The following Pali words encompass concepts and levels of ideas for
which there are no adequate synonyms in English. The explanations
of these terms have been adapted from the //Buddhist Dictionary//
by Nyanatiloka Mahathera.
Anagami - the "Non-Returner" is a noble disciple on the 3rd stage
Anatta - "No-self," non-ego, egolessness, impersonality; "neither
within the bodily and mental phenomena of existence nor
outside of them can be found anything that in the
ultimate sense could be regarded as a self-existing real
ego-identity, soul or any other abiding substance."
Anicca - "Impermanence," a basic feature of all conditional
phenomena, be they material or mental, coarse or subtle,
one's own or external.
Anusaya - The seven "proclivities," inclinations or tendencies.
Arahat/Arahant - The Holy One. Through the extinction of all
cankers he reaches already in this very life the deliverance
of mind, the deliverance through wisdom, which is free from
cankers and which he himself has understood and realized.
Ariya - Noble Ones. Noble Persons.
Avijja - Ignorance, nescience, unknowing, synonymous with delusion, is
the primary root of all evil and suffering in the world,
veiling man's mental eyes and preventing him from seeing the
true nature of things.
Bhavaraga - Craving for continued existence; one of the seven
Citta-viveka - Mental detachment, the inner detachment from sensuous
Devas - Heavenly Beings, deities, celestials are beings who live in
happy worlds, but are not freed from the cycle of existence.
Dhamma - The liberating law discovered and proclaimed by the Buddha,
summed up in the Four Noble Truths.
Ditthi - View, belief, speculative opinion. If not qualified by
"right," it mostly refers to wrong and evil view or opinion.
Dukkha - (1) In common usage: "pain," painful feeling, which may be
bodily or mental.
(2) In Buddhist usage as, e.g., in the Four Noble Truths:
suffering, ill, the unsatisfactory nature and general
insecurity of all conditioned phenomena.
Jhana - Meditative absorptions. Tranquility meditation.
Kalyanamitta - Noble or good friend is called a senior monk who is the
mentor and friend of his pupil, wishing for his welfare and
concerned with his progress, guiding his meditation; in
particular the meditation teacher.
Kamma/Karma - "Action" denotes the wholesome and unwholesome volitions
and their concomitant mental factors, causing rebirth and
shaping the character of beings and thereby their destiny. The
term does not signify the result of actions and most certainly
not the deterministic fate of man.
Kaya-viveka - Bodily detachment, i.e., abiding in solitude free
from alluring sensuous objects.
Khandha - The five "groups" are called the five aspects in which
the Buddha has summed up all the physical and mental
phenomena of existence, and which appear to the ordinary
man as his ego or personality, to wit: body, feeling,
perception, mental formations and consciousness.
Lokiya - "Mundane," are all those states of consciousness and
mental factors arising in the worldling, as well as in
the noble one, which are not associated with the
Lokuttara - "Supermundane," is a term for the four paths and four
Magga-phala - Path and fruit. First arises the path-consciousness,
immediately followed by "fruition," a moment of supermundane
Mana - Conceit, pride, one of the ten fetters binding to existence,
also one of the underlying tendencies.
Mara - The Buddhist "tempter" figure, the personification of evil and
passions, of the totality of worldly existence and of death.
Metta - Loving-kindness, one of the four sublime emotions
Nibbana - lit. "Extinction," to cease blowing, to become extinguished.
Nibbana constitutes the highest and ultimate goal of all
Buddhist aspirations, i.e., absolute extinction of that
life-affirming will manifested as greed, hate and delusion and
clinging to existence, thereby the absolute deliverance from
all future rebirth.
Nivarana - "Hindrances," five qualities which are obstacles to the
mind and blind our mental vision, and obstruct
concentration to wit: sensual desire, ill-will, sloth
and torpor, restlessness and worry, and sceptical doubt.
Papanca - "Proliferation," lit. expansion, diffuseness, detailed
exposition, development, manifoldness, multiplicity,
Paticcasamuppada - "Dependent Origination" is the doctrine of the
conditionality of all physical and psychical phenomena.
Puthujjana - lit. "one of the many folk," worldling, ordinary man,
anyone still possessed of all the ten fetters binding to the
round of rebirths.
Sacca - Truth, such as the "Four Noble Truths."
Sakadagamami - The Once-Returner, having shed the lower fetters,
reappears in a higher world to reach Nibbana.
Sakkaya-ditthi - Personality-belief is the first of the fetters and is
abandoned at stream-entry.
Samatha - Tranquility, serenity, is a synonym of //samadhi//
Samsara - Round of rebirth, lit. "perpetual wandering," is a name
by which is designated the sea of life ever restlessly
heaving up and down.
Sangha - lit. Congregation, is the name for the community of monks and
nuns. As the third of the Three Gems and the Three Refuges, it
applies to the community of the Noble Ones.
Samvega - "The sources of emotion," or a sense of urgency.
Sankhara - Most general usage: formations. Mental formations and kamma
formations. Sometimes: bodily functions or mental functions.
Also: anything formed.
Silabbata-paramasa - Attachment to mere rules and rituals is the third
fetter and one of the four kinds of clinging. It disappears on
attaining to stream-entry.
Sotapatti - Stream-entry, the first attainment of becoming a noble one.
Vicikiccha - Sceptical doubt is one of the five mental hindrances and
one of the three fetters which disappears forever at
Vipassana - Insight into the truth of the impermanence, suffering and
impersonality of all corporeal and mental phenomena of
Yatha-bhuta-nana-dassana - The knowledge and vision according to
reality, is one of eighteen chief kinds of insight.
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