After reading all the comments all smart drugs, I came upon this text file on a BBS out we

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After reading all the comments all smart drugs, I came upon this text file on a BBS out west........ Shadow Walker SMART DRUGS & NUTRIENTS Parts of this text has been excerpted from MEGABRAIN REPORT: THE PSYCHOTECHNOLOGY NEWSLETTER and the rest from the book, "Smart Drugs & Nutrients" by Ward Dean, M.D. and John Morgenthaler. The article appearing in MEGABRAIN REPORT was written by Michael Hutchison and John Morgenthaler. For a copy of the full length article, including references, contact MEGABRAIN REPORT, POB 2744, Sausalito, CA 94965, Phone: (415) 332-8323, FAX: (415) 332-8327. The book includes an index, references, and sources of compounds can be obtained from B&J Publications, PO Box 483-905, Santa Cruz, CA 95061-0483, Phone: (800) 669-2030. The cost is $12.95 + sales tax + shipping. California Total: $17.86 (Delivery 2-3 weeks.) U.S. Total: $16.95 (Delivery 2-3 weeks.) Canada Total: $17.95 (Delivery 2-3 weeks.) Overseas Total: $19.95 (Send international money order in U.S. dollars. Delivery time is 1-2 months.) NOOTROPICS What is a Nootropics? A Nootropics is a word coined by Dr Giurgea to describe a new class of drugs that act as cognitive enhancers with no side effects or toxicity, from the Greek word noos, meaning mind and tropein meaning toward. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ DRUG: PIRACETAM (Nootropil): This drug is reported to be a intelligence-booster with no toxicity or addictive properties. Piracetam is very inexpensive ($.85 /day) and available by mail. Some people reported that it "Wakes up your brain". Very effective and safe drug. The effects of Piracetam maybe increased if taken with DMAE, Centrophenoxine, Choline, or Hydergine. PRECAUTIONS: Piracetam may increase the effects of certain drugs, such as amphetamines, psychotopics, and Hydergine. Adverse effects are rare but include insomnia, psychomotor agitation, nausea, gastrointestinal distress, and headaches. Piracetam has virtually no known toxicity or contraindications. DOSAGE: Piracetam is supplied in 400mg or 800mg capsules or tablets. The usual dosage is 2400 to 4800 mg per day in three divided doses. Some literature recommends a high "attack" dose be taken for the first two days. People have reported that they do not notice any effect at all until they take a high dose (approx. 4000 to 8000 mg). Thereafter, they may notice that a lower dosage is sufficient. Piracetam takes effect within 30 to 60 minutes. SOURCES: Piracetam is not sold in the US. It can be purchased over the counter in Mexico or by mail-order. Other names include: Avigilgen, Cerebroforte, Cerebrospan, Cetam, Dinagen, Encetrop, Euvifor, Gabacet, Genogris, Memo-Puren, Nootron, Nootrop, Nootropil, Nootropyl, Normabrain, Norzetam, Novocetam, Pirroxil, Psycoton, Stimucortex, and UCB-6215. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ DRUG: ANIRACETAM: Aniracetam is a powerful cognitive enhancer. Study participants improved their scores on a number of intelligence and memory tests. Aniracetam's chemical structure is similar to Piracetam and is more powerful than Piracetam in treating a wider range of problems. PRECAUTIONS: Aniracetam has been tested in two few human studies to establish precautions. Preliminary findings indicates that, like other nootropics, it has little or no toxicity and few or no side effects. DOSAGE: One study found that the maximum cognitive-enhancing effect occurred at 1000mg of aniracetam per day. Use of other smart drugs and nutrients concurrently will probably greatly reduce the optimum dosage. SOURCES: Aniracetam is not approved for distribution in any country as far as we know. If it ever does become commercially available, overseas mail-order firms will probably offer aniracetam. Other names for aniracetam include: Draganon, Ro 13-5057, and Sarpul. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ DRUG: FIPEXIDE: During a double-blind study involving elderly people with severe cognition disorders found that fipexide improved cognition and preformance on a number of different tests. One test used in the study measured several different parameters including co-ordination, short term memory, and attention. The researchers calculated the average improvement in cognition at 60%. fipexide has a mild dopamine-enhancing effect. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter and is critical to fine motor coordination, immune function, motivation and emotions. This smart drug mat prove to be excellent for the learning process of consolidating memory. Most nootropics are helpful in both memory consolidation (learning) and recall. PRECAUTIONS: No information has been found about the adverse effects of Fipexide, but this does not mean that there are none. DOSAGE: Studies have used 600mg per day in three divided dosages. The dose- response curve for fipexide is bell-shaped as has been found for many other smart drugs. SOURCES: Fipexide is not sold in the US, but can be obtained by mail-order overseas. Other names for fipexide include Attentil, BP 662, and Vigilor. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ DRUG: OXIRACETAM: Oxiracetam is another piracetam analog. Oxiracetam is more powerful than piracetam requiring a small dose per Kg. During one study involving pregnant mice, the oxiracetam-treated offsprings showed signs of being more curious and performed significantly better in memory tests than the offspring of the saline solution-treated control group. Although this is not a recommendation for pregnant woman to take oxiracetam, it certainly hints at exciting possibilities, and indicates that this is an amazing and non-toxic smart drug. Researchers wrote that oxiracetam is a "vigilance-enhancing compound with some effects on spontaneous memory", and that "in comparison with piracetam, oxiracetam exhibits a greater improvement in memory factor". During another study, they found that oxiracetam had better therapeutic results than piracetam on both a psychosomatic and neurologic symptoms. Oxiracetam also seemed to decease platelet aggregation. PRECAUTIONS: Oxiracetam, like other nootropics, is non-toxic. It has been shown safe in doses up to 2400mg. DOSAGE: Oxiracetam is more potent than piracetam. In one study aimed at finding the optimum dosage subjects were tested with 200mg, 400mg, 800mg, 1200mg, and 2400mg per day. The greatest improvements in cognitive function occurred at does of 1200mg and 2400mg per day. SOURCES: SmithKline hopes to soon get approval for oxiracetam in the US for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, otherwise it can be purchased from mail- order overseas. Other names include: CT-848, hydroxypiracetam, ISF-2522, Neuractiv, and Neuromet. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ DRUG: PRAMIRACETAM: Pramiracetam is a variation of the piracetam molecule developed by Parke Davis. Pramiracetam enhances the functioning of the cholinergic system in a manner similar to that of piracetam, but it is effective at much lower doses. In one study, subjects with Alzheimer's disease showed significant intelligence and memory enhancement with only 150mg per day of pramiracetam. PRECAUTIONS: Preliminary findings indicate that, like other nootropics, it has little or no toxicity and no or few side effects. DOSAGE: 75-1500mg per day. SOURCES: As of 1991, no source have been found for this smart drug. Other names include CI-879. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ DRUG: PYROGLUTAMATE (PCA): Pyroglutamate (also called 2-oxo-pyrrolidone carboxylic acid) is a amino acid naturally occurring in vegetables, fruits, dairy products and meat and seems to be an important flavor constituent in these foods. It is also normally present in large amount in the human brain, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood. Pyroglutamate is known to have a number of remarkable cognitive-enhancing effects. Pyroglutamate has shown to significant increase of attention and an improvement on psychological tests investigating both short and long-term retrieval, and long-term storage of memory. A statistically significant improvement was observed in the consolidation of memory. One form of pyroglutamate is arginine pyroglutamate, besides of the above mentioned effects, the arginine part is a single amino acid that is used to build muscle bulk and to burn fat because the arginine causes the pituitary gland to release a growth hormone. PRECAUTIONS: No serious adverse effects from the use of pyroglutamate or arginine pyroglutamate have been reported. Both are natural amino acids found commonly in natural foods. DOSAGE: 500mg to 1000mg per day for arginine pyroglutamate or somewhat less if straight pyroglutamate is used. SOURCES: Health food or Vitamin stores offer various products containing pyroglutamate. Other names for pyroglutamate includes: alpha-aminoglutaric acid lactam, glutamic acid lactum, glutimic acid, glutiminic acid, pyroGlu, and pyroglutamic acid. Other names for arginine pyroglutamate includes: Adjuvant, Piraglutargine, and Arginine Pidolate. DRUG: VINPOCETINE (CAVINTON): Vinpocetine is a powerful memory enhancer. It facilitates cerebral metabolism by improving cerebral microcirculation (blood flow), stepping up brain cell ATP production (ATP is the cellular energy molecule), and increasing utilization of glucose and oxygen. What all this means is that vinpocetine shares many of the effects of several other cognitive enhancers. PRECAUTIONS: Adverse effects are rare, but include hypotension, dry mouth, weakness, and tachycardia. Vinpocetine has no drug interactions, no toxicity, and is generally very safe. DOSAGE: One or two 5mg tablets per day. SOURCES: Vinpocetine is not sold in the US. It can be purchased by mail-order from sources overseas. Other names include: ARGH-4405, Cavinton, and Ceractin. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ OTHER COGNITIVE ENHANCERS DRUG: ACETYL-L-CARNITINE (ALC): This is a naturally-occurring molecule that is involved in the transport of fats into the mitochondria (the energy producing region of all living cells), and is found in some common foods such as milk. Actyl-L-carnitine is related to choline compounds, both chemically and in clinical effects. ALC may also have some important properties of protecting the brain from the effects of aging (inhibit the formation of lipofuscin in the brain (fatty deposits that build-up on the nerve cells that are associated with the reduction of cognitive powers)). In human studies, it has increase the attention span and alertness, and small but significant improvement in short-term memory. PRECAUTIONS: Studies on humans have not found any toxic effects or significant sides effects. This does not mean that there are no negative effects. It only means we have not seen any evidence for negative effects. DOSAGE: 1000-2000mg per day in two divided doses. SOURCES: We do not know of any sources in the US at this time. It can be purchased overseas. Other names include: Alcar, Branigen, levacecarnine hydrochloride, n-acetyl-l-carnitine, Nicetile, and ST-200. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ DRUG: CENTROPHENOXINE (LUCIDRIL): Centrophenoxine is an intelligence booster and may also be an effective anti-aging therapy. It has been shown to cause improvements in various aspect of memory function and a 30% increase in life- span of laboratory animals. Centrophenoxine along with ALC removes lipofuscin deposits. It also repairs the synapses, which is where neurotransmitters are released from one nerve cell in order to communicate information to another. Centrophenoxine breaks down into DMAE in the blood stream and some researchers have suggested that centrophenoxine's effects maybe identical to DMAE's. One study found that DMAE and centrophenoxine had the same free-radical-scavenging abilities, however, centrophenoxine is better than DMAE in retarding lipofuscin accumulation in a nematode. PRECAUTIONS: Centrophenoxine should not be used by person who are easy excitable, have severe hypertension, or are subject to convulsions or involuntary musculoskeletal movements. Centrophenoxine also should not be used by nursing mothers. Adverse effects are rare, but include hyperexcitability, insomnia, tremors, motion sickness, paradoxical drowsiness, and depression. If taken late in the day, centrophenoxine is more likely to cause insomnia. There is no toxicity of centrophenoxine at therapeutic doses. DOSAGE: 1000 to 3000mg per day. Centrophenoxine takes effect very quickly. Many people notice an increase in alertness and a slight stimulation effect. SOURCES: Centrophenoxine is not sold in the US. It can be ordered over the counter in Mexico or by mail order from Europe. Other names include: acephen, Analux, ANP 235, Brenal, Cellative, Cerebon, Cetrexin, Clocete, clofenoxine, Helfergin, Lucidril, Luncidril, Lutiaron, Marucotol, meclofenoxane, meclofenoxate, Mecloxate, Methoxynal, Proserout, Proseryl, Ropoxyl, and Telucidone. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ DRUG: CHOLINE & LECITHIN: Choline is the precursor of acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter that play an important role in memory). Choline improves memory by increase the amount of acetylcholine in the brain. Choline can be found in health food and vitamin stores in several forms including choline bitartrate, choline chloride, and phosphatidyl choline. Phosphatidyl choline (PC) is the active ingredient of lecithin. Choline in all forms has been shown to improve performance by normal, healthy humans in a assortment of intelligence and memory loss tests. Phosphatidyl choline is a source of the material from which every cell membrane is made. Nerve and brain cells in particular need large quantities of PC for repair and maintenance. It also aids in the metabolism of fats, regulates blood cholesterol, and nourishes the fat-like sheaths of nerve fibers. PRECAUTIONS: Any compound that acts as a precursor to acetylcholine such as choline, PC, or DMAE should not be used by people who are manic depressive because it can deepen the depressive phase. Choline bitartrate and choline chloride can sometimes cause a fishy odor or diarrhea. Phosphatidyl choline, however, does not have either of these effects. DOSAGE: 3 grams of choline per day in three divided doses. If lecithin is used as a source of choline, you may want to take more than 3 grams, because only part of the lecithin is choline. Sometimes label will provide information on the quantity of choline per teaspoon. All forms of choline should be taken with one gram per day of vitamin B-5 so that the choline can be converted into acetylcholine. SOURCES: Choline and lecithin can be purchased in health food and vitamin stores because they are nutritional supplements. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ DRUG: DMAE: DMAE, or dimethylaminoethanol is normally present in small amounts in our brains. DMAE is known for its remarkable brain-enhancement effects. DMAE elevates mood, improves memory and learning, increases intelligence, expands life span of laboratory animals, and increases physical energy. It is used by many for its mild, safe stimulant effect, and yet DMAE also makes it easier for most people to get to sleep. Many people report less fatigue during the day and sounder sleep at night as well as needing less sleep when taking DMAE. People who take DMAE have reported that after three to four weeks, they feel a mild stimulation continually, without side effects. Also, when DMAE is discontinued, no depression or let-down occurs. Riker Labs developed a prescription drug called Deaner (Deanol). This substance is the p-acetamidobenzoate salt of DMAE and has very similar effects. DMAE works by accelerating the brain's synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which in turns plays a key role in maximizing mental ability as well as in preventing loss of memory in aging adults. PRECAUTIONS: Overdosage can produce insomnia, dull headaches, or tenseness in the muscles (especially those of the jaws, neck, legs). These side effects disappear if the dosage is lower slightly. No serious side effects have been reported with DMAE. Patients with certain types of epilepsy should be closely monitored by a doctor. DMAE should not be used by people who are manic depressive because it can deepen the depressive phase. DOSAGE: DMAE is used initially at low dosage, with a gradual build up to 500mg or 1000mg per day. In some cases, lower dosages can result in good response. DMAE can take as long as three week to take effect. SOURCES: DMAE is considered a nutritional supplement and can be found at health food or drug stores. Other names include: Acumen, Atrol, Bimanol, Cervoxan, Deaner, Diforene, Dimethaen, dimethylaminoethanol, Elevan, Pabenol, Paxanol, Risatarum, Tonibral, and Varesal. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ DRUG: GINKGO BILOBA: Ginkgo Biloba is the oldest species of tree known, dating back 300 million years. Extracts from the leaves are used to improve cerebral circulation, mental alertness, and overall brain functioning. Ginkgo leaf works by increasing blood flow throughout the body and brain. Ginkgo increases the production of ATP (the universal energy molecule). It also improves the brain's ability to metabolize glucose, prevent platelet aggregation inside the arterial walls by keeping them flexible, improves the transmission of nerve signals, and acts as a powerful antioxidant. PRECAUTIONS: No negative effects have been reported in literature even at very large quantities. DOSAGE: Most research has been done with ginkgo biloba extract which contains 24% concentration of flavonoid extract. At this strength,the usual dosage is 120-160mg per day taken in three divided doses. However, many ginkgo biloba products on the market today are lower in potency. These products are taken in dosages as high as 1000mg per day in three divided doses. Three to six months use is probably needed to evaluate the results. SOURCES: Ginkgo biloba leaf and extracts are available in health food and vitamin stores. Source Naturals is one company that has a good ginkgo biloba leaf extract called Ginkgo-24 with 40mg of 24.3% ginkgo flavone glycoside per ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ DRUG: GINSENG: Ginseng has a wide range of uses by acting like a adaptogen, a nontoxic substance that increases resistance to stress. Ginseng improves brain function, concentration, memory and learning. In addition, it can reduce or normalize heart beat, blood sugar, and cholesterol, stimulate metabolic functions, and increase endocrine activity. PRECAUTIONS: Individuals with high blood pressure should be cautious about using large quantities of ginseng. DOSAGES: 500 to 3000mg per day in divided doses. SOURCES: Most health food stores carry several varieties of ginseng. There is tremendous variation in the amount active ingredients found in different types of ginseng and ginseng products. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ DRUG: HYDERGINE: Hydergine is reported to increase mental abilities, prevent damage to the brain cells from insufficient oxygen (hypoxia) and may even be able to reverse existing damage to the brain cells. Hydergine probably has several modes of action for its cognitive-enhancement properties including the following: 1) Increase blood supply and oxygen to the brain. 2) Enhance brain cell metabolism. 3) Protect the brain from free-radical damage during decrease or increase oxygen supply. 4) Speeds the elimination of age pigment (lipofuscin) in the brain. 5) Inhibits free-radical activity. 6) Increase intelligence, memory, learning, and recall. 7) Normalizes systolic blood pressure. 8) Lowers abnormally high cholesterol levels in some cases. 9) Reduces symptoms of tiredness. 10) Reduces symptoms of dizziness and tinnitus (ringing in the ears). One way that Hydergine may enhance memory and learning is by mimicking the effects of a substance called Nerve Growth Factor (NGF). NGF stimulates protein synthesis , resulting in growth of dendrites (tiny extensions which branch out from the brain cells making connections with other brain cells). Dendrites are the communication connections between nerve and brain cells and are crucial to memory and learning. PRECAUTIONS: If too large a dose is used when first taking Hydergine, it may cause slight nausea, gastric disturbance, or headache. Overall, Hydergine does not produce any serious side effects. It is nontoxic even at large doses and it is contraindicated only for individuals who have chronic or acute psychosis, or who are allergic to it. Overdosage of Hydergine may, paradoxically, cause an amnesic effect. DOSAGE: The US recommended dosage is 3mg per day. However, the European recommended dosage is 9mg per day taken in three divided doses. It may take several months before you notice the effects of Hydergine. The effects of Hydergine may be synergistic with piracetam. If you are taking both you may need to scale down the dosage of both smart drugs in order to get the optimal cognitive enhancing effect. Since these and many of the compounds we discuss have inverted "U" dose response curves you might even get a negative effect if you take high doses of piracetam and Hydergine together. SOURCES: Hydergine is available in the US with a doctor's prescription. Not all doctors are aware of Hydergine cognitive enhancing properties that we have discussed. It may also be purchased over the counter in Mexico or by mail order from Europe. Other names for Hydergine include: Circanol, Coristin, D- Ergotox forte L.U.T., Dacoren, Deapril-ST, Decme, Decril, Defluina, DHE, DHET, dihydroergotoxine, Dulcion, Enirant, Ergodesit, Ergohydrin, ergoloid mesylates, Ergo-plus, Insibrin, Nehydrin, Novofluen, Orphol, Perenan, Progeril, Redergin, Simactil, Sponsin, Trigot, and Unergol. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ DRUG: VASOPRESSIN (DIAPID): Vasopressin (anti-diuretic hormone) is a hormone secreted by the posterior portion of the pituitary gland. It improves attention span, concentration, memory retention, and both long and short-term recall. Vasopressin is necessary for imprinting new information in your memory. Vasopressin is very useful when learning large amount of new information. It can increase your ability to memorize and recall. Many people have very strong and positive reactions to vasopressin. PRECAUTIONS: Vasopressin occasionally produces the following side effects: nasal congestion, runny nose, itch or irritation of the nasal passages, abdominal cramps, headache, and increase bowel movements. Vasopressin has not been proven to be safe for use during pregnancy. It should also be used cautiously in cases of hypertension or epilepsy. DOSAGE: Vasopressin usually comes in a nasal spray bottle. Most studies indicate memory improvement have been done with a dose of 12 to 16 USP units per day, or about two whiffs three to four times per day. Vasopressin produces a noticeable effect within seconds. SOURCES: Vasopressin is available in the USA. You can buy it with a doctor's prescription. It may also be purchased over the counter in Mexico or by mail order from Europe. Vasopressin comes in three forms: lysine-vasopressin (Diapid, LVP, Lypressin, Postacton, and Syntopressin), l-desamino-8-D-arginine (Adiuretin SD, DAV Ritter, DDAVP, Desmopressin, Desmospray, and Minirin), and arginine-vasopressin (argipressin, AVP, and rinder-vasopressin). All forms have very similar or identical effects. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ PRODUCT SOURCES While some of the substances described above are not available in the U.S., or are available only by prescription, it is easy and quite legal to obtain these substances by mail order. One reason some of these substances are not available in the U.S. is that they have not yet gone through the extraordinarily expensive and lengthy process required to obtain FDA approval. This does not mean however that it is not quite legal to use these substances. And some of the substances have been approved by the FDA for limited medical application. This does not mean that it is not quite proper to use these substances for "unapproved" purposes. In the April, 1982 issue of the FDA Drug Bulletin, the agency included a policy statement clarifying the question of "unapproved" uses for drugs, clearly stating that "'unapproved' uses may be appropriate and rational in certain circumstances, and may, in fact, reflect approaches to drug therapy that have been extensively reported in medical literature... Valid new uses for drugs already on the market are often first discovered through serendipitous observations and therapeutic innovation." In sum, the FDA clearly approves of the "unapproved" uses as an important means for innovation and discovery. Also, though it is not widely known, a July, 1989 FDA ruling now makes it quite legal to import effective drugs used elsewhere but not available in the U.S. The FDA now allows the importation and mail shipment of a three month supply of drugs, for personal use, as long as they are regarded as safe in other countries. The new ruling, FDA pilot guidelines chapter 971, was made as a result of heavy pressure from AIDS political action groups, which insisted AIDS sufferers were denied access to potentially life-saving substances that were widely used abroad but were still unapproved for use in the U.S. InHome Health Services, a mail order pharmacy in Switzerland, is one of a number of companies established in response to this new FDA ruling. InHome carries a wide variety of drugs for cognitive enhancement, life extension, and the treatment of AIDS which are not available in the US. All of the drugs discussed here can be purchased without a prescription. You can request a full price sheet by writing to: InHome Health Services Interlab Dept. E BCM Box 5890 POB 3112 or London CH-2800 Delemont WCIN 3XX Switzerland England You must include the following signed statement with your order. "I hereby declare that the products I am purchasing are not for commercial resale. They are for my personal use only. The supply ordered does not exceed three months usage, and they are used with the consent of my physician." CLOSING NOTE If you are interested in trying any of the above drugs or nutrients, I would highly recommend the book by Dean & Morgenthaler because I left out some important information such as the chapter on "The Use of Cerebroactive Compounds" and other good information such as different newsletter on smart drugs.


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