By: Dan Ceppa To: George Mooth Re: Our Daily Bread HR-=+gt;No I must of missed it. Not to

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By: Dan Ceppa To: George Mooth Re: Our Daily Bread HR-=>No I must of missed it. Not to worry!!! Here it is: Subj: Bread Flour - Gluten --------------------------------------------------------------------------- There are essentially two kinds of wheat grown by farmers and ranchers: hard and soft. A third wheat, imported to the American diet, but not in breads and pastries, is a hard wheat variety, called "durum".This is used in making pastas, such as macaroni, spaghetti & noodles, and is also used as feed for poultry and livestock. All three wheats share in varying degrees, an important element which makes wheat unique among the cereal flours. That is "Gluten"..a plant protein prized by bakers because when mixed with water, it forms an elastic network that catches the gas generated by the yeast, and it raises and expands the dough. Hard wheat which is grown in the Great Plains of our western prairie lands (USA) has a high gluten content, and is milled into "bread" flour. After an absence in our supermarkets for over two generations, this marvelous flour has returned to the shelves. If you cannot obtain the "bread" flour, you may substitue "unbleached" flour. Despite its name, the flour is bleached in an aging, rather than a chemical process, and is milled from a blend of hard wheats. It may be substituted for bread flours with very good results. Bread flour is favored by commercial bakers not only for its taste and texture, but because it can withstand punishing treatment from the heavy machinery used. Soft wheat, grown in the milder regions of the middle and eastern America, produces a flour lower in Gluten, one that is ideal for baking such products as cakes, cookies, crackers and pastries. At the bottom of the gluten scale is cake flour. This has only enough of the protein to hold the cake together when it's baking, while the delicate and tender structure of cells is formed. Just a little higher up the gluten scale is pastry flour, for pie and tart dough, because it can tolerate a considerale amount of shortening without becoming tough. Mid-range is the all purpose flour....a blend of hard and soft wheat flours that has been developed by the millers to take care of a wide range of home baking needs with one flour....from bread to biscuits, to pies and doughnuts. All-purpose flour can be substituted for most other wheat flours in recipes. It will not rise as high as bread flour however, it is a worthy substitute nonetheless. A combination of three parts all purpose flour to one part bread flour will obtain the characteristics of French Bread. However, french flour gets no chemical treatment whatsoever, except for minute additions of ascorbic acid, which strengthens the dough and gives the loaf more volume. US unbleached flour has perhaps the closest resemblence to French flour. It is quite easy to check the protein, or gluten content of flour...that is..beyond the description on the bag the flour comes in, in the grocery store. Look at the small panel of nutritional informatin on the side of the package. Even though figures vary from brand to brand and from Mill to Mill, here is the protein range: Bread Flour: 12.5% Unbleached Flour: 11% All-Purpose Flour: 9% Pastry flour:8% Cake Flour: 7% or less. Bromated white flour is used primarily by commercial bakers. The flour is treated with potassium bromate to toughen the dough for the rigors of kneading. Whole Wheat flour (made from the whole kearnel) is quite easy to work and knead, because of its full quota of Gluten.I often use stoneground whole wheat flour because it gives the bread a rougher texture. Graham and pumpernickel are similar to stoneground. Whoel wheat flour contains the entire germ or fat portion of the kernel.Stored for any extended time, it should be kept refrigerated or in the freezer to prevent rancidity. Rye is a grain with little gluten, therefore, most of the time rye flour must be mixed with white or whole wheat flour to give the dough its necessary gluten network. When making bread, the flour should not be sifted. The amount of flour given in any recipe is only 'approximate' because flour varies greatly in its ability to absorb moisture due to differences from harvest to harvest, sack to sack, as well as month to month as the humidity changes and the flour absorbs/releases moisture. An example: flour kept in a warm kitchen in the wintertime will be dry, and more receptive to liquid than flour stored in a humid room in the summer. Flour freezes well, and keeps for a year or more in the freezer. When I find a good sale on flour, I stock up and keep it in the freezer. Gluten Bread ------------ Gluten, the protein in wheat flour so important to yeast-raised bread is processed into a flour that is baked into a loaf which, when sliced and toasted, has a very crisp bite and a pleasant nutlike flavor. The flour is expensive (costing almost 8x as much as bread flour, so it will probably be reserved for 'special diets'. To make gluten flour, white flour goes through a washing process that takes away most of the starch and leaves the gluten. This is then processed into a light brown flour. Gluten, of course, is the grand substance found in wheat flour which forms the elastic network in yeast dough, to trap gas bubbles and expand the dough. ***Don't expect the addition of gluten flour to ordinary wheat flour to give it even more lift. It Won't Next posting will be about Triticale, a strange and relatively new word in the lexicon of the home baker...is a grain, a hybrid of wheat and rye high in nutrients and fiber. /) / / * /_)( )/_)/_) / (' "Once your mind is stretched by a new idea, it will never again return to its original size." ~Oliver Wendall Holmes~ INET: bkopf@daystar.org FIDONET: 1:300/507 * OLX 2.1 TD * I got a Harley for my ex-husband....what a great trade! -!- GOMail v2.02 [94-0145] ! Origin: The Desert Reef >(;} * Tucson Az * V34 * 520 624 6386 (1:300/507) ... Raise Twit Shields, Mr Sulu! Asshole located on sensors.... ___ Blue Wave/QWK v2.12 --- WILDMAIL!/WC v4.12 * Origin: Ten Forward BBS, The Olympic Peninsula. (1:350/401.0)

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