Yoga-Paths: Siddha Mahayoga SIDDHA MAHAYOGA FAQ Version 1.0, October 1994 Copyright Kur
Yoga-Paths: Siddha Mahayoga
SIDDHA MAHAYOGA FAQ
Version 1.0, October 1994
Copyright Kurt Keutzer, 1994 (email@example.com)
The author grants the right to copy and distribute this file, provided
it remains unmodified and original authorship and copyright is
retained.The author retains both the right and intention to modify and
extend this document.
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
1. What is kundalini?
2. What does kundalini have to do with spiritual enlightenment?
3. Does everyone agree that kundalini awakening is necessary for
4. So how do I awaken kundalini?
5. What is shaktipat?
6. How does shaktipat work?
7. Who can give shaktipat?
8. Who can receive shaktipat?
9. Are all shaktipat initiations the same?
10. Can one receive shaktipat just by being in the presence of
those with awakened shakti?
11. So what happens after shaktipat?
12. What are kriyas?
13. So how do kriyas purify my consciousness?
14. Are these kriyas some sort of self-hypnosis or some sort New
15. Haven't a number of well-known teachers have criticized
kriyas? They say that kundalini is a force that needs control.
16. What is the philosophy of siddha mahayoga?
17. What is the precise role of the guru in siddha mahayoga?
18. I thought siddha mahayoga was only taught by the Siddha Yoga
Dham of America - didn't they trademark the name?
19. What teachers give shaktipat initiation?
20. Where can I learn more?
I remember with gratitude those teachers who by their mere intention,
glance, word or touch can accomplish what is otherwise obtained only
with great effort and difficulty.
1. What is kundalini?
``Kundalini'' literally means coiling, like a snake.In the classical
literature of hatha yoga kundalini is described as a coiled serpent at
the base of the spine. The image of coiling, like a spring, conveys
the sense of untapped potential energy. Perhaps more meaningfully
kundalini can be described as a great reservoir of creative energy at
the base of the spine.
From a psychological perspective kundalini can be thought of as a rich
source of psychic or libidinous energy in our unconsicous.
2. What does kundalini have to do with spiritual enlightenment?
First we need a few concepts: In yogic anatomy the sushumna is the
central channel and conduit for the kundalini energy that runs along
our spine and up to the crown of our head. Along this channel are
placed additional channel networks called cakras. These cakras are
associated with major aspects of our anatomy - for example our throat,
heart, solar plexus, and in turn these aspects of our anatomy are
related to aspects of our human nature. For example we have many
everyday associations with the heart that do not make sense relative
to our physical heart. We say: `` I don't have the heart to tell
him.'' ;``Take heart.'' ``She's so kind hearted.'' All of these allude
to some sort of subtle functioning associated with the heart area.
In many systems of spiritual practice enlightenment is precisely
correlated with the kundalini awakening from its slumber at the base
of the spine rising through the sushumna and ultimately reaching our
crown. When the kundalini is permanently fixed in the crown then
enlightenment is achieved.
It's not useful to sit with our consciousness fixed in our head and
think of kundalini as a foreign force running up and down our spine.
Unfortunately the serpent image may serve to accentuate this alien
nature of the image. It's more useful to think of kundalini energy as
the very foundation of our consciousness so when kundalini moves
through the sushumna and through our cakras our consciousness
necessarily changes with it.
3. So does everyone agree that kundalini awakening is necessary for
This view is held in the diverse literature of Kashmir Shaivism and in
other Hindu Tantric literature. It is found in the literature of the
Hatha Yogis and the Nath Sampradaya. You will find similar views in
many Buddhist Tantric works. In addition this view is held by recent
spiritual figures such as Shri Ramakrishna, Swami Sivananda,
Paramahamsa Yogananda and Swami Vivekananda and of course by
contemporary kundalini yogins themselves. Nevertheless there are some
dissenters from this view. These include Sri Chinmoy, Da Free John and
Gurdjieff. Then there are many other spiritual practices, such as Zen,
Vipassana meditation that consider kundalini irrelevant.
4. So how do I awaken kundalini?
Indirectly kundalini can be awakened by devotion, by selfless service,
or by intellectual enquiry.
Broadly speaking there are two radically different direct approaches
to awakening kundalini. One approach requires initiation by a guru and
relies upon a technique called shaktipat, or ``descent of shakti.''
This is the approach that will be treated in this FAQ. It is variously
called: Siddha Yoga (Yoga of Adepts), Mahayoga (Great Yoga) or
Sahaja Yoga (Spontaneous Yoga). The other approach uses
intentional yogic techniques . The styles using intentional techniques
include Hatha Yoga, Laya Yoga and Kriya Yoga (see Kundalini Yogas
FAQ - to be released).
5. What is shaktipat?
``Shakti'' is another word for kundalini and ``pat'' means to descend.
Shaktipat is a method by which an individual's kundalini is awakened
by the direct intervention of a guru. There are several varieties of
shaktipat depending on the facility of the guru and the receptiveness
of the disciple.
There are a variety of mechanisms for conveying shaktipat. These
include: by glance, by word or mantra, by touch or simply by
6. How does shaktipat work? If kundalini awakening is so important how can
someone else do it for you? How could a guru overcome my karma?
There is a rich literature exploring this point but a couple analogies
may help more. Ordinarily it takes a long time to create a fire by
rubbing sticks together but if someone else already has a fire then
that fire can be used to ignite another fire. Similarly to make a
magnet naturally may require thousands of years but if one already has
a magnet then a metal can easily be magnetized using the magnet.
7. Who can give shaktipat?
To continue the analogy, in theory ``anyone on fire'' can give
shaktipat, i.e. anyone who's kundalini is already awakened. The more
relevant question is: ``Who *should* give shaktipat?'' There are many
opinions on this but at the very least the conveyer of shaktipat
should be aware of the movements of shakti in his own body and in the
body of the disciple. Giving shaktipat is a science and it is helpful,
if not essential, to be instructed in that science. The classical
works of Abhinavagupta and the living oral tradition of contemporary
masters, such as Swami Shivom Tirth, both indicate that improperly
practiced shaktipat initiation can be dangerous both two the disciple
to the guru and to the disciple. Using the analogy again, it is easier
to light a fire than to light it in such a way that it has a carefully
Therefore, it is desirable that the guru be empowered to give
shaktipat by his own guru and has been trained in an unbroken lineage
back to a great master who was fully aware of the science of
shaktipat. In this way some quality control is maintained.
8. Who can receive shaktipat?
There are even more opinions on this. Some gurus take an attitude of:
``Initiate them all and let shakti sort them out.'' Traditionally
teachers were quite selective about who received shaktipat. Sometimes
shaktipat was only given to one or two disciples in a generation.
Among gurus these days you can see these two extremes of opinion and
many other gradations in between. What is clear that some people who
have received shaktipat from well-known gurus have apparently only
manifested greater neuroses and unhappiness in their lives as a
result. See the question regarding kriyas below.
9. Are all shaktipat initiations the same?
There are many ways of classifying shaktipat initiations but a method
used by Swami Vishu Tirth is very simple and clear. In *shaktopaya*
initiations the kundalini shakti of the disciple is awakened by the
guru. In *shambhavopaya* initiations the kundalini shakti of the
disciple is awakened and led up through the cakras brining a glimpse
of the highest realization. Due to the current state of disciples, and
contemporary gurus, almost all initiations can be termed *shaktopaya*
10. Can one receive shaktipat just by being in the presence of those with
There is no doubt that shakti is contagious. The mere presence of a
single being whose shakti is strongly active can awaken the shakti of
those around him. Similarly being in the presence of many people whose
shakti is awakened to some degree can awaken one's shakti. Strictly
speaking this is not the same as shaktipat initiation and
11. So what happens after shaktipat? What's the practice?
In Siddha Mahayoga once the kundalini is awakened it is considered
that the awakened kundalini, being itself an intelligent force, will
direct the practice. All that is required is surrender to that force.
Then spontaneous purifying movements, called *kriyas*, typically
Even to reach the point of simply surrendering to shakti takes some
practice for people. Some aids in cultivating surrender are chanting
and selfless service. These practices open the heart and make one more
susceptible to the influence of shakti.
12. What are kriyas?
Kriyas, literally ``activities'', are spontaneous movements that occur
after kundalini awakening. The include body activities such as
trembling, shaking and spontaneous yoga postures; speech activities
such as yelling, or spontaneous chanting and mental activities such as
visions. These kriyas eliminate the blocks to kundalini rising within
the sushumna. The kundalini removes the blocks to its ascent through
13. How do kriyas purify one's consciousness?
Blocks, known as *samskaras* or impressions, do not just obstruct
kundalini, but they embody attachments, conceptions and other mental
afflictions that limit the freedom of our consciousness. Left
unattended these attachments lead to actions which only reinforce the
attachment. For example if we have impressions of anger then we will
manifest anger in our activities which only reinforce our impressions.
As kundalini rises it will purify the anger and as a result of the
purification process the kriyas will occur. Speaking of kundalini as
an intelligent force which manifests its intelligence in particular
activities, such as spontaneous yoga postures, to purify the blocks to
its progress may sound a little mystical but there is a less mystical
way of understanding what that means.
In our common language there are many colloquial phrases which allude
to the natural state of our body-mind as being ``straight'' or
``upright'' and the unnatural state being ``kinky'' or ``entangled.''
We say positively: ``He's an upright individual.'' ``She's as straight
as an arrow.'' We say negagively: ``He's to kinky. He's all tangled up
in himself.'' ``She's tangled up in knots.'' There seems to be some
subtle awareness of the value of straightness. So it seems to be a
good metaphor to view our mind-body continuum as a garden hose and the
kundalini as water running through it. If you have a moderately
tangled garden house a simple way of making it straight is to increase
the pressure of water through it. As you do so the hose will naturally
flip around to straighten itself. To an observer it might seem as
though the hose itself were intelligent in the way it straightens
itself and in fact because the motion of the hose is governed by
physical laws it does reflect a deep intelligence.
In the same way we don't need to think of the kundalini as an
independent autonoumous force cogitating as to what asana,
pranayama or verbal activity might purify a block inside us. It
seems more useful to think of kundalini as a natural intelligent force
whose natural movement untangles the knots which limit its expression.
The garden hose analogy makes another point clear as well. Imagine
what happens if the hose is very tangled. Turning up the water
pressure may be a very dramatic and perhaps even counter-productive
process. This seems to be what is happening in a number of cases where
individuals, after receiving shaktipat, may have severe mental
breakdowns. Thus it does seem to be important for individuals to have
a certain level of stability and preparation before receiving
14. Are these kriyas some sort of self-hypnosis or some sort New Age
This yoga is at least 1000 years old and is documented in the
Kularnava Tantra and in the works of the great Tantric scholar
Abhinvagupta and particular forms of kriyas can be found there. Some
popular yogis and scholars have doubted the authenticity of this path
but none who have done so show any familiarity with the classical
literature of this tradition. This approach has gone under many names
such as siddha yoga, sahaja yoga, mahayoga or siddha mahayoga. Similar
phenomena to kriyas also occur among some Qi Gong students.
Spontaneous trembling, shaking, verbal noises, and body movements are
common there as well.
Nevertheless gatherings of siddha mahayoga practicioners share many of
the same characteristics of any other group gathering. Some people
will try to fit in by emulating the behavior of those around them.
There is no doubt that some people may feel the need to affect kriyas
and others will accentuate kriyas that they have. This may not even be
conscious behavior. Gurus of this yoga must try to maintain a balance
between interfering with the activity of the kundalini as manifested
in the kriyas and encouraging the affectation of kriyas because kriyas
are seen as ``progress.'' Ultimately the validity of any spiritual
tradition rests in its ability to transform the beings of its
followers. The real value of siddha mahayoga is in transforming the
minds of those who practice it.
15. Haven't a number of well-known teachers have criticized kriyas? They say
that kundalini is a force that needs control.
Some teachers do speak that way. For example the well known kundalini
yoga teacher, Yogi Bhajan, apparently called the process of
experiencing kriyas ``jerk yoga.'' Tibetan practicioners of gTummo
yoga, Indian practicioners of Kriya Yoga and other noted
``authorities'' on the kundalini yoga process have clearly emphasized
to me the importance of carefully controlling the kundalini process
and not allowing the kundalini to act uncontrollably. Their sincere
words cast doubt on my practice for many years.
So why do these teachers say these things? To be an adept of kundalini
yoga practices does not imply that you are omniscient. All the
information that people like Yogi Bhajan are really conveying is that
in their experience in their style of practicing kundalini yoga the
kundalini is controlled. I do not believe that they have special
insight into other alternative ways of approaching the practice of
kundalini yoga. Some people have quite frightening movements in
meditation and without prior experience of kriyas the natural reaction
is that such a person will almost certainly become physically or
mentally unstable. Experienced masters of Siddha Mahayoga, such as
Swami Shivom Tirth, have seen it all before and their simple counsel
is: ``Do not resist kriyas in any way.''
For the individual who does surrender to the kriyas of kundalini
shakti the perspective is radically different from the view espoused
by teachers such as Yogi Bhajan. For the individual who spontaneously
and effortlessly performs kriyas such as intricate pranayamas, asanas
and bandhas during their meditation the intentional exercises of the
Hatha yogin are a merely a clumsy mockery of the subtle activity of
kundalini. In fact some claim that the entire corpus of Hatha yoga, as
well as many of the Qi Gong exercises are simply imitations and
classifications of the spontaneous movements of the Siddha Mahayogin.
16. What is the philosophy of Siddha Mahayoga?
Perhaps its best to say that contemporary forms of siddha mahayoga
have a core of underlying tenets but not a philosophy. These tenets
include: the central role of kundalini in the manifestion of the
universe and the evolution of the individual and the culmination of
the evolution of the individual in a state of complete unity.
Different teachers have exposited Siddha Mahayoga in different ways.
Swami Muktananda drew on a wide variety of Indian literature but
principally relied upon the Shiva Sutras, the Spanda Karikas and other
literature of the Trika school of Shaivism. Swami Shivom Tirth has
also relied up on the Shiva Sutras to define the different stages of
evolution. Both Swami Shivom Tirth and Swami Kriplavananda have used
Patanjali's Yoga Sutras for their elucidation of the states of
samadhi. All of these teachers are quick to note that the use of these
scriptures does not imply that Siddha Mahayoga is a form of Hinduism.
Instead the emphasis is that each of us has the force of kundalini
within us and having awakened the kundalini our life and religious
practice will be enriched.
There are really only a few tenets of the practice of siddha mahayoga.
The first is that the process begins withshaktipat initiation by the
guru. This initiation may begin with a formal request from the
disciple and culminate with a formal initiation ceremony or it may
occur informally through a impromptu manifestation of the guru's grace
in intention, glance, word or touch. Through the initiation the
kundalini shakti is awakened and begins to move in the disciples body.
The practice then consists of deeply surrendering to the spontaneous
manifestations of kundalini shakti, as described above.
17. What is the precise role of the guru in Siddha Mahayoga?
The role of the guru is laid out in the text the Shiva Sutras where it
says ``gururupaya''; the guru is the means. Because it is the guru who
awakens your kundalini the guru is given great reverence in this
tradition. The awakening of kundalini that many people struggle, with
effort and danger, to accomplish in a lifetime a true guru can
accomplish in a few seconds. Nevertheless the role of a guru is to
awaken the kundalini within you; then the practice takes place between
you and your kundalini. The guru is a facilitator in the process of
awakening kundalini not an ongoing intermediary between the disciple
18. I thought Siddha Yoga was only taught by the Siddha Yoga Dham of America -
didn't they trademark the name?
The Siddha Yoga Dham of America does hold a servicemark on the name of
Siddha Yoga but the Siddha Yoga tradition is an ancient tradition.
But I read in the newspaper Hinduism Today that some expert
professor said that Muktananda invented the name Siddha Yoga.
Prof. Muller-Ortega was only objecting to Hinduism Today's contention
that Siddha Yoga was a commonly used term. The Professor notes that he
could not find the term in a variety of *western* reference materials.
He does not contend that the term ``siddha yoga'' was never used
before in India.
19. Who gives shaktipat initiation?
The shaktipat-centered techniques of siddha mahayoga are taught in a
number of ashrams and centers in India, the US and around the world.
The following is a list of known centers in the United States and each
of these serves as one of the principal seats of the teacher .
Although I am no expert or authority on any of these teachers, where I
have some first-hand information I thought it would be useful to add
it - it may be a bit anecdotal for some tastes. If anyone finds any of
the information below is inacurrate please inform me and I will update
it. Good luck!
Swami Shivom Tirth/Swami Shiv Mangal Tirth
Swami Shivom Tirth Ashram
1238 Rt. 97 Sparrowbush, NY 12780
Swami Shivom Tirth is the successor to Swami Vishnu Tirth who wrote
the well known reference on siddha mahayoga entitled _Devatma Shakti_.
First brought to the United States by the well known Qi Gon teacher
Bruce Kumar Frantzis Swami Shivom Tirth discretely visited the United
States over the last 20 years. Those who met him were introduced to
him by other students or were already his students in India.
The majority of Swami Shivom Tirth's students are Indians, either
living here or in India but there is a good percentage of westerners
as well. Swami Shivom Tirth is now going into retirement to meditate
and write. He will no longer give initiations. He has left a few
ashrams in India and his named successor, Swami Shiv Mangal Tirth,
runs a small ashram in Sparrow Bush, NY where he gives shaktipat to
qualified students. Both of these Swamis are now in India and will not
return until March 1995. The lineage of these teachers, extending now
into its sixth generation is perhaps the longest lived of any of the
contemporary teachers of siddha mahayoga. I have had the good fortune
to spend a few weeks with these teachers over the last three years and
have been personally impressed by the great spiritual purity, the high
level of integrity and great depth of practical knowledge of these
teachers. Perhaps because of the relative maturity of their lineage
these teachers seem to have the fullest understanding of the path of
siddha mahayoga among contemporary teachers.
P. O. Box 3194
Antioch, CA 94531
Anandi Ma is the named successor to S'ri Dhyanyogi Madhusudhanandaji.
S'ri Dhyanyogi's precise lineage in unknown to me. He was initiated by
a mysterious yogi in Mt. Abu in Rajasthan state that some say was
Swami Omananda Tirtha. Anandi Ma lives in Antioch, CA with her husband
who was also a student of S'ri Dhyanyogi. Meeting S'ri Dhyanyogi at a
very young age Anandi Ma passed very quickly into advanced states of
samadhi. Anandi Ma gives shaktipat initation in various locations
around the Bay Area. Personally I only attended one of Anandi Ma's
lectures but I have a few friends who have known her for many years
and vouch for her genuineness and integrity.
Siddha Yoga Dham of America
1107 Stanford Ave.
Oakland, CA 94608
371 Brickman Rd.
PO Box 600
South Fallsburg, NY 12770-0600
Swami Muktananda is the man responsible for the great level of
awareness of siddha mahayoga that there is today. Muktananda tapped
into a vast storehouse of shakti to give shaktipat to dozens of people
at a time. In 1974 I sat crosslegged in a retreat house in
Indiananpolis, Indiana with a few new students and a number of
disciples from around the world. As Swami Muktananda walked by he
stroked my forehead a few times. As he did a blue light streamed down
from my forehead and an energy was awakened within me that immediately
set my body trembling. In this simple but direct way my kundalini was
unmistakenly and irresistably awakened and I joined the thousands of
people who were thus introduced to siddha mahayoga. Because of his
nearly unrivalled ability to deeply and directly awaken other's
kundalini Swami Muktananda's world movement rapidly grew. In
particular the Siddha Yoga Dham of America grew quickly around the
United States with major ashrams in South Fallsburg, New York and
A young woman known as S'ri Yogini Malti Devi served as Swami
Muktananda's translator for many years and shortly before his death in
October 1982 Swami Muktananda passed on his lineage to Yogini Malti
Devi (who became a renunciant under the name Swami Chidvilasananda)
and her brother Swami Nityananda (see below). Unfortunately much
controversy hung over this movement from Swami Muktananda's last days
and a very critical article was published in CoEvolution Quarterly in
Winter 1983, one year after Swami Muktananda's death. After Swami
Muktananda was succeeded by Swami Nityananda and Swami Chidvilasananda
controversy continued and Swami Nityananda admitted to conduct that
was inappropriate for a Swami and spiritual leader. On November 3,
1985 in a public ceremony Swami Nityananda formally renounced his
status as a renunciant and was removed from his position within SYDA.
Later in the press (The Illustrated Weekly of India, March 16-22,
1986) Swami Nityananda contended that his abdication was due to his
own concern that resistance to Swami Chidvilasananda's wishes might
cause further dissension and even bloodshed. Be that as it may the
brother and sister now run independent groups. Swami Chidvilasananda
runs the prospering SYDA and Swami Nityananda runs a small center in
Pine Bush, New York. Personally I have never been able to reconcile
the many problems and controversies surrounding these teachers and
SYDA with my own direct experience of Swami Muktananda. All I know is
that Swami Muktananda gave me a great gift and I am grateful. I also
know there are many others who feel similarly and there are others who
feel a great deal of animosity toward SYDA.
Pine Bush, NY
I do not know at what time Swami Nityananda began to teach again but
he now has a center in Pine Bush and he gives intensives around the
P. O. Box 13310
Portland, OR 97213
Swami Rudrananda (born Albert Rudolph) was an American disciple of
Swami Nityananda who received sannyas diksa (initiation as a swami)
from Swami Muktananda. Swami Rudrananda later broke with Muktananda.
Swami Cetananda (born Michael Shoemaker) was the closest disciple of
Rudrananda and ran his ashram in Bloomington, Indiana. Swami
Rudrananda died unexpectedly in an airplane crash in late1973 and
Michael Shoemaker began to pick up the threads of Swami Rudrananda's
various ashrams. Having decided to take sannyas Michael Shoemaker
received sannyas diksha from Swami Muktananda and was named Swami
Cetanananda. Swami Cetanananda moved his prospering ashram first from
Bloomington, Indiana to Boston, Massachusetts and most recently to
Portland, Oregon. I only was able to attend one lecture by Swami
Rudrananda but found him to be a man of immense power and after
visiting Swami Cetanananda on a few occassions I can personally attest
to the fact that Swami Cetanananda carries the same power and
intensity. Swami Cetanananda has worked hard to express the practical
down-to-earth wisdom of his teacher within the vast theoretical
framework of the philosophy of Trika S'aivism. While possessed of
great shakti, my own understanding of Swami Cetanananda teaching is
that is not strictly one of siddha mahayoga because some intention is
employed in the use of certain pranayama practices and kriyas are not
so freely expressed. Nevertheless it does employ shaktipat and is a
close relative of siddha mahayoga.
Yogi Amrit Desai
Kripalu Center for Yoga and Health
P. O. Box 793
Lenox, MA 01240
Swami Kripalvananda was initiated by a mysterious yogi named Dadaji
who disappeared shortly after Swami Kripalvananda's shaktipat
initiation. Swami Kripalvananda went on to meditate 10 hours a day for
over 30 years until his death. He passed on the ability to convey
shaktipat initiation to his student Yogi Amrit Desai. Ironically it
appears that Yogi Amrit Desai found that conveying shaktipat to his
students did not necessarily lead to a graceful advance of their
evolution and many negative qualities emerged. Yogi Amrit Desai in his
book Kripalu Yoga, Book I speaking of giving shaktipat states:
``At first thsis seemed to be the answer to my intense desire to
share my blissful experience with others. For a while I closely
observed all those who expeienced prana awakening through contact
with me, and who had many ecstatic meditative experiences of
spontaneous osutres and other involuntary movements. However, those
people consistently exposed to prana shakti (energy) also
experienced so much intense emotional catharsis and physical
purification that it affected their ability to carry out their
normal daily responsibilities. They were often moody and irritable,
and also found that theiur sexual energy became overactive.
Therefore I discontinued giving shaktipat, realizing that such prana
awakening, which in fact is an early stage of Kundalini awakening,
was premature for them.''
I do not know if he ever changed his position.
In my next revision I hope to include information on Swami
Shambhavananda and Swami Savitripriyananda. If anyone has information
on other teachers of siddha mahayoga I will be happy to receive it and
20. Where can I learn more?
Good introductory survey:
White, John (Editor) (1990). Kundalini - Evolution and Enlightenment.
New York: Paragon House.
Selected works by the teachers mentioned. These are available from the
respective centers. (I am aware that each of these teachers has
published numerous works):
Chetanananda, S. (1991). Dynamic Stillness. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: Rudra Press.
Desai, Yogi Amrit (1990) Working Miracles of Love. Lenox, MA:
Kripalu Yoga Fellowship
Madhusudanasji, Dhyangyogi (1978). Light on Meditation.
Muktananda, Swami (1989b). From the Finite to the Infinite (First
ed.). Volumes I &II, South Fallsburg, NY: Siddha Yoga Dham of
Tirtha, Swami Vishnu (1980b). Devatma Shakti (Fifth ed.). Rishikesh:
Yoga Shri Peeth Trust.
E-Mail Fredric L. Rice / The Skeptic Tank