, which is an alternative to continental drift? In 1983 H.G. Owen published "Atlas of Continental Displacement, 200 Million Years to the Present" in the prestigious Cambridge Earth Science Series of the Cambridge University press (England). It is a book of maps that shows how the continents looked at various intervals in the past beginning 200 megayears ago. In Owen's words: 'In 1976 I presented a spherical geometric analysis of the bulk of the ocean floor spreading made available up to 1974. During this task, it was found that the continents would only fit together to form Pangea, according to geological evidence, when the Earth's diameter was 80% of its modern mean value. Below that figure, Pangea could not be reformed without intra-continental dislocations. Above that figure, gores appeared in the reconstructiond.' "This should reduce "g" by at least 20 percent. Actually, Owen was carrying on the work started by S. Warren Carey in his book, "The Expanding Earth", published by Elsevier in 1976 in their Developments in Geotectonics series. Later a symposium entitled "The Expanding Earth" was held at the University of Sydney in Australia Feb. 10-14, 1981 and sponsored by the Australian Academy of Science and the proceedings were published under that title. In 1988, Carey published "Theories of the Earth and Universe" through the Stanford Univ. Press. In this book he advances the theory that matter is being created in the center of the earth and that is why the earth is expanding - I've talked to several physicists about this and they see no problem with it. I'm not in a position to make an independent judgement." "However, if the earth is expanding and Carey is right about the cause, the new material could well be as heavy as iron or heavier and the change in "g" could be more than the 20% that I roughed in. I wrote to Carey several years ago and I'm not sure that he's still alive, but I plan to send him a copy of Holden's paper... "... You might want to send a copy to Owen, who is in the Department of Paleontology at the British Museum (Natural History) London." Another conundrum it seems. Neo-catastrophists, including David Talbott, Lynn Rose, and a number of others can, of course, can do a bit of a better job of explaining this one, without the semi-miraculous requirement of continuous creation of matter in fact. The Spring 91 issue of the Aeon journal, which concerns itself with the nature of the antedeluvian world, carried an article by Lynn Rose on the subject of the former supercontinent, Pangea. Rose noted several glaring problems with this arrangement, and suggested a novel way of solving them. The problems included: 1. That the continents were all clumped into a single mass in the first place. No force exists at present which might ever draw them all together, and the odds of them all merely drifting together for no reason are greater than 64 - 1, which would be the odds against them ever merely appearing in the same hemisphere for no real reason. 2. If, as seems overwhelmingly likely, some force drew the continents into one place, then that force should have drawn them into a circular mass. The sea of Tethys is an anomaly, which clearly does not belong in the picture. The picture of Pangea looks, in fact, like a pie with one wedge (the Tethys Sea) missing; sort of like a pac-man with its mouth open. 3. Given uniformitarian views, if we assume the system to be 7 B years old, our earth should have been in equalibrium even 200 M years ago. If some force existed then to draw the continents together into Pangeae, and if that force were terrestrial, then clearly Pangeae should still exist. The relatively minor catastrophes which establishment science presently allows for as per the case of the Alverez version of the dinosaur extinctions should by no means have broken up Pangeae. 4. India starts out on one shore of the Sea of Tethys and moves to the other. According to current theory, again as per "Continents Adrift", India can barely make it over that distance even in the greatest version of the allowed time involved; it should be on the ocean floor. Rose goes into some detail on this point. Rose mentions one other very major problem with continental drift theory which is more properly a part of another article. Rose derives evidence that two prior ages have existed, one, the so-called "Age of Cronus" of the Greeks and Romans during which the felt effect of gravity was heavily attenuated by the different planetary allignment, and a prior age, that of Pangeae, during which the effect was even more pronounced. During both ages, the earth was egg shaped, considerably more so in the age of Pangeae. Rose's solution to the aforementioned problems: imagine a half of a grapefruit skin sitting atop a basketball (our egg-shaped world), and then inagine that a catastrophe occurred during which this felt effect of OTHER gravity, from the small-star or large planet(s) was reduced, which amounts to imagining that somebody pushed the half grapefruit skin down atop the surface of the basketball, thus forcing it to lie atop a surface of lesser curvature. The skin of the grapefruit half would split into something very like the Sea of Tethys. What Rose is saying is that the Tethys Sea never existed, or existed only for a short period of time after the split and breakup of Pangea, and that we are only forced to imagine it's having existed by our insistence on believing that the world was always round as it is now. One notes that this notion of Pangea sitting atop the high part of an egg-shaped or eccentric Earth neatly solves the problems of Owen, Carey et. al. ................................................................... ................................................................... Lynn Rose mentions one final problem involved with continental drift theory, and this involves the present fits of the Red Sea shores and the shores of the Gulf of Aden. Both fits are quite good; you can join the shores of the Red Sea, or of the gulf, BUT ONLY ONE AT A TIME; if you join the shores of the Red Sea, the shores of the Gulf will be open by about 20 degrees, and vice- versa. Basically what you have is like two letter "V"'s connected at their vertices, one something like 110 degrees and the other something like 90. This ammounts to a dilemma on the map of the world. Given our earth as it presently exists, such a split could not happen. Lynn Rose presents evidence for the existence of two prior ages; the evidence involving Pangea involves a long distant and remote age, posssibly the age of the seizemosaur and other really gigantic beasts. The evidence involving the Africa/Arabia split involves a much more recent and historical age, the time of the Greek Golden Age and of the biblical antediluvians. Lynn Rose sees in this evidence an indication as to the actual location of the mythical garden of Eden, the home of Adam and Eve, and the way in which all of this fits together is interesting. I do not claim to know what is meant by claims of Adam and Eve having been the first two people. It is possible that God actually created them as written, it is also possible that prior people more closely resembled bears or gorillas or neanderthals, and that "first people" once meant something more like "first such as us". Possible also is "first caucasians"... who knows. But too much is written of Adam and Eve and in too many places to lightly regard them as mythical figures. In many of these sources, we find mentioned a "holy mountain"; it is written that Adam and Eve and Seth and Seth's descendants lived upon the holy mountain, and that Cain and his descendants descended and began to live below. Lynn Rose, of course, has given us an indication as to what the "holy mountain" might have been, basically, the high part of the egg-shaped world which existed prior to the great flood. Rose proposes the world mountain (of the age of Kronos) to have been based within the Afar Triangle. He proposes something akin to a half a grapefruit sitting atop a basketball (for the purpose of conceptualization and not necessarily to scale) as having been the former situation, and then (when the whole thing fell at the end of the golden age), surface splitting would occur with the skin of the half grapefruit being suddenly forced to lie flat upon the surface of lesser curvature. If two such splits thus occurred, as easily might happen, then you would see just such an impossible split as we see between Africa and Arabia now. Rose states that rough figures show an earth eccentricity between .3 and .4 and a world mountain of several hundred kilometers height being needed for the African, East African, and Arabian plates to fit, closing the rift valley and other problems along with the afore-mentioned Red-Sea/Gulf-of-Aden anomaly. Climbing our present mountains is tough enough; climbing up or down a mountain such as Rose describes would be a major-league big deal. Does literature record any such notion? In "The Forgotten Books of Eden" Bell, (ed. R.H. Platt Jr.), pp 76 - 78 we find: "But then Genun [of the children of Cain living below] gathered together companies upon companies, that played on horns and on all the other instruments that we have already mentioned, at the foot of the holy mountain, and they did so in order that the children of Seth who were on the holy mountain should hear it. But when the children of Seth heard the noise they wondered and came by companies, and stood on the top of the mountain to look at those below, and they did thus for a whole year... ...Then the children of Cain looked up from below, and saw thge children of Seth standing in troops on the top of the mountain, and they called to them to come down to them. But the children of Seth said to them from above, " We don't know the way"... I should also mention that the capital of Yemen, opposite the Afar Triangle which Rose cites as the former location of this holy mountain, is called Aden. It thus appears that Adam and Eve and others of the antedeluvians such as remained with them and their descendants through Seth, lived in the vicinity of the Afar Triangle and of the city of Aden. The Age of Kronos and the age of Pangaea do not appear to have been the same. The Red Sea/Gulf of Aden splits were recent, Pangaea a bit less recent. Rose mentions that the same construction he uses to explain the Africa-Arabia fit will also work for Pangaea, thus solving problems 2 and 4 by eliminating any need for a Sea of Tethys in continental drift theory, but that the world mountain you'd need would be larger, over 1000 km, with Earth's eccentricity between .5 and .7. Before I lose track of it, I should also mention that Rose's novel method of accounting for the splitting of continental plates, i.e. the notion of a curved surface being forced to lie upon a world which is suddenly less curved, will also account for a couple of other anomalies. Mountains are generally thought to arise when continental plates collide or shift over and under eachother, and yet we have cases of mountains, such as the Urals, where nothing of the sort shows any evidence of ever having occurred. Rose states that a highly curved surface suddenly forced to lie upon a surface of lesser curvature, aside from splitting as we have seen, could also wrinkle, thus forming mountains.


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