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*INEVITABLE SUFFERING AND THE HOPE OF NIBBANA* by Sayagyi U Chit Tin 1. People With a Fixed Destiny The Buddha taught that there are two types of people with a fixed destiny (niyata-pubbala). Those who attain at least the first stage of Awakening are assured of eventually attaining release from all suffering. They are called Noble Persons, Ariyas. The second catagory of people with a fixed destiny includes those who will be unable to attain release during their present life or during their next life. This second catagory is for those who have either committed one or more of the five actions which have an immediate result [in the next life] (anantarika-kamma), and for those who hold a fixed wrong view (niyata-miccha-ditthi). Let us examine this second catagory in more detail, because a correct understanding of the dangers in wrong beliefs and wrong actions can serve to inspire us to work for the goal of release from all suffering. We shall also see that, even though people in the second catagory cannot avoid great suffering, they are not in a hopeless situation. The five actions which inevitably result in great suffering in the next life are: 1) killing one's father, 2) killing one's mother, 3) killing an Arahat, that is to say, a person who has reached the highest stage of Awakening and who will have no future rebirths, 4) spilling the blood of a Buddha through an evil motive, and 5) causing a division in the Sangha, the Order of Bhikkhus which keeps alive the Teachings of the Buddha.[1] It is very unlikely that any of us have committed one of these actions in this life. People who kill their parents are very rare. We are not very likely to know an Arahat. The Buddha has attained Pari-nibbana. And the Buddha explained to the Venerable Upali that only a fully ordained Bhikkhu can cause a schism in the Sangha.[2] The Buddha said that even in the case of such a Bhikkhu, he must consciously work against the Teachings, knowing that he is maintaining what is not the Buddha's Teachings -- or at least have some doubts about whether creating a schism in the Sangha is against the Teachings. If a Bhikkhu is sincerely mistaken concerning the Teachings, he is not certain of rebirth in the lower realms, nor is he incurable. Fixed wrong views may seem less terrible than these five crimes. We may look on them as merely ideas. But in Buddhism, ideas are given their correct value. It is ideas and beliefs that lead to actions. A deep-seated belief will lead to many wrong actions. Some wrong beliefs are less serious than others, for they contain a grain of truth. The beliefs which make it impossible to obtain birth in the higher planes in the next life and thereby cut off the possibility of obtaining release from suffering are very serious indeed. We can sum up the worst types of wrong belief with the phrase, "There is not." "The wrong view that there is not" is the direct translation of the Pali term //natthika-ditthi//. This term is usually translated into English by "nihilism." The Buddha explained this type of wrong belief to the laymen of Sala. It includes the following beliefs:[3] that no good can come from giving or from making sacrifices; that good and evil actions have no future results; that this world and the next world are an illusion; that serving one's mother and father gives no good results; that no beings are born spontaneously; that no one in thisworld is living correctly and that none are able to teach others about this world and the next world having understood them through their own higher wisdom.[4] Finally, this wrong belief holds that when a person dies, he is annihilated; both wise men and fools are destroyed by death and after death they no longer exist. The Buddha then explained to the laymen of Sala that some people hold the wrong view that [good or bad] actions do not exist (akiriya- ditthi). They maintain that no matter what a person does or encourages others to do, there is neither evil nor merit. A person can kill, mutilate, threaten and torture; they can have others do all this. They can cause grief and torment by stealing, committing adultery, and lying. In this wrong view, no evil is done. And this wrong view believes no merit comes from giving, encouraging others to give, from taming and restraining oneself or from speaking the truth. The third type of wrong belief explained by the Buddha is the wrong view of no cause (ahetu-ditthi). Those who hold wrong view say that beings are defiled or purified without cause or reason. They say that creatures experience pleasure and pain in an arbitrary way. They do not believe that making right or wrong efforts cause future pleasure or pain. The Buddha emphasizes for each of these three wrong views that they are dangerous because they lead to immoral living. Those who are convinced of these wrong beliefs will commit wrong actions of body, speech, and thought. They lead to being condemned by intelligent people here and now and in the future, and they lead to rebirth in the lower realms of suffering including the lowest of the hells, the Niraya Hell. The commentaries[5] point out that the destiny of a person who holds one or more of these three wrong beliefs is only fixed for one rebirth. But due to habit, he will tend to approve of the same beliefs in future lives. This makes it almost impossible for him to transcend continued rebirths. An important point is made concerning fixed destiny. Unwholesome mental states are weak compared to wholesome ones. This can be seen from the fact that for Ariyas, it is impossible to fall back into the lower realms of suffering. Those who are Stream-winners will have at the most only seven new lives in the higher realms before they attain complete liberation. No matter how bad unwholesome mental states or actions are, there is always the possibility of eventually obtaining release. The results of evil deeds are never final. *2. The Story of Devadatta and Ajatasattu* The fact that these types of wrong belief are more serious than the five crimes can be illustrated by the stories of two persons who committed one or more of these crimes during the time of the Buddha. They are Devadatta and Ajatasattu. Devadatta was the cousin and brother-in-law of the Buddha. He was one of a group of six Khattiyans who went forth together with their barber, Upali. This group included several of the foremost disciples: Bhaddiya, Anuruddha, Bhagu, Kimbila and Ananda. Ananda attained Stream- entry and the others all became Arahats. But Devadatta only attained the mental powers (iddhi) which can be achieved through concentration.[6] As a result of their attainments, Devadatta's companions received many offerings from the laypeople. Devadatta became jealous, thinking that since he came from the same clan and had ordained with the others, he should be as highly honoured as they were.[7] He decided he would win favour with a layman in order to win gain and honour. He realized that King Bimbisara was a Stream-winner whose confidence in the Buddha could not be shaken. King Kosala was also a firm believer. So Devadatta decided to try Prince Ajatasattu, Bimbisara's son. Devadatta went to Ajatasattu, and through his powers, assumed the form of a boy with snakes coiled around him. This frightened the prince and impressed him. After that, he made many offerings to Devadatta. This made Devadatta proud. He became obsessed with gains, honour and fame and thought to himself, "I will lead the Sangha." As soon as he thought this, he lost his mental powers. Venerable Maha-Moggallana's attendant, Kakudha, had died and been reborn as a Deva. He told Maha-Moggallana about Devadatta's idea that he would lead the Sangha. When Maha-Moggallana informed the Buddha, the Buddha told him to be careful in his speech; that Devadatta would betray himself on his own. The Buddha pointed out that a teacher does not need to be protected by his disciples if he is pure in morality, in livelihood, in teaching the Dhamma, in exposition and in knowledge and vision. The Buddha himself was such a teacher. Only teachers who are impure in any of these aspects need and expect protection. A group of Bhikkhus told the Buddha of the great offerings Ajatasattu made to Devadatta. The Buddha warned them not to envy Devadatta, for gains, honour and fame would bring about Devadatta's downfall. As the Buddha said, Devadatta betrayed himself. He was so deluded, he went to the Buddha when he was teaching a great number of people including the king and three times requested to lead the Sangha. The Buddha replied, "I would not hand the Sangha over to Sariputta and Moggallana. How could I hand it over to you, a wretched person to be vomited like spittle?" This firm refusal upset Devadatta, who, for the first time, felt malice towards the Buddha. The Buddha had the Sangha carry out a formal Act of Information against Devadatta, informing the laypeople of Rajagaha that Devadatta's nature had been of one kind in the past, but that now it was of another kind. From that time on, whatever he did by gesture and vocally had nothing to do with the Buddha, the Dhamma, or the Sangha. The Buddha had the Sangha charge Venerable Sariputta with the task of informing the people of Rajagaha. Sariputta pointed out that he had spoken in the past in praise of Devadatta in that very city. The Buddha asked Sariputta if what he had said in the past had been true. When the chief disciple said yes, the Buddha said that what he was to say now would be equally true. Next, Devadatta decided to try to kill the Buddha. He went to Ajatasattu and proposed that the prince kill his father in order to become king. He said he would kill the Buddha and become a Buddha himself. We can see how little Devadatta understood. Ajatasattu was taken prisoner in the act of trying to kill King Bimbisara. When his father discovered his son wanted the throne, he stepped down and handed over the kingdom. Devadatta was not satisfied with this, however.[8] He urged the prince to kill his father. But no weapon could injure Bimbisara. So the prince decided to starve his father. He was put in prison and only the mother of Ajatasattu was allowed to visit him. She took food which she hid in her clothes. This was discovered, so she hid food in her hair. But this was discovered as well and she took what she could hide in her shoes. Her last resort was to smear her body with sweets for the king to lick. Finally, she was forbidden access to the king. But the king continued to live by walking around his cell meditating. The prince then had barbers cut open the king's feet, fill the wounds with salt and vinegar and burn them with hot coals. The king showed no resentment even at this. A son was born to Ajatasattu and he felt great joy. He realized his father may have felt the same way when he was born. His mother confirmed that this was so, and he sent to have his father released from prison. But it was too late. His father had died that very day. Devadatta asked for Ajatasattu's aid in killing the Buddha and the prince gave orders to his men to do whatever Devadatta asked. But the man sent to kill the Buddha went rigid and stood still, afraid, anxious, and alarmed when he saw the Buddha. He realized his error and confessed his fault to the Buddha, asking for the Buddha to acknowledge his transgression so that he might restrain himself in the future. The Buddha taught this man the Dhamma. Devadatta had set up a series of men, each group to kill the next in order to cover up his deed. But each group went to look for the others, came to the Buddha and heard the Dhamma. Devadatta decided he would have to kill the Buddha himself. He threw a big rock down from the Vulture's Peak. But two mountain peaks came together and crushed the rock and only a fragment of it reached the Buddha, wounding his foot. The Buddha told Devadatta that he had made great demerit by spilling his blood. And he told the Bhikkhus that this was the first action of Devadatta's that would have an immediate result in the next life. So we can see that all the bad things Devadatta had done up to this point could have been overcome if he had mended his ways. The Bhikkhus were very agitated when they learned of this attempt on the Buddha's life. But the Buddha assured them, as he had Maha-Moggallana, that a Buddha cannot be killed and does not need to be protected by his disciples. Devadatta tried again to kill the Buddha. He had a fierce elephant named Nalagiri set loose against the Buddha. But the Buddha overcame the elephant with loving kindness. With this event, the laymen learned about Devadatta's attempts on the Buddha's life and their indignation was so great, Prince Ajatasattu was constrained to withdraw his support. Devadatta then asked for food from the laymen. The Buddha pointed out that it was wrong for the Bhikkhus to solicit food and laid down a rule to prevent such practices. This seems to have been the motivation for Devadatta to create a schism in the Sangha. He approached several other Bhikkhus and proposed a plan. They would ask the Buddha to lay down five ascetic rules which they knew in advance he would refuse. In this way, they would appear to be better, for people without a proper understanding of the Dhamma are impressed by strict rules. Even the group of five who accompanied the Buddha before his Awakening had been of the opinion that the more painful the practice the better it is. So Devadatta requested that the Buddha require all bhikkhus to live in the forest, refuse invitations to meals, wear only robes made of rags, live under trees rather than in buildings and refuse all meat. The Buddha replied that bhikkhus were free to live in the forest if they wished, to eat only food obtained on their alms rounds, and to wear only robes made from rags. But it was a choice to be made. If they preferred, they could live near a village, accept invitations to meals, and accept robes from laymen. Living under a tree was permitted for eight months of the year and fish and meat were pure as long as it was not seen, heard or suspected that the animal had been killed on purpose in order to feed the bhikkhu. Devadatta was overjoyed at the Buddha's refusal. When he told the people of Rajagaha about the rules, those who were of little faith, not believing in the Buddha, and who were unintelligent were impressed. But those who had the opposite qualities were critical, saying, "How can this Devadatta promote a schism in the Sangha?" The Buddha confronted Devadatta with his actions and asked him if what he heard was true, that Devadatta was promoting a schism in the Sangha. Devadatta admitted that he was. "Enough, Devadatta," the Buddha said, "do not let there be a schism in the Sangha, for a schism in the Sangha is a serious matter, Devadatta. Whoever, splits a Sangha that is united sets up demerit that endures for an aeon; he is boiled in hell for an aeon. But whoever, Devadatta, unites a Sangha that is split, he sets up sublime merit, he rejoices in heaven for an aeon." But Devadatta would not listen. When he saw Venerable Ananda on his alms round in Rajagaha, he told him that from that time on he would observe the reciting of the rules, the Patimokkha, and the carrying out of formal acts of the Sangha on his own. Devadatta was able to win over five hundred newly ordained Bhikkhus who did not understand what they were doing. Sariputta and Maha-Moggallana informed the Buddha of what had happened and he asked them, "Do you not have compassion for these newly ordained bhikkhus?" And he sent them after the bhikkhus. The two chief disciples went to where Devadatta had set himself up in imitation of the Buddha. He was seated, teaching the Dhamma to a large group, and when he saw the chief disciples coming, Devadatta said, "You see, bhikkhus, the Dhamma is well taught by me. Even the chief disciples of the recluse Gotama are coming to me approving of my teachings." But one of his followers, Kokalika, warned Devadatta not to trust the chief disciples. Devadatta was so deluded, however, he seems to have sincerely believed in what he was doing, and he welcomed Sariputta and Maha-Moggallana. After teaching far into the night, Devadatta invited Venerable Sariputta to take over, again in imitation of the Buddha. And Devadatta laid down to rest. He was tired, forgetful and inattentive, so he immediately fell asleep. Both Sariputta and Maha-Moggallana instructed the bhikkhus and opened their eyes to the true Dhamma. And they led the Bhikkhus back to the Buddha. Kokalika woke up Devadatta and told him of what had happened. Devadatta was so upset, he spit up blood. The Buddha told the Sangha that Devadatta was overcome by eight conditions which controlled his mind and which meant he would be reborn in Niraya Hell, staying there for an aeon without any hope for a cure. These eight conditions were gain, lack of gain, fame, lack of fame, honours, lack of honours, evil desire and evil friendship. All of these conditions should be overcome if a person is to reach the end of suffering. The Buddha also spoke of three conditions in the same context, two of them from the above list: evil desire, evil friendship, and stopping midway along the path after gaining special attainments that are of little value. So we can see how dangerous the mental powers can be for someone who has not gained control over his cravings, and how important it is not to overestimate our attainments at any time. Devadatta became very ill and repented of all he had done. He asked to be led to the Buddha. But his disciples refused at first. Devadatta said, "Do not destroy me. I did bear hatred towards the Buddha, but he has not entertained hatred towards me, not even so much as the tip of a hair." The Buddha was told of his approach, but said that Devadatta would not succeed in seeing him again. It is said that from the time he requested the Buddha to lay down the five rules, hoping to divide the Sangha, Devadatta could no longer come into the Buddha's presence. Devadatta was being carried on a litter by his disciples, and when he arrived at the monastery where the Buddha was staying, he asked to be let down so that he could bathe. But he sank down into the earth, little by little. Just before his head was swallowed up, he took refuge in the Buddha.[9] Ajatasattu was also filled with remorse.[10] He feared that the same thing that had happened to Devadatta would happen to him. He was unable to discharge his duties as the king. He could not sleep at night and wandered around trembling. He thought he could see the earth opening before him and the flames of hell coming out. He imagined himself fastened to a bed of burning metal with iron lances thrust into his body. He wanted to go to the Buddha to be reconciled to him and to ask his guidance, but his actions had been so serious he was afraid to approach the Buddha. Ajatasattu's physician was Jivaka, who was the Buddha's physician as well. So the king decided to use a stratagem to get Jivaka to take him to the Buddha. One night he exclaimed that it was a beautiful night, a perfect evening for going to see a teacher. He knew that his ministers would encourage him to go see their different teachers. Each minister spoke in praise of different teachers, but Jivaka, who understood what the king wanted, remained silent as he wanted to be sure that the king desired to see the Buddha. Finally, Ajatasattu asked Jivaka why he had said nothing. Jivaka then praised the Buddha, and the king suggested they go to see him. Jivaka had said that the Buddha was residing with twelve hundred and fifty bhikkhus, so when they approached his lodgings and not a sound was to be heard, Ajatasattu became nervous, fearful that there was a plot against him. "You are not playing a trick on me, are you Jivaka? You are not deceiving me and betraying me to my foes, are you?" he said to Jivaka. "How can there be no sound at all? How can there not be a sneeze or a cough in such a large assembly of bhikkhus?" Jivaka reassured the king and told him to continue on to the Buddha. Ajatasattu went to the Buddha and exclaimed that he wished his son Udayi could be as calm as the assembly of Bhikkhus. Venerable Buddhaghosa comments that the king feared his son might kill him, just as he had killed his father, and therefore wished that Udayi would become a bhikkhu.[11] This would explain why he then asked the Buddha about the fruits of the life of a bhikkhu. In his discourse to Ajatasattu, the Buddha questions the king about what he has heard from other teachers, and Ajatasattu describes the many wrong beliefs he has heard and has not been satisfied with. These include the most dangerous kinds of wrong beliefs which we explained at the beginning of our talk. Then the Buddha points out the fruits that can be expected from leading a life based on right view. At the end of the discourse, Ajatasattu took refuge in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha, and confessed his fault in killing his father. He asked for the Buddha to acknowledge his wrong action in order that he might restrain himself in the future. After the king left, the Buddha told the bhikkhus that if he had not killed his father, Ajatasattu would have attained Stream-entry through the discourse he had just heard. Ajatasattu missed his chance to become an Ariya, but he associated with the Buddha from then on, listened to other discourses, and through associating with such a virtuous friend his fears were calmed and his feelings of horror disappeared. He became a great supporter of the Dhamma. From this we can see that even though a person may have a fixed destiny in the next life, it does not mean that he cannot grow in the Dhamma. We are told[12] that the Buddha allowed Devadatta to ordain even though he knew what he would do. This was because even if he had remained a layman he would have committed serious crimes, but he would have been unable to accumulate enough merit to obtain release in a future life. As a Bhikkhu, he acquired the necessary merit before his craving got the upper hand. He will suffer for the remainder of this aeon in hell, but after a hundred thousand world cycles, he will become a Pacceka Buddha -- that is to say, a Buddha that does not teach others the Path to Nibbana -- and his name will be Atthissara. Ajatasattu will suffer in the Lohakumbhiya Hell for sixty thousand years, but thanks to the good deeds he did after hearing the Buddha's discourse, he will afterwards become the Pacceka Buddha Viditavisesa. *3. The Importance of Practising the Dhamma* It is not only those who hold the worst kinds of wrong beliefs or who commit the five worst crimes who are reborn in the realms of suffering. A person is never sure that he has escaped the lower worlds until he becomes an Ariya. The only way to do this is to take advantage of the Teachings of a Buddha whenever this is possible. Being generous and leading a moral life are necessary, but they are not enough. We can never be sure where we will be reborn next as long as we are ordinary beings. And we have seen in the case of Devadatta that even developing our concentration to a very high degree will not release us from suffering. We must in addition develop our insight. If we follow the Path in all its fullness, then we can aspire to release in this life or in the next. But even those who are Ariyas must continue to follow the Path if they are to avoid unnecessary suffering. In his discourse to Ajatasattu, the Buddha pointed out that one of the fruits of the life of a recluse was developing the divine eye and seeing for oneself that the lower realms of suffering are the destiny of those who are ill-conducted in body, speech and mind, who are revilers of the Ariyas, who hold wrong views and acquire the results of the sort of Kamma that comes from holding wrong views.[13] In illustrating the term "revilers of the Ariyas", Venerable Buddhaghosa gives an interesting example.[14] An elder bhikkhu went on his alms rounds in a village with a young bhikkhu. At the first house they received a spoonful of hot gruel. The elder felt ill and knowing that if he drank the gruel before it grew cold it would help, he did not wait to drink it later. The young bhikkhu was disgusted and remarked, "The old man has let his hunger get the better of him and has done what he should be ashamed to do." When they returned to the monastery, the Elder asked the bhikkhu if he had any footing in the Dispensation. "Yes, venerable sir," the bhikkhu answered, "I am a Stream-winner." "Then friend," the Elder advised him, "do not try for the higher paths. One whose taints are destroyed has been reviled by you." The bhikkhu asked for the Elder's forgiveness and was in this way restored to his former status. So we see that even an Ariya must be careful of his actions. Insulting an Ariya is very serious, as Buddhaghosa points out. Even if we are not aware of another person's attainment, if they are an Ariya, we will suffer the consequences. Insulting an Ariya will be an obstacle both to heaven and to the Path. But it is different from the bad deeds or beliefs with fixed destiny as it can be cured, as in the case of the bhikkhu who insulted the Elder. Buddhaghosa says that if one is guilty of insulting an Ariya, even if one is an Ariya oneself, one should go to the Ariya and ask forgiveness. If the Ariya has gone away, one should go to him or send someone to obtain forgiveness. If this is not possible, he should go to his companions and confess his fault and ask that the person insulted forgive him. If one does not know where the person insulted is, one should extend his hands with palms together in the direction the Ariya took when he left and say, "Forgive me." If the Ariya has died, he should go to the bed where he attained final Nibbana or to where he was cremated and ask forgiveness. It is necessary to be constantly vigilant as we walk along the Path to Nibbana. Even those who have already reached the stage of an Ariya can avoid unnecessary suffering if they are careful in all their deeds, words and thoughts. How much more important this is for those who have not yet had a taste of Nibbana! The Path to Nibbana is hard work -- but even if it were ten times more difficult, it would be worth making the effort. *4. The Lesson To Be Learned* In conclusion, let us give some verses which help us understand the question of inevitable suffering.[14] He who is not free from impurity, who is lacking in self control and truthfulness, and who puts on the yellow robe -- he is not worthy of it. He who is free from impurity, who is well-established in morals and with self-control and truthfulness -- he is indeed worthy of the yellow robe. Dhammapada vv. 9-10 He who does evil burns here (in this world); he burns after death; he burns in both places. Thinking, "I did evil," he burns. He burns even more when he goes to a painful existence. He who does good is joyful here (in this world); he is joyful after death; he is joyful in both places. Thinking, "I did good," he is joyful. He is even more joyful when he goes to a happy existence. Dhammapada vv. 17-18 Deeds that are unprofitable and harmful to oneself are easy. But whatever is truly beneficial and profitable, that, indeed, is the hardest thing of all. Dhammapada v. 165 It is easy for a good man to do good. But it is difficult for an evil man to do good. It is easy for an evil man to do evil. But it is difficult for a noble man to do evil. Udana v. 8 Even if one should give the whole earth to an ungrateful person who is always looking for a loophole, one can never satisfy him. Jataka n 72 Whoever is exceedingly immoral is like the maluva vine that covers a sal tree. He does to himself exactly what his enemy wants. Dhammapada v. 162 Devadatta spoke the following stanza as the earth swallowed him: With these bones, with my life, I take refuge in the Buddha -- The best of men, the God of gods, the guide of men fit to be trained, the All-seeing One, He who is endowed with many auspicious marks. Dhammapada Commentary I 147 Devadatta's deeds were much worse than Ajatasattu's. He created a schism in the Sangha, made attempts on the life of the Buddha and shed the Buddha's blood. That is why he was swallowed up by the earth and will suffer in the lowest of the hells -- the Avici hell -- and it will only be after a hundred thousand world cycles that he will become a Pacceka Buddha. Ajatasattu, who killed his father, was reborn in the Lohakumbhi hell after his death and will suffer there for sixty thousand years. Later, he will reach Nibbana as a Pacceka Buddha. May we take the stories of Devadatta and Ajatasattu as a warning, and the example of the continued effort of the Ariyas as our inspiration. Sayagyi U Chit Tin FOOTNOTES: [1] See, for example, A III 146f. (GS III 112). [2] Vin II 204-206 (BD V 286-289) [3] The following details are a paraphrase of M I 401f. (MLS II 70f.) [4] These details are added to the above in Ven. Ananda's discourse to the ascetic Sandata (M I 515 [MLS II 194]) [5] See the translation of the commentary and sub-commentaries to a similar passage in the Digha-nikaya in //The Wheel//, nr.98/99, pp. 24-28. [6] See Dhp-a I 38 (BL I 234) [7] For Devadatta's story down to the schism in the Sangha, see Vin II 184-206 (BD V 259-289). Some details are added from Dhp-a I 38-143 (BL I 234-238). [8] The story of the death of Bimbisara is found in Sv I 135ff. See DPPN, "Bimbisara" (II 286f.). [9] For the rest of Devadatta's story see Dhp-a I 146-149 (BL I 239-242) and the introduction to the Samudda-vanija Jataka (nr466). [10] See the introductions to the Sanjiva Jataka (nr 150), the Samkicca Jataka (nr530), and the Samannaphala Sutta (D I 47-85[DB I 65-95]). [11] See Sv I 153. [12] For Devadatta see Dhp I 147 (BL I 240); cf. Mil 107-113 (QKM I 162- 170). For Ajatasattu see Sv I 237f. [13] D I 82 (DB I 91f.). Quoted in Vism, ch. XIII,para 72. [14] Vism, Ch XIII,para 84-90. [15] Verse 17 of the Dhammapada is associated with the story of Devadatta in Dhp-a. The verses from the Udana and the verse from Jataka story n 72 are also mentioned in the commentary as spoken by the Buddha in connection with him. Worldwide Contact Addresses in the Tradition of Sayagyi U Ba Khin ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ *AUSTRIA*: International Meditation Centre, A-9064 St. Michael/Gurk 6, Austria;Tel: +43 4224 2820, Fax: +43 4224 28204 Email: CIS, IMC-Austria, 100425,3423 *EASTERN AUSTRALIA*: International Meditation Centre, Lot 2 Cessnock Road, Sunshine NSW 2264, Australia; Tel: +61 49 705 433, Fax: +61 49 705 749 *UNITED KINGDOM*: International Meditation Centre, Splatts House, Heddington, Calne, Wiltshire SN11 OPE, England; Tel: +44 380 850 238, Fax: +44 380 850 833, Email: CIS, IMC-UK,100330,3304 *USA (East Coast)*: International Meditation Centre, 438 Bankard Road, Westminster MD 21158, USA; Tel: +1 410 346 7889, Fax: +1 410 346 7133; Email: CIS, IMC-USA, 74163,2452 *WESTERN AUSTRALIA*: International Meditation Centre, Lot 78 Jacoby Street, Mahogany Creek WA 6072, Australia; Tel: +61 9 295 2644, Fax: +61 9 295 3435 *CANADA*: IMC-Canada, 336 Sandowne Drive, Waterloo, Ontario, N2K 1V8, Canada; Tel: +1 519 747 4762, Fax: +1 519 725 2781 *GERMANY*: Sayagyi U Ba Khin Gesellschaft, Christaweg 16, 79114 Freiburg, Germany, Tel: +49 761 465 42, Fax: +49 761 465 92 *JAPAN*: Sayagyi U Ba Khin Memorial Trust, Komatsuri-Cho 923, Kishiwada-Shi, Osaka-Fu, 596 Japan, Tel: +81 724 45 0057 *THE NETHERLANDS*: Sayagyi U Ba Khin Stichting, Oudegracht 124, 3511 AW Utrecht, The Netherlands, Tel: +31 30 311 445, Fax: +31 30 340 612 *SINGAPORE*: Sayagyi U Ba Khin Memorial Association, 9 Penang Road #07-12, Park Mall, Singapore 0923 Tel: +65 338 6911, Fax: +65 336 7211 *SWITZERLAND*: Sayagyi U Ba Khin Gesellschaft, Greyerzstrasse 35, 3013 Bern, Switzerland;Tel: +41 31 415 233, Fax: +41 61 271 4184; Email: CIS, 100256,3576 *USA (West Coast)*: Contact Address: IMC-USA c/o Joe McCormack, 77 Kensington Rd., San Anselmo, CA 94960,U.S.A. Tel: +1 415 459 3117, Fax: +1 415 459 4837 *BELGIUM*: Address as for the Netherlands, Tel: +32 2 414 1756 *DENMARK*: Contact Address: Mr. Peter Drost-Nissen, Strandboulevarden 117, 3th, 2100 Kopenhagen, Denmark. Tel: 031 425 636 *ITALY*: Contact address: Mr. Renzo Fedele, Via Euganea 94, 35033 Bresseo PD, Italy. Tel: +39 49 9900 752 -------------------------------------------------- Published by the Sayagyi U Ba Khin Memorial Trust, United Kingdom Address as above, registered charity no. 280134 -------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------- DISTRIBUTION AGREEMENT ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ TITLE OF WORK: Inevitable Suffering and the Hope of Nibbana FILENAME: HOPE_OF.ZIP AUTHOR: Sayagyi U Chit Tin AUTHOR'S ADDRESS: n/a PUBLISHER'S ADDRESS: International Meditation Centre, Splatts House, Heddington, Calne, Wiltshire SN11 OPE, England COPYRIGHT HOLDER: The Sayagyi U Ba Khin Memorial Trust, U.K. DATE OF PUBLICATION: RIGHTS & RESTRICTIONS: See paragraph below. DATE OF DHARMANET DISTRIBUTION: 18 February 1995 ORIGIN SITE: BODY DHARMA * Berkeley CA 510/836-4717 DharmaNet (96:101/33) The copyright holder retains all rights to this work and hereby grants electronic distribution rights to DharmaNet International. 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