ˇWPC4 30.PR dy DMP 13 WRITTEN BY Henry Cornelius Agrippa, of NETTESHEIM, Counseller to CHA

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ˇWPC4 WRITTEN BY Henry Cornelius Agrippa, of NETTESHEIM, Counseller to CHARLES the Fifth, EMPEROR of Germany: and Judge of the Prerogative Court. ----------------------------------------------------------- Translated out of the Latin into the English Tongue, by J.F. ----------------------------------------------------------- * * * * ----------------------------------------------------------- London, Printed by R.W. For Gregory Moute, and are to be sold at the Sign of the three Bibles near the West end of Pauls, 1651; Three Books of Occult Philosophy, or of Magick; Written by that Famous Man Henry Cornelius Agrippa, Knight, And Doctor of both Laws, Counsellor to Caesars Sacred Majesty, and Judge of the Prerogative Court BOOK I,CHAP.I. How Magicians Collect vertues from the three-fold World, is declared in these three Books Seeing there is a three-fold World, Elementary, Celestiall, and Intellectuall, and every inferior is governed by its superior, and receiveth the influence of the vertues thereof, so that the very original, and chief Worker of all doth by Angels, the Heavens, Stars, Elements, Animals, Plants, Metals, and Stones convey from himself the vertues of his Omnipotency upon us, for whose service he made, and created all these things: Wise men conceive it no way irrationall that it should be possible for us to ascend by the same degrees through each World, to the same very originall World itself, the Maker of all things, and first Cause, from whence all things are, and proceed; and also to enjoy not only these vertues, which are already in the more excellent kind of things, but also besides these, to draw new vertues from above. Hence it is that they seek after the vertues of the Elementary world, through the help of Physick, and Naturall Philosophy in the various mixtions of Naturall things, then of the Celestiall world in the Rayes, and influences thereof, according to the rules of Astrologers, and the doctrines of Mathematicians, joyning the Celestiall vertues to the former; Moreover, they‘Intelligencies, through the sacred Ceremonies of Religions. The order and process of all these I shall endeavor to deliver in these three Books: whereof the first contains naturall Magick, the second Celestiall, and the third Ceremoniall. But I know not whether it be an unpardonable presumption in me, that I, a man of so little judgement and learning should in my very youth so confidently set upon a business so difficult, so hard, and intricate as this is. Wherefore, whatsoever things have here already, and shall afterward be said by me, I would not have any one assent to them, nor shall I myself, and further than they shall be approved of by the Universall Church and the Congregation of the Faithfull. Book I, Chapter II What Magick is, what are the Parts thereof, and how the Professors thereof must be qualified. Magick is a faculty of wonderfull vertue, full of most high mysteries, containing the most profound Contemplation of most secret things, together with the nature, power, substance, and vertues thereof, as also the knowledge of whole nature, and it doth instruct us concerning the differing, and agreement of things amongst themselves, whence it produceth its wonderfull effects, by uniting the vertues of things through the application of them one to the other, and to their inferior suitable subjects, joyning and knitting them together thoroughly by the powers, and vertues of the superior Bodies. This is the most perfect and chief science, that sacred, and sublimer kind of Phylosophy, and lastly the most absolute perfection of all most excellent Philosophy. For seeing that all regulative Philosophy is divided into Naturall, Mathematicall, and Theologicall: (Naturall Philosophy teacheth the nature of those things which are in the world, searching and inquiring into their Causes, Effects, Times, Places, Fashions, Events, their Whole, and Parts); also The Number and the Nature of those things Cal'd Elements, what Fire, Earth, Aire forth brings: From whence the Heavens their beginnings had; whence tide, whence rainbow in gay colors clad. What makes the clouds that gathered are, and black, to send forth lightenings, and a thundering crack; what doth the nightly flames, and comets make; what makes the earth to swell, and then to quake: what is the seed of metals, and of gold what vertues, wealth, doth nature's coffer hold.‘All these things doth naturall philosophy, the viewer of nature contain, teaching us according to virgil's muse. ---------Whence all things flow, whence mankind, beast, whence fire, whence rain, and snow, whence earthquakes are, why the whole ocean beats over his banks, and again retreats: whence strength of herbs, whence courage, rage of brutes, all kinds of stone, of creeping things, and fruits. But mathematicall philosophy teacheth us to know the quantity of naturall bodies, as extended into three dimensions, as also to conceive of the motion, and course of celestiall bodies. ---------As in great haste, what makes the golden stars to march so fast; what makes the moon sometimes to mask her face, the sun also, as if in some disgrace. And as virgil sings, how the sun doth rule with twelve zodiack signs, the orb that's measured round about with lines, it doth the heaven's starry way make known, and strange eclipses of the sun, and moon. Arcturus also, and the stars of rain, the seven stars likewise, and charles his wain, why winter suns make tow'rds the west so fast; what makes the nights so long ere they be past? All which are understood by mathematicall philosophy. ------Hence by the heavens we may foreknow the seasons all; times for to reap and sow, and when tis fit to launch into the deep, and when to war, and when in peace to sleep, and when to dig up trees, and them again to set; that so they may bring forth amain. Now theologicall philosophy, or divinity, teacheth what god is, what the mind, what an intelligence, what an angel, what a devil, what the soul, what religion, what sacred institutions, rites, temples, observations, and sacred‘miracles, the vertues of words and figures, the secret operations and mysteries of seals, and as Apuleius saith, it teacheth us rightly to understand, and to be skilled in the ceremoniall laws, the equity of holy things, and rule of religions. But to recollect myself, these three principall faculties natural magick comprehends, unites, and actuates; deservedly therefore was it by the ancients esteemed as the highest, and most sacred philosophy. It was, as we find, brought to light by most sage authors, and most famous writers; amongst which principally Zamolxis and Zoroaster were so famous, that many believed they were the inventors of this science. Their track Abbaris the Hyperborean, Charmondas, Damigeron, Eudoxus, Hermippus followed: there were also other eminent, choice men, as Mercurius Tresmegistus, Porphyrius, Iamblicus, Plotinus, Proclus, Dardanus, orpheus the thracian, gog the grecian, germa the babilonian, apollonius of tyana, osthanes also wrote excellently in this art; whose books being as it were lost, democritus of abdera recovered, and set forth with his own commentaries. Besides pythagoras, empedocles, democritus, plato, and many other renowned philosophers travelled far by sea to learn this art: and being returned, published it with wonderfull devoutness, esteeming of it as a great secret. Also it is well known that pythagoras and plato went to the prophets of memphis to learn it, and travelled through almost all of syria, egypt, judea, and the schools of the caldeans, that they might not be ignorant of the most sacred memorial, and records of magick, as also that they might be furnished with divine things. Whosoever therefore is desirous to study in this faculty,if he be not skilled in natural philosophy, wherein are discovered the qualities of things, and in which are found the occult properties of every being, and if he be not skilfull in the mathematicks, and in the aspects, and figures of the stars, upon which depends the sublime vertue, and property of every thing; and if he be not learned in theologie, wherein are manifested those immaterial substances, which dispense, and minister all things, he cannot be possibly able to understand the rationality of magick, nor any work that is merely magickal, that doth not comprehend these three faculties. Chapter iii of the four elements, their qualities,, and mutual mixtions there are four elements, and original grounds of all corporeal things, fire,earth, wather, aire, of which all elementated inferiour bodies are compounded; not by way of heaping them up together, but by transmutation, and union; and when they are destroyed, they are resolved into elements. For there is none of the sensible elements that is pure, but they are more or less mixed, and apt to be changed one into the other: even as earth becoming dirty, and being dissolved, becomes water, and the same being made thick and hard, become earth again; but being evaporated though heat, passeth into aire, and that being kindled, passeth into fire, and this being extinguished, returns back again into aire, but being cooled again after its burning, becomes earth, or stone or sulphur, and this is manifested‘was wholly changeable, and that the rest of the elements are changed, as into this, so into one another successively. But it is the opinion of the subtiller sort of philosophers, that earth is not changed, but relented and mixed with other elements, which do dissolve it, and that it returns back into itself again. Now every one of the elements hath two specifical qualities, the former whereof it retains as proper to itself, in the other, as a mean, it agrees with that which comes next after it. For fire is hot and dry, the earth dry and cold, the water cold and moist, the aire moist and hot. And so after this manner the elements, according to two contrary qualities, are contrary one to the other, as fire to water, and earth to aire. Moreover, the elements are upon another account opposite one to the other: for some are heavy, as earth and water, and others are light as aire and fire. Wherefore the stoicks called the former passives, but the latter actives. And yet once again plato distinguisheth them after another manner, and assigns to every one of them three qualities; viz. To the fire brightness, thinness, and motion, but to the earth darkness, thickness and quietness. And according to these qualities the elements of fire and earth are contrary. But the other elements borrow their qualities from these, so that the aire receives two qualities of the fire, thinness and motion; and one of the earth, viz. Darkness; in like manner water receives two qualities of the earth, darkness and thickness, and one of fire, , viz. Motion. But fire is twice more thin than aire, thrice more moveable, and four times more bright: and the aire is twice more bright, thrice more thin, and four times more moveable than water. Wherefore water is twice more bright than earth, thrice more thin, and four times more moveable. As therefore the fire is to the aire, so aire to the water, and water to the earth; and again, as the earth is to the water, so the water to the aire, and the aire to the fire. And this is the root and foundation of all bodies, natures, vertues, and wonderfull works; and he which shall know these qualities of the elements, and their mixtion, shall easily bring to pass such things that are wonderfull, and astonishing, and shall be perfect in magick. Chapter iv of a three fold consideration of the universe there are then, as we have said four elements, without the perfect knowledge whereof we can effect nothing in magick. Now each of then is three-fold, that so the number of four may make up the number of twelve; and by passing by the number of seven into the number of ten, there may be a progress to the supreme unity, upon which all vertue and‘pure elements, which are neither compounded nor changed, nor admit of mixtion, but are incorruptible, and not of which, but through which the vertues of all naturall things are brought forth into act. No man is able to declare their vertues, because they can do all things upon all things. He which is ignorant of these, shall never be able to bring to pass any wonderfull matter. Of the second order are elements that are compounded, changeable, and impure, yet such as may by art be reduced to their simplicity, doth above all things perfect all occult, and common operations of nature: and these are the foundation of the whole naturall magick. Of the third order are those elements, which originally and of themselves are not elements, but are twice compounded various, and changeable one into the other. They are the infallible medium, and therefore are called the middle nature, or soul of the middle nature: very few there are that understand the deep mysteries thereof. In them is, by means of certain numbers, degrees, and orders, the perfection of every effect in what thing soever, whether naturall, celestiall, or supercelestiall; they are full of wonders, and mysteries, and are operative, as in magick naturall, so divine: for from these, through them proceed the bindings, loosings, and transmutations of all things, the knowing and foretelling of things to come, also the driving forth of evil, and the gaining of good spirits. Let no man therefore, without these three forts of elements, and the knowledge thereof, be confident that he is able to work any thing in the occult sciences of magick, and nature. But whosoever shall know how to reduce those of one order, into those of another, impure into pure, compounded into simple, and shall know how to understand distinctly the nature, vertue, and power of them in number, degrees, and order, without dividing the substance, he shall easily attain to the knowledge, and perfect operation of all naturall things, and celestiall secrets. Chapter v of the wonderfull natures of fire, and earth there are two things (faith hermes) viz. Fire and earth, which are sufficient for the operation of all wonderfull things: the former is active, the latter passive. Fire (as faith dionysius) in all things, and through all things, comes and goes away bright, it is in all things bright, and at the same time occult, and unknown; when it is by itself (no other matter coming to it, in which it should manifest its proper action), it is boundless, and invisible, of itself sufficient for every action that is proper to it, moveable, yielding itself after a manner to all things that come next to it, renewing, guarding nature, enlightening,‘parted, leaping back, bending upwards, quick in motion, high, always raising motions, comprehending another, not compreheneded itself, not standing in need of another, secretly increasing of itself, and manifesting its greatness to things that receive it. Active, powerfull, invisibly present in all things at once; it will not be affronted or opposed, but as it were in a way of revenge, it will reduce on a sudden things into obedience to itself, incomprehensible, impalpable, not lessened, most rich in all dispensations of itself. Fire (as faith pliny) is the boundless, and mischievous part of the nature of things, it being a question whether it destroys, or produceth most things (as say the pythagorians) also spread abroad in the heavens, and shining: but in the infernall place straightened, dark, and tormenting, in the midwa;y it partakes of both. Fire therefore in itself is one, but in that which receives it, manifold, and in differing subjects it is distributed in a different manner, as cleanthes waitnesseth in cicero., That fire then which we use is fetched out of other things. It is in stones, and is fetched out by the stroke of the steel, it is in earth, and makes that, after digging up, to smoke. It is in water, and heats springs, and wells; it is in the depth of the sea, and makes that, being tossed with waves warm. It is in the air, and makes it (as we oftentimes see) to burn. And all animals, and living things whatsoever, as also all vegetables are preserved by heat, and every thing that lives, lives by reason of the enclosed heat. The properties of the fire that is above, are heat, making all things fruitful and ligh, giving life to all things. The properties ofthe infernal fire are a parching heat, consuming all things, and darkness, mnaking all things barren. The celestiall, and bright fire drives away spirits of darkness; also this our fire made with wood drives away the same, in as much as it hath an analogy with, and is the vehiculum of that superior light; as also of him, who saith, I am the light of the world,which is true fire, the father of lights, from whom every good thing that is given, comes; sending forth the light of his fire, and communicating it first to the sun, and the rest of the celestial bodies, and by these, as by mediating instruments conveying that light into our fire. As therefore the spirits of darkness are stronger in the dark: so good spirits, which are angels of light, are augmented, not only by that light which is divine, of the sun, and celestiall, but also by the light of our common fire. Hence it was that the first, and most wise institutors of religions, and ceremonies ordained,that prayers, singings, and all manner of divine worships whatsoever should not be performed without lighted candles or torches. (Hence also was that significant saying of pythagoras. Do not speak of god without a light) and they commanded that for the driving away of wicked spirits, lights and fires should be kindled by the corpses of the‘expiations were after a holy manner performed, and they buried. And the great jehovah himself in the old law commanded that all his sacrifices should be offered with fire, and that fire should always be burning upon the altar, which custome the priest of the altar did always observe, and keep amongst, the romanes. Now the basis, and foundation of all the elements is the earth for that is the object, subject, and receptacle of all celestiall rayes, and influences; in it are contained the seeds, and seminall virtues of all things; and there fore it is said to be animal, vegetable, and minerall. It being made fruitfull by the other elements, and the heavens, brings forth all things of itself; it receives the abundance of all things, and is as wwere the first fountain, from whence all things spring, it is the center, foundation, and mother of all things. Take as much of it as you please, separated, washed, depurated, subtilized, if you let it lie in the open aire a little while, it will, being full, and abounding with heavenly vertues, of itself bring forth plants, worms, and other living things also stones, and bright sparks of metals. In it are great secrets, if at any time it shall be purified by the help of fire, and reduced unto its simplicity by a convenient washing. It is the first matter of our creation, and the truest medicine that can restore, and preserve us. Chapter vi of the wonderfull natures of water, aire, and winds the other two elements, viz. Water, and aire are not less efficacious than the former; neither is nature wanting to work wonderfull things in them. There is so great a necessity of water, that without it no living thing can live. No herb, nor plant whatsoever, without the moistening of water can branch forth. In it is the seminary vertue of all things, especially of animals, whose seed is manifestly waterish. The seeds also of trees, and plants, although they are earthy, must notwithstanding of necessity be rotted in water, before they can be fruitfull; whether they be imbibed with the moisture of the earth, or with dew, or rain, or any other water that is on purpose put to them. For moses writes, that only earth, and water bring forth a living soul. But he ascribes a twofold production of things to water, viz. Of things swimming in the waters, and of things flying in the aire above the earth. And that those productions that are made in, and upon the earth, are partly attributed to the very water, the same scripture testifies, where it saith that the plants, and the herbs did not grow,‘is the efficacy of this element of water, that spiritual regeneration cannot be done without it, as christ himself testified to nicodemus. Very great also is the verue of it in the religious worship of god, in expiations, and purifications; yea, the necessity of it is no less than that of fire. Infinite are the benefits, and divers are the uses thereof, as being that by vertue of which all things subsist, are generated, nourished, and increased. Thence it was that thales of miletus and hesiod concluded that water was the beginning of all things,and said it was the first of all the elements, and the most potent, and that because it hath the mastery over all the rest. For, as pliny saith, waters swallow up the earth, extinguish flames, ascend on high, and by the stretching forth of the clouds, challenge the heaven for their own: the same falling down become the cause of all things that grow in the earth. Very many are the wonders that are done by waters, according to the writings of pliny, solinus, and many other historians, of the wonderfull vertue whereof, ovid also makes mention in these verses. Hornd hammons waters at high noon are cold; hot at sunrise, and setting sun wood, put in bubbling athemas is fired, the moon then farthest from the sun retired, ciconian streams congeal his guts to stone that thereof drinks: and what therein is thrown. Crathis,and sybaris (from the mountains rolled) color the hair like amber, or pure gold. Some fountains of a more prodigious kind, not only change the body, but the mind. Who hath not heard of obscene salmacis? Of the ethiopian lake? For who of this but only taste, their wits no longer keep, or forthwith fall into a deadly sleep. Who at clitorius fountain thirst remove, loath wine, and abstinent, mere water love. With streams opposed to these lincestus flows: they reel, as drunk, who drink too much of those. A lake in fair arcadia stands, of old called pheneus; suspected, as twofold: fear, and forbear to drink thereof by night: by night unwholesome, wholesome by day light. Josephus also makes relation of the wonderfull nature of a certain river betwixt arcea, and raphanea, cities of syria: which runs with a full channell all the sabbath day, and then on a sudden ceaseth, as if the springs were stopped, and all the six days you may pass over it dry shod: but again on the seventh day (no man knowing the reason of it) the waters return again in abundance, as before. Wherefore the inhabitants thereabouts called it the sabbath day river, because of the seventh day, which was holy to the jews. The gospel also testifies of a sheep pool, into which whosoever‘was made whole of whatsoever disease he had. The same vertue, and efficacy we read was in a spring of the ionian nymphs, which was in the territories belonging to the town of elis, at a village called heraclea, near the river citheron, which whosoever stepped into, being diseased, came forth whole, and cured of all his diseases. Pasania also reports, that in lyceus, a mountain of arcadia, there was a spring called agria, to which, as often as the dryness of the region threatened the destruction of fruits, jupiter's priest of lyceus went, and after the offering of sacrifices, devoutly praying to the waters of the spring, holding a bough of an oak in his hand, put it down to the bottom of the hallowed spring; then the waters being troubled a vapour ascending from thence into the air was blown into cloud, with which being joined together, the whole heaven was overspriead: which being a little after dissolved into rai, watered all the country most wholesomely. Moreover rulffus a physician of epheses, besides many other authors, wrote strange things concerning the wonders of waters which,for ought I know, are found in no other author. It remains that I speak of the aire. This is a vital spirit, passing through all beings, giving life, and subsistence to all things, binding, moving, and filling all things. Hence it is ;that the hebrew doctors recon it not amost the elements, but count lit as a medium or glue, joining things together, and as the resounding spirit of the world's instrument. It immediately receives into itself, as as I were a diving looking glass, the species of all things, as well naturall, as artificial) as alsoof all manner of speeches, and retaings them: and carrying them with it, and entering into the bodies of men, and other animals, through their pores, makes an impression upon them

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