The following Pali words encompass concepts and levels of ideas for
which there are no adequate synonyms in English. The explanations of
these terms have been adapted from the //Buddhist Dictionary// by
//Anagami// -- The "Non-Returner" is a noble disciple on the 3rd stage
//Anatta// -- "No-self," non-ego, egolessness, impersonality; "neither
within the bodily and mental phenomena of existence, nor outside
of them can be found anything that in the ultimate sense could be
regarded as a self-existing real ego-identity, soul or any other
//Anicca// -- "Impermanence," a basic feature of all conditioned
phenomena, be they material or mental, coarse or subtle, one's
own or external.
//Anusaya// -- The seven "proclivities," inclinations or tendencies.
//Arahat/Arahant// -- The Holy One. Through the extinction of all
cankers, he reaches already in this very life the deliverance of
the mind, the deliverance through wisdom, which is free from
cankers, and which he himself has understood and realized.
//Ariya// -- Noble Ones. Noble Persons.
//Avijja// -- Ignorance, nescience, unknowing, synonymous with
delusion, is the primary root of all evil and suffering in the
world, veiling man's mental eyes and preventing him from seeing
the true nature of things.
//Bhavaraga// -- Craving for continued existence; one of the seven
//Citta-viveka// -- Mental detachment, the inner detachment from
//Devas// -- Heavenly Beings, deities, celestials are beings who live
in happy worlds, but are not freed from the cycle of existence.
//Dhamma// -- The liberating law discovered and proclaimed by the
Buddha, summed up in the Four Noble Truths.
//Ditthi// -- View, belief, speculative opinion. If not qualified by
"right," it mostly refers to wrong and evil view or opinion.
//Dukkha// -- (1) In common usage: "pain", painful feeling, which may
be bodily or mental.
(2) In Buddhist usage as, e.g., in the Four Noble Truths:
suffering, ill, the unsatisfactory nature and general insecurity
of all conditioned phenomena.
//Jhana// -- Meditative absorptions. Tranquillity meditation.
//Kalyanamitta// -- Noble or good friend is called a senior monk who
is the mentor and friend of his pupil wishing for his welfare and
concerned with his progress, guiding his meditation; in
particular the meditation teacher.
//Kamma/Karma// -- "Action" denotes the wholesome and unwholesome
volitions and their concomitant mental factors, causing rebirth
and shaping the character of beings and thereby their destiny.
The term does not signify the result of actions and most
certainly not the deterministic fate of man.
//Kammatthana// -- lit.: "working-ground" (i.e. for meditation) is the
term for subjects of meditation.
//Kaya-viveka// -- Bodily detachment, i.e. abiding in solitude free
from alluring sensuous objects.
//Khandha// -- The five "groups", are called the five aspects in which
the Buddha has summed up all the physical and mental phenomena of
existence, and which appear to the ordinary man as his ego or
personality, to wit: body, feeling, perception, mental formations
//Lokiya// -- "Mundane," are all those states of consciousness and
mental factors arising in the worldling, as well as in the noble
one, which are not associated with the supermundane.
//Lokuttara// -- "Supermundane," is a term for the four paths and four
//Magga-phala// -- Path and fruit. First arises the
path-consciousness, immediately followed by "fruition," a moment
of supermundane awareness.
//Mana// -- Conceit, pride, one of the ten fetters binding to
existence, also one of the underlying tendencies.
//Mara// -- The Buddhist "tempter" figure, the personification of evil
and passions, of the totality of worldly existence and of death.
//Metta// -- Loving-kindness, one of the four sublime emotions
//Nibbana// -- lit. "Extinction," to cease blowing, to become
extinguished. Nibbana constitutes the highest and ultimate goal
of all Buddhist aspirations, i.e. absolute extinction of that
life-affirming will manifested as greed, hate and delusion and
clinging to existence, thereby the absolute deliverance from all
//Nivarana// -- "Hindrances," five qualities which are obstacles to
the mind and blind our mental vision, and obstruct concentration,
to wit: sensual desire, ill-will, sloth and torpor, restlessness
and worry, and skeptical doubt.
//Papanca// -- "Proliferation," lit. "expansion, diffuseness,"
detailed exposition, development, manifoldness, multiplicity,
//Paticcasamuppada// -- "Dependent Origination" is the doctrine of the
conditionality of all physical and psychical phenomena.
//Puthujjana// -- lit. "one of the many folk," worldling, ordinary
man, anyone still possessed of all the ten fetters binding to the
round of rebirths.
//Sacca// -- Truth, such as the "Four Noble Truths."
//Sakadagami// -- The Once-Returner, having shed the five lower
fetters, reappears in the higher world to reach Nibbana.
//Sakkaya-ditthi// -- Personality-belief is the first of the ten
fetters and is abandoned at stream-entry.
//Samatha// -- Tranquillity, serenity, is a synonym of //samadhi//
//Samsara// -- Round of rebirth, lit, "perpetual wandering," is a name
by which is designated the sea of life ever restlessly heaving up
//Sangha// -- lit. Congregation, is the name for the community of
monks and nuns. As the third of the Three Gems and the Three
Refuges, it applies to the community of the Noble Ones.
//Samvega// -- "The sources of emotion," or a sense of urgency.
//Sankhara// -- Most general usage: formation. mental formations and
kamma formations. Sometimes: bodily functions or mental
functions. Also: anything formed.
//Silabbataparamasa// -- Attachment to mere rules and rituals is the
third fetter and one of the four kinds of clinging. It disappears
on attaining to stream-entry.
//Sotapatti// -- Stream-entry, the first attainment of becoming a
//Vicikiccha// -- Skeptical doubt is one of the five mental hindrances
and one of the three fetters, which disappears forever at
//Vipassana// -- Insight into the truth of the impermanence, suffering
and impersonality of all corporal and mental phenomena of
//Yatha-bhuta nana-dassana// -- The knowledge and vision according to
reality, is one of eighteen chief kinds of insight.
* * * * * * * *