By: George Rudzinski
Re: Book of the Dead 1 of 27
THE PAPYRUS OF ANI
(THE EGYPTIAN BOOK OF THE DEAD)
Translated by E.A. Wallis Budge
HYMN TO OSIRIS
"Homage to thee, Osiris, Lord of eternity, King of the Gods, whose
names are manifold, whose forms are holy, thou being of hidden form in
the temples, whose Ka is holy. Thou art the governor of Tattu
(Busiris), and also the mighty one in Sekhem (Letopolis). Thou art the
Lord to whom praises are ascribed in the nome of Ati, thou art the
Prince of divine food in Anu. Thou art the Lord who is commemorated in
Maati, the Hidden Soul, the Lord of Qerrt (Elephantine), the Ruler
supreme in White Wall (Memphis). Thou art the Soul of Ra, his own
body, and hast thy place of rest in Henensu (Herakleopolis). Thou
art the beneficent one, and art praised in Nart. Thou makest thy
soul to be raised up. Thou art the Lord of the Great House in
Khemenu (Hermopolis). Thou art the mighty one of victories in
Shas-hetep, the Lord of eternity, the Governor of Abydos. The path
of his throne is in Ta-tcheser (a part of Abydos). Thy name is
established in the mouths of men. Thou art the substance of Two
Lands (Egypt). Thou art Tem, the feeder of Kau (Doubles), the Governor
of the Companies of the gods. Thou art the beneficent Spirit among the
spirits. The god of the Celestial Ocean (Nu) draweth from thee his
waters. Thou sendest forth the north wind at eventide, and breath from
thy nostrils to the satisfaction of thy heart. Thy heart reneweth
its youth, thou producest the.... The stars in the celestial heights
are obedient unto thee, and the great doors of the sky open themselves
before thee. Thou art he to whom praises are ascribed in the
southern heaven, and thanks are given for thee in the northern heaven.
The imperishable stars are under thy supervision, and the stars
which never set are thy thrones. Offerings appear before thee at the
decree of Keb. The Companies of the Gods praise thee, and the gods
of the Tuat (Other World) smell the earth in paying homage to thee.
The uttermost parts of the earth bow before thee, and the limits of
the skies entreat thee with supplications when they see thee. The holy
ones are overcome before thee, and all Egypt offereth thanksgiving
unto thee when it meeteth Thy Majesty. Thou art a shining Spirit-Body,
the governor of Spirit-Bodies; permanent is thy rank, established is
thy rule. Thou art the well-doing Sekhem (Power) of the Company of the
Gods, gracious is thy face, and beloved by him that seeth it. Thy fear
is set in all the lands by reason of thy perfect love, and they cry
out to thy name making it the first of names, and all people make
offerings to thee. Thou art the lord who art commemorated in heaven
and upon earth. Many are the cries which are made to thee at the Uak
festival, and with one heart and voice Egypt raiseth cries of joy to
"Thou art the Great Chief, the first among thy brethren, the
Prince of the Company of the Gods, the stablisher of Right and Truth
throughout the World, the Son who was set on the great throne of his
father Keb. Thou art the beloved of thy mother Nut, the mighty one
of valour, who overthrew the Sebau-fiend. Thou didst stand up and
smite thine enemy, and set thy fear in thine adversary. Thou dost
bring the boundaries of the mountains. Thy heart is fixed, thy legs
are set firm. Thou art the heir of Keb and of the sovereignty of the
Two Lands (Egypt). He (Keb) hath seen his splendours, he hath
decreed for him the guidance of the world by thy hand as long as times
endure. Thou hast made this earth with thy hand, and the waters, and
the winds, and the vegetation, and all the cattle, and all the
feathered fowl, and all the fish, and all the creeping things, and all
the wild animals therof. The desert is the lawful possession of the
son of Nut. The Two Lands (Egypt) are content to crown thee upon the
throne of thy father, like Ra.
"Thou rollest up into the horizon, thou hast set light over the
darkness, thou sendest forth air from thy plumes, and thou floodest
the Two Lands like the Disk at daybreak. Thy crown penetrateth the
height of heaven, thou art the companion of the stars, and the guide
of every god. Thou art beneficent in decree and speech, the favoured
one of the Great Company of the Gods, and the beloved of the Little
Company of the Gods.
His sister [Isis] hath protected him, and hath repulsed the
fiends, and turned aside calamities (of evil). She uttered the spell
with the magical power of her mouth. Her tongue was perfect, and it
never halted at a word. Beneficent in command and word was Isis, the
woman of magical spells, the advocate of her brother. She sought him
untiringly, she wandered round and round about this earth in sorrow,
and she alighted not without finding him. She made light with her
feathers, she created air with her wings, and she uttered the death
wail for her brother. She raised up the inactive members of whose
heart was still, she drew from him his essence, she made an heir,
she reared the child in loneliness, and the place where he was not
known, and he grew in strength and stature, and his hand was mighty in
the House of Keb. The Company of the Gods rejoiced, rejoiced, at the
coming of Horus, the son of Osiris, whose heart was firm, the
triumphant, the son of Isis, the heir of Osiris."
Following is a list of frequently-mentioned geographical
locations, and their commonly-known names:
Two Lands Upper and Lower Egypt
A HYMN OF PRAISE TO RA WHEN HE RISETH IN THE EASTERN PART OF HEAVEN:
Behold, the Osiris Ani, the scribe of the holy offerings of all the
gods, saith: Homage to thee, O thou who hast come as Khepera,
Khepera the creator of the gods, Thou art seated on thy throne, thou
risest up in the sky, illumining thy mother [Nut], thou art seated
on thy throne as the king of the gods. [Thy] mother Nut stretcheth out
her hands, and performeth an act of homage to thee. The domain of Manu
receiveth thee with satisfaction. The goddess Maat embraceth thee at
the two seasons of the day. May Ra give glory, and power, and
thruth-speaking, and the appearance as a living soul so that he may
gaze upon Heru-khuti, to the KA of the Osiris the Scribe Ani, who
speaketh truth before Osiris, and who saith: Hail, O all ye gods of
the House of the Soul, who weigh heaven and earth in a balance, and
who give celestial food [to the dead]. Hail, Tatun, [who art] One,
thou creator of mortals [and] of the Companies of the Gods of the
South and of the North, of the West and of the East, ascribe ye praise
to Ra, the lord of heaven, the KING, Life, Strength, and Health, the
maker of the gods. Give ye thanks unto him in his beneficent form
which is enthroned in the Atett Boat; beings celestial praise thee,
beings terrestial praise thee. Thoth and the goddess Maat mark out thy
course for thee day by day and every day. Thine enemy the Serpent hath
been given over to the fire. The Serpent-fiend Sebau hath fallen
headlong, his forelegs are bound in chains, and his hind legs hath
Ra carried away from him. The Sons of Revolt shall never more rise up.
The House of the Aged One keepeth festival, and the voices of those
who make merry are in the Great Place. The gods rejoice when they
see Ra crowned upon his throne, and when his beams flood the world
with light. The majesty of this holy god setteth out on his journey,
and he goeth onwards until he reacheth the land of Manu; the earth
becometh light at his birth each day; he proceedeth until he
reacheth the place where he was yesterday. O be thou at peace with me.
Let me gaze upon thy beauties. Let me journey above the earth. Let
me smite the Ass. Let me slit asunder the Serpent-fiend Sebau. Let
me destroy Aepep at the moment of his greatest power. Let me behold
the Abtu Fish at his season, and the Ant Fish with the Ant Boat as
it piloteth it in its lake. Let me behold Horus when he is in charge
of the rudder [of the Boat of Ra], with Thoth and the goddess Maat
on each side of him. Let me lay hold of the tow-rope of the Sektet
Boat, and the rope at the stern of the Matett Boat. Let Ra grant to me
a view of the Disk (the Sun), and a sight of Ah (the Moon) unfailingly
each day. Let my Ba-soul come forth to walk about hither and thither
and whithersoever it pleaseth. Let my name be called out, let it be
found inscribed on the tablet which recordeth the names of those who
are to receive offerings. Let meals from the sepulchral offerings be
given to me in the presence [of Osiris], as to those who are in the
following of Horus. Let there be prepared for me a seat in the Boat of
the Sun on the day wheron the god saileth. Let me be received in the
presence of Osiris in the Land of Truth-speaking- the Ka of Osiris
(From the Papyrus of Nekht, Brit. Mus. No. 10471, Sheet 21)
NEKHT, THE CAPTAIN OF SOLDIERS, THE ROYAL SCRIBE, SINGETH A HYMN
OF PRAISE TO RA, and saith:- Homage to thee, O thou glorious Being,
thou who art dowered [with all sovereignty]. O Tem-Heru-Khuti
(Tem-Harmakhis), when thou risest in the horizon of heaven a cry of
joy goeth forth to thee from all people. O thou beautiful Being,
thou dost renew thyself in thy season in the form of the Disk,
within thy mother Hathor. Therefore in every place every heart
swelleth with joy at thy rising for ever. The regions of the South and
the North come to thee with homage, and send forth acclamations at thy
rising on the horizon of heaven, and thou illuminest the Two Lands
with rays of turquoise-[coloured] light. O Ra, who art Heru-Khuti, the
divine man-child, the heir of eternity, self-begotten and self-born,
king of the earth, prince of the Tuat (the Other World), governor of
Aukert, thou didst come from the Water-god, thou didst spring from the
Sky-god Nu, who doth cherish thee and order thy members. O thou god of
life, thou lord of love, all men live when thou shinest; thou art
crowned king of the gods. The goddess Nut embraceth thee, and the
goddess Mut enfoldeth thee at all seasons. Those who are in thy
following sing unto thee with joy, and they bow down their foreheads
to the earth when they meet thee, the lord of heaven, the lord of
the earth, the King of Truth, the lord of eternity, the prince of
everlastingness, thou sovereign of all the gods, thou god of life,
thou creator of eternity, thou maker of heaven wherin thou art
The Company of the Gods rejoice at thy rising, the earth is glad
when it beholdeth thy rays; the people who have been long dead come
forth with cries of joy to behold thy beauties every day. Thou goest
forth each day over heaven and earth, and thou art made strong each
day be thy mother Nut. Thou passest over the heights of heaven, thy
heart swelleth with joy; and the Lake of Testes (the Great Oasis) is
content thereat. The Serpent-fiend hath fallen, his arms are hewn off,
the Knife hath severed his joints. Ra liveth by Maat (Law), the
beautiful! The Sektet Boat advanceth and cometh into port. The South
and the North, and the West and East, turn to praise thee. O thou
First, Great God (PAUTA), who didst come into being of thine own
accord, Isis and Nephthys salute thee, they sing unto thee songs of
joy at thy rising in the boat, they stretch out their hands unto thee.
The Souls of the East follow thee, and the Souls of the West praise
thee. Thou art the Ruler of all the gods. Thou in thy shrine hast joy,
for the Serpent-fiend Nak hath been judged by the fire, and thy
heart shall rejoice for ever. Thy mother Nut is esteemed by thy father
HYMN TO OSIRIS UN-NEFER
A Hymn of Praise to Osiris Un-Nefer, the great god who dwelleth in
Abtu, the king of eternity, the lord of everlastingness, who
traverseth millions of years in his existence. Thou art the eldest son
of the womb of Nut. Thou was begotten by Keb, the Erpat. Thou art
the lord of the Urrt Crown. Thou art he whose White Crown is lofty.
Thou art the King (Ati) of gods [and] men. Thou hast gained possession
of the sceptre of rule, and the whip, and the rank and dignity of
thy divine fathers. Thy heart is expanded with joy, O thou who art
in the kingdom of the dead. Thy son Horus is firmly placed on thy
throne. Thou hast ascended thy throne as the Lord of Tetu, and as
the Heq who dwelleth in Abydos. Thou makest the Two Lands to
flourish through Truth-speaking, in the presence of him who is the
Lord to the Uttermost Limit. Thou drawest on that which hath not yet
come into being in thy name of "Ta-her-sta-nef." Thou governest the
Two Lands by Maat in thy name of "Seker." Thy power is wide-spread,
thou art he of whom the fear is great in thy name of "Usar" (or
"Asar"). Thy existence endureth for an infinite number of double henti
periods in thy name of "Un-Nefer."
Homage to thee, King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, and Prince of
Princes. Thou hast ruled the Two Lands from the womb of the goddess
Nut. Thou hast governed the Lands of Akert. Thy members are of
silver-gold, thy head is of lapis-lazuli, and the crown of thy head is
of turquoise. Thou art An of millions of years. Thy body is all
pervading, O Beautiful Face in Ta-tchesert. Grant thou to me glory
in heaven, and power upon earth, and truth-speaking in the Divine
Underworld, and [the power to] sail down the river to Tetu in the form
of a living Ba-soul, and [the power to] sail up the river to Abydos in
the form of a Benu bird, and [the power to] pass in through and to
pass out from, without obstruction, the doors of the lords of the
Tuat. Let there be given unto me bread-cakes in the House of
Refreshing, and sepulchral offerings of cakes and ale, and
propitiatory offerings in Anu, and a permanent homestead in
Sekhet-Aaru, with wheat and barley therein- to the Double of the
Osiris, the scribe Ani.
THE CHAPTERS OF COMING FORTH BY DAY
HERE BEGIN THE CHAPTERS OF COMING FORTH BY DAY, AND THE SONGS OF
PRAISING AND GLORIFYING WHICH ARE TO BE RECITED FOR "COMING FORTH" AND
FOR ENTERING INTO KHERT-NETER, AND THE SPELLS WHICH ARE TO BE SAID
IN BEAUTIFUL AMENTET. THEY SHALL BE RECITED ON THE DAY OF THE FUNERAL,
ENTERING IN AFTER COMING FORTH.
The Osiris Ani, the Osiris the scribe Ani saith:- Homage to thee,
O Bull of Amentet, Thoth the king of eternity is with me. I am the
great god by the side of the divine boat, I have fought for thee, I am
one of those gods, those divine chiefs, who proved the
truth-speaking of Osiris before his enemies on the day of the weighing
of words. I am thy kinsman Osiris. I am [one of] those gods who were
the children of the goddess Nut, who hacked in pieces the enemies of
Osiris, and who bound in fetters the legion of Sebau devils on his
behalf. I am thy kinsman Horus, I have fought on thy behalf, I have
come to thee for thy name's sake. I am Thoth who proved the truth of
the words of Osiris before his enemies on the day of the weighing of
words in the great House of the Prince, who dwelleth in Anu. I am
Teti, the son of Teti. My mother conceived me in Tetu, and gave
birth to me in Tetu. I am with the mourners [and with] the women who
tear out their hair and make lament for Osiris in Taui-Rekhti, proving
true the words of Osiris before his enemies. Ra commanded Thoth to
prove true the words of Osiris before his enemies; what was
commanded [for Osiris], let that be done for me by Thoth. I am with
Horus on the day of dressing Teshtesh. I open the hidden water-springs
for the ablutions of Urt-ab. I unbolt the door of the Shetait Shrine
in Ra-stau. I am with Horus as the protector of the left shoulder of
Osiris, the dweller in Sekhem. I enter in among and I come forth
from the Flame-gods on the day of the destruction of the Sebau
fiends in Sekhem. I am with Horus on the day[s] of the festivals of
Osiris, at the making of offerings and oblations, namely, on the
festival which is celebrated on the sixth day of the month, and on the
day of the Tenat festival in Anu. I am the UAB priest (libationer)
in Tetu, Rera, the dweller in Per-Asar. I exalt him that is upon the
high place of the country. I look upon the hidden things (the
mysteries) in Ra-stau. I recite the words of the liturgy of the
festival of the Soul-god in Tetu. I am the SEM priest, and [perform]
his duties. I am the UR-KHERP-HEM priest on the day of placing the
Henu Boat of Seker upon its divine sledge. I have taken in my hand the
digging tool on the day of digging up the earth in Hensu.
Hail, O ye who make perfect souls to enter into the House of Osiris,
make ye the well-instructed soul of the Osiris the scribe Ani, whose
word is true, to enter in and to be with you in the House of Osiris.
Let him hear even as ye hear; let him have sight even as ye have
sight; let him stand up even as ye stand up; let him take his seat
even as ye take your seats.
Hail, O ye who give cakes and ale to perfect souls in the House of
Osiris, give ye cakes and ale twice each day (in the morning and in
the evening) to the soul of the Osiris Ani, whose word is true
before the gods, the Lords of Abydos, and whose word is true with you.
Hail, O ye who open up the way, who act as guides to the roads [in
the Other World] to perfect souls in the House of Osiris, open ye up
for him the way, and act ye as guides to the roads to the soul of
the Osiris, the scribe, the registrary of all the offerings made to
the gods, Ani, [whose word is true] with you. May he enter the House
of Osiris with boldness, and may he come forth therefrom in peace. May
there be no opposition made to him, and may he not be sent back
[therefrom]. May he enter in under favour [of Osiris], and may he come
forth gratified [at the acceptance of] his true words. May his
commands be performed in the House of Osiris, may his words travel
with you, may he be glorious as ye are. May he be not found to be
light in the Balance, may the Balance dispose of his case.
(In the Turin Papyrus, ed. Lepsius, this Chapter ends with the
Permit thou not me to be judged according to the mouths of the
multitude. May my soul lift itself up before [Osiris], having been
found to have been pure when on earth. May I come into thy presence, O
Lord of the gods; may I arrive at the Nome of Maati (Truth); may I
rise up on my seat like a god endowed with life; may I give forth
light like the Company of the Gods who dwell in heaven; may I become
like one of you; may I lift up my footsteps in the town of Kher-Aha;
may I look upon the Sektet Boat of the god, Saah, the holy one, as
it passeth across the sky; may I not be repulsed; may I look upon
the Lords of the Tuat, or, according to another reading, the Company
of the Gods; may I smell the savour of the divine food of the
Company of the Gods; may I sit down with them; may my name be
proclaimed for offerings by the KHER-HEB priest at the sacrificial
table; may I hear the petitions which are made when offerings are
presented; may I draw nigh unto the Neshem Boat; and may neither my
Heart-soul nor its lord be repulsed.
Homage to thee, O Chief of Amentet, thou god Osiris, who dwellest in
the town of Nifu-ur. Grant thou that I may arrive in peace in Amentet.
May the Lords of Ta-Tchesert receive me, and may they say unto me:
"Hail, hail; welcome, welcome!" May they make ready for me a seat by
the side of the President of the Chiefs; may the Nursing-goddesses
receive me at the seasons, and may I come forth into the presence of
Un-Nefer true of word. May I be a Follower of Horus in Ra-stau, and of
Osiris in Tetu; and may I perform all the transformations which my
heart may desire to make in every place wherein my Double (KA) wisheth
RUBRIC: If this text be known [by the deceased] upon earth or if
he causeth it to be done in writing upon [his] coffin, then will he be
able to come forth on any day he pleaseth, and to enter into his
habitation unrepulsed. Cakes and ale and joints of meat from those
which are on the altar of Ra shall be given unto him, and his
homestead shall be among the fields of the Field of Reeds
(Sekhet-Aaru), and wheat and barley shall be given unto him therein,
and he shall flourish there even as he flourished upon earth.
(From the Papyrus of Nekhtu-Amen, ed. Naville, I, 5)
THE CHAPTER OF MAKING THE SAHU TO ENTER THE TUAT ON THE DAY OF THE
FUNERAL, WHEN THE FOLLOWING WORDS ARE TO BE SAID: Homage to thee, O
thou who dwellest in the Holy Hill (Set-Tchesert) of Amentet! the
Osiris, the royal scribe, Nekhtu-Amen, whose word is true, knoweth
thee, he knoweth thy name. Deliver thou him from the worms which are
in Ra-stau, which live upon the bodies of men and women, and feed upon
their blood, for Osiris, the favoured servant of the god of his
city, the royal scribe Nekhtu-Amen, knoweth you, and he knoweth your
names. Let the order for his protection be the first command of
Osiris, the Lord to the Uttermost Limit, who keepeth his body
hidden. May he give him release from the Terrible One who dwelleth
at the bend of the River of Amentet, and may he decree the acts that
will make him to rise up. Let him pass on to him whose throne is
placed within the darkness, who giveth light in Ra-stau. O thou Lord
of Light, come thou and swallow up the worms which are in Amentet. Let
the Great God who dwelleth in Tetu, and who is himself unseen, hear
his prayers, and let those who cause afflictions hold him in fear as
he cometh forth with the sentence of their doom to the Divine Block. I
the Osiris, the royal scribe, Nekhtu-Amen, come, bearing the decree of
Neb-er-tcher, and I am the Horus who taketh possession of his throne
for him. His father, the lord of all those who are in the Boat of
his Father Horus, hath ascribed praise unto him. He cometh bearing
tidings....... let him see the town of Anu. Their chief shall stand on
the earth before him, the scribes shall magnify him at the doors of
their assemblies, and thy shall swathe im with swathings in Anu. He
hath led heaven captive, and he hath seized the earth in his grasp.
Neither the heavens nor the earth can be taken away from him, for,
behold, he is Ra, the firstborn of the gods. His mother shall nurse
him, and shall give him her breast on the horizon.
RUBRIC: The words of this Chapter shall be said after [the deceased]
is laid to rest in Amentet; by means of them the region Tenn-t shall
be contented with her lord. And the Osiris, the royal scribe,
Nekhtu-Amen, whose word is truth, shall come forth, and he shall
embark in the Boat of Ra, and [his] body upon its bier shall be
counted up, and he shall be established in the Tuat.
THE CHAPTER OF GIVING A MOUTH TO THE OSIRIS ANI, THE SCRIBE, AND
TELLER OF THE OFFERINGS WHICH ARE MADE TO ALL THE GODS, WHOSE WORD
IS TRUE, WHO SAITH:- I rise up out of the Egg in the Hidden Land.
May my mouth be given unto me that I may speak therewith in the
presence of the Great God, the Lord of the Tuat. Let not my hand and
my arm be repulsed in the presence of the Chiefs (Tchatchau) of any
god. I am Osiris, the Lord of Ra-stau. May I, the Osiris, the scribe
Ani, whose word is true, have my portion with him who is on the top of
the Steps (Osiris). According to the desire of my heart I have come
forth from the Island of Nesersert, and I have extinguished the fire.
[The following passage is taken from the Saite Recension]
[THE CHAPTER OF GIVING A MOUTH TO THE OSIRIS, THE SCRIBE ANI, WHO
SAITH]:- Homage to thee, O thou lord of brightness, Governor of the
Temple, Prince of the night and of the thick darkness. I have come
unto thee. I am shining, I am pure. My hands are about thee, thou hast
thy lot with thy ancestors. Give thou unto me my mouth that I may
speak with it. I guide my heart at its season of flame and of night.
RUBRIC: If this Chapter be known by the Osiris the scribe Ani,
upon earth, [or if it be done] in writing upon [his] coffin, he
shall come forth by day in every form which he pleaseth, and he
shall enter into [his] abode, and shall not be repulsed. And cakes,
and ale, and joints of meat [from those which are on] the altar of
Osiris shall be given unto him; and he shall enter in peace into
Sekhet-Aaru, conformably to the decree of the Dweller in Busiris.
Wheat and barley (dhura) shall be given unto him therein, and he shall
flourish there just as he did upon earth; and he shall do whatsoever
it pleaseth him to do, even as do the Company of the Gods who are in
the Tuat, regularly and continually, for millions of times.
(From the Paprys of Nebseni, Sheet 3)
THE CHAPTER OF COMING FORTH BY DAY AND OF OPENING UP A WAY THROUGH
THE AMEHET: Behold, the scribe Nebseni, whose word is truth, saith:-
Homage to you, O ye Lords of Kau, ye who are without sin, and who live
for the endless and infinite aeons of time which make up eternity. I
have opened up a way for myself to you. I have become a spirit in my
forms, I have gotten the mastery over my words of magical power, and I
am adjudged a spirit; therefore deliver ye me from the Crocodile
[which liveth in] this Country of Truth. Grant ye to me my mouth
that I may speak therewith, and cause ye that sepulchral offerings
shall be made unto me in your presence, for I know you, and I know
your names, and I know also the name of the mighty god before whose
face ye set your celestial food. His name is "Tekem." [When] he
openeth up his path on the eastern horizon of heaven, [when] he
alighteth towards the western horizon of heaven, may he carry me along
with him, and may I be safe and sound. Let not the Mesqet make an
end of me, let not the Fiend (Sebau) gain the mastery over me, let
me not be driven away from the doors of the Other World, let not you
doors be shut in my face, for my cakes are in the city of Pe, and my
ale is in the city of Tep. And there, in the celestial mansions of
heaven which my divine father Tem hath stablished, let my hands lay
hold upon the wheat and the barley, which shall be given unto me
therein in abundant measure, and may the son of my own body make ready
for me my food therein. And grant ye unto me when I am there
sepulchral meals, and incense, and unguents, and all the pure and
beautiful things whereon the god liveth, in every deed for ever, in
all the transformations which it pleaseth me [to perform], and grant
unto me the power to float down and to sail up the stream in the Field
of Reeds (Sekhet-Aaru), [and may I reach Sekhet-hetepet (the Field
of Offerings)]. I am the twin Lion-gods (Shu and Tefnut).
TEXTS RELATING TO THE WEIGHING OF THE HEART OF ANI
THE NAMES OF THE GODS OF THE GREAT COMPANY:- 1. Ra Harmakhis, the
Great God in his boat. 2. Temu. 3. Shu. 4. Tefnut. 5. Keb. 6. Nut, the
Lady of Heaven. 7. Isis. 8. Nephthys. 9. Horus, the Great God. 10.
Hathor, Lady of Amentet. 11. Hu. 12. Sa.
THE PRAYER OF ANI:- My heart, my mother; my heart, my mother! My
heart whereby I came into being! May nought stand up to oppose me at
[my] judgment, may there be no opposition to me in the presence of the
Chiefs (Tchatchau); may there be no parting of thee from me in the
presence of him that keepeth the Balance! Thou art my KA, which
dwelleth in my body; the god Khnemu who knitteth together and
strengtheneth my limbs. Mayest thou come forth into the place of
happiness whither we go. May the Sheniu officials, who make the
conditions of the lives of men, not cause my name to stink, and may no
lies be spoken against me in the presence of the God. [Let it be
satisfactory unto us, and let the Listener god be favourable unto
us, and let there be joy of heart (to us) at the weighing of words.
Let not that which is false be uttered against me before the Great
God, the Lord of Amentet. Verily, how great shalt thou be when thou
risest in triumph.]
THE SPEECH OF THOTH:- Thoth, the judge of right and truth of the
Great Company of the Gods who are in the presence of Osiris, saith:
Hear ye this judgment. The heart of Osiris hath in very truth been
weighed, and his Heart-soul hath borne testimony on his behalf; his
heart hath been found right by the trial in the Great Balance. There
hath not been found any wickedness in him; he hath not wasted the
offerings which have been made in the temples; he hath not committed
any evil act; and he hath not set his mouth in motion with words of
evil whilst he was upon earth.
SPEECH OF THE DWELLER IN THE EMBALMMENT CHAMBER (ANUBIS):- Pay
good heed, O righteous Judge to the Balance to support [the testimony]
thereof. Variant: Pay good heed to the weighing in the Balance of
the heart of the Osiris, the singing-woman of Amen, Anhai, whose
word is truth, and place thou her heart in the seat of truth in the
presence of the Great God.
THE SPEECH OF THE GODS:- The Great Company of the Gods say to
Thoth who dwelleth in Khemenu: That which cometh forth from thy
mouth shall be declared true. The Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is
true, is holy and righteous. He hath not committed any sin, and he
hath done no evil against us. The devourer Am-mit shall not be
permitted to prevail over him. Meat offerings and admittance into
the presence of the god Osiris shall be granted unto him, together
with an abiding habitation in the Field of Offerings (Sekhet-hetepet),
as unto the Followers of Horus.
THE SPEECH OF HORUS TO OSIRIS IN INTRODUCING ANI TO HIM:- Horus, the
son of Isis, saith: I have come to thee, O Un-Nefer, and I have
brought unto thee the Osiris Ani. His heart is righteous, and it
hath come forth from the Balance; it hath not sinned against any god
or any goddess. Thoth hath weighed it according to the decree
pronounced unto him by the Company of the Gods, and it is most true
and righteous. Grant thou that cakes and ale may be given unto him,
and let him appear in the presence of the god Osiris, and let him be
like unto the Followers of Horus for ever and ever.
THE SPEECH OF ANI:- And the Osiris Ani saith: Behold, I am in thy
presence, O Lord of Amentet. There is no sin in my body. I have not
spoken that which is not true knowingly, nor have I done anything with
a false heart. Grant thou that I may be like unto those favoured
ones who are in thy following, and that I may be an Osiris greatly
favoured of the beautiful god, and beloved of the Lord of the Two
Lands, I who am a veritable royal scribe who loveth thee, Ani, whose
word is true before the god Osiris.
DESCRIPTION OF THE BEAST AM-MIT:- Her forepart is like that of a
crocodile, the middle of her body is like that of a lion, her hind
quarters are like those of a hippopotamus.
HERE BEGIN THE PRAISES AND GLORIFYINGS OF COMING OUT FROM AND OF
GOING INTO THE GLORIOUS KHERT-NETER, WHICH IS IN THE BEAUTIFUL
AMENTET, OF COMING FORTH BY DAY IN ALL THE FORMS OF EXISTENCE WHICH IT
MAY PLEASE THE DECEASED TO TAKE, OF PLAYING AT DRAUGHTS, OF SITTING IN
THE SEH HALL, AND OF APPEARING AS A LIVING SOUL:
The Osiris the scribe Ani saith after he hath arrived in his haven
of rest- now it is good for [a man] to recite [this work whilst he is]
upon earth, for then all the words of Tem come to pass-
"I am the god Tem in rising. I am the Only One. I came into
existence in Nu. I am Ra who rose in the beginning, the ruler of
Who is this?
"It is Ra, when at the beginning he rose in the city of Hensu,
crowned like a king for his coronation. The Pillars of the god Shu
were not as yet created, when he was upon the steps of him that
dwelleth in Khemenu.
"I am the Great God who created himself, even Nu, who made his names
to become the Company of the Gods as gods."
Who is this?
"It is Ra, the creator of the names of his limbs, which came into
being in the form of the gods who are in the train of Ra.
"I am he who cannot be repulsed among the gods."
Who is this?
"It is Temu, the dweller in his disk, but others say that it is Ra
when he riseth in the eastern horizon of the sky.
"I am Yesterday, I know To-day."
Who is this?
"Yesterday is Osiris, and To-day is Ra, when he shall destroy the
enemies of Neb-er-tcher (the lord to the uttermost limit), and when he
shall establish as prince and ruler his son Horus.
"Others, however, say that To-day is Ra, on the day when we
commemorate the festival of the meeting of the dead Osiris with his
father Ra, and when the battle of the gods was fought, in which
Osiris, the Lord of Amentet, was the leader."
What is this?
"It is Amentet, [that is to say] the creation ofthe souls of the
gods when Osiris was leader in Set-Amentet.
"Others, however, say that it is the Amentet which Ra hath given
unto me; when any god cometh he must rise up and fight for it.
"I know the god who dwelleth therein."
Who is this?
"It is Osiris. Others, however, say that his name is Ra, and that
the god who dwelleth in Amentet is the phallus of Ra, wherewith he had
union with himself.
"I am the Benu bird which is in Anu. I am the keeper of the volume
of the book (the Tablet of Destiny) of the things which have been
made, and of the things which shall be made."
Who is this?
"It is Osiris.
"Others, however, say that it is the dead body of Osiris, and yet
others say that it is the excrement of Osiris. The things which have
been made, and the things which shall be made [refer to] the dead body
of Osiris. Others again say that the things which have been made are
Eternity, and the things which shall be made are Everlastingness,
and that Eternity is the Day, and Everlastingness the Night.
"I am the god Menu in his coming forth; may his two plumes be set on
my head for me."
Who is this?
"Menu is Horis, the Advocate of his father [Osiris], and his
coming forth means his birth. The two plumes on his head are Isis
and Nephthys, when these goddesses go forth and set themselves
thereon, and when they act as his protectors, and when they provide
that which his head lacketh.
"Others, however, say that the two plumes are the two exceedingly
large uraei which are upon the head of their father Tem, and there are
yet others who say that the two plumes which are upon the head of Menu
are his two eyes.
"The Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is true, the registrar of all
the offerings which are made to the gods, riseth up and cometh into
What is this [city]?
"It is the horizon of his father Tem.
"I have made an end of my shortcomings, and I have put away my
What is this?
"It is the cutting of the navel string of the body of the Osiris the
scribe Ani, whose word is true before all the gods, and all his faults
are driven out.
What is this ?
"It is the purification [of Osiris] on the day of his birth.
"I am purified in my great double nest which is in Hensu on the
day of the offerings of the followers of the Great God who dwelleth
What is the "great double nest"?
"The name of one nest is 'Millions of years,' and 'Great Green
[Sea]' is the name of the other, that is to say 'Lake of Natron' and
'Lake of Salt.'
"Others, however, say the name of the one is 'Guide of Millions of
Years,' and that 'Great Green Lake' is name of the other. Yet others
say that 'Begetter of Millions of Years' is the name of one, and
'Great Green Lake' is the name of the other. Now, as concerning the
Great God who dwelleth therein, it is Ra himself.
"I pass over the way, I know the head of the Island of Maati."
What is this?
"It is Ra-stau, that is to say, it is the gate to the South of
Nerutef, and it is the Northern Gate of the Domain (Tomb of the god).
"Now, as concerning the Island of Maati, it is Abtu.
"Others, however, say that it is the way by which Father Tem
travelleth when he goeth forth to Sekhet-Aaru, [the place] which
produceth the food and sustenance of the gods who are [in] their
"Now the Gate Tchesert is the Gate of the Pillars of Shu, that is to
say, the Northern Gate of the Tuat.
"Others, however, say that the Gate of Tchesert is the two leaves of
the door through which the god Tem passeth when he goeth forth to
the eastern horizon of the sky.
"O ye gods who are in the presence [of Osiris], grant to me your
arms, for I am the god who shall come into being among you."
Who are these gods?
"They are the drops of blood which came forth from the phallus of Ra
when he went forth to perform his own mutilitation. These drops of
blood sprang into being under the forms of the gods Hu and Sa, who are
in the bodyguard of Ra, and who accompany the god Tem daily and
"I, Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, have filled for thee
the utchat (the Eye of Ra, or of Horus), when it had suffered
extinction on the day of the combat of the Two Fighters (Horus and
What was this combat?
It was the combat which took place on the day when Horus fought with
Set, during which Set threw filth in the face of Horus, and Horus
crushed the genitals of Set. The filling of the utchat Thoth performed
with his own fingers.
"I remove the thunder-cloud from the sky when there is a storm
with thunder and lightning therein."
What is this?
"This storm was the raging of Ra at the thunder-cloud which [Set]
sent forth against the Right Eye of Ra (the Sun). Thoth removed the
thunder-cloud from the Eye of Ra, and brought back the Eye living,
healthy, sound, and with no defect in it to its owner.
"Others, however, say that the thunder-cloud is caused by sickness
in the Eye of Ra, which weepeth for its companion Eye (the Moon); at
this time Thoth cleanseth the Right Eye of Ra.
"I behold Ra who was born yesterday from the thighs of the goddess
Mehurt; his strength is my strength, and my strength is his strength."
Who is this?
"Mehurt is the great Celestial Water, but others say that Mehurt
is the image of the Eye of Ra at dawn at his birth daily.
"[Others, however, say that] Mehurt is the utchat of Ra.
"Now Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, is a very great one
among the gods who are in the following of Horus; they say that he
is the prince who loveth his lord."
Who are the gods who are in the train of Horus?
"[They are] Kesta, Hapi, Taumutef, and Qebhsenuf.
"Homage to you, O ye lords of right and truth, ye sovereign
princes (Tchatcha) who [stand] round about Osiris, who do away utterly
sins and offences, and who are in the following of the goddess
Hetepsekhus, grant ye that I may come unto you. Destroy ye all the
faults which are within me, even as ye did for the Seven Spirits who
are among the followers of their lord Sepa. Anpu (Anubis) appointed to
them their places on the day [when he said unto them], "Come ye
Who are the "lords of right and truth"?
"The lords of right and truth are Thoth and Astes, the Lord of
"The Tchatcha round about Osiris are Kesta, Hapi, Tuamutef, and
Qebhsenuf, and they are also round about the Constellation of the
Thigh (the Great Bear), in the northern sky.
"Those who do away utterly sins and offences, and who are in the
following of the goddess Hetepsekhus, are the god Sebek and his
associates who dwell in the water.
"The goddess Hetepsekhus is the Eye of Ra.
"Others, however, say that it is the flame which accompanieth Osiris
to burn up the souls of his enemies.
"As concerning all the faults which are in Osiris, the registrar
of the offerings which are made unto all the gods, Ani, whose word
is truth, [these are all the offences which he hath committed
against the Lords of Eternity] since he came forth from his mother's
"As concerning the Seven Spirits who are Kesta, Hapi, Tuamutef,
Qebhsenuf, Maa-atef, Kheribeqef and Heru-khenti-en-ariti, these did
Anubis appoint to be protectors of the dead body of Osiris.
"Others, however, say that he set them round about the holy place of
"Others say that the Seven Spirits [which were appointed by
Anubis] were Netcheh-netcheh, Aatqetqet, Nertanef-besef-khenti-hehf,
Ubes-her-per-em-khetkhet, and Maaem-kerh-annef-em-hru.
"The chief of the Tchatcha (sovereign princes) who is in Naarutef is
Horus, the Advocate of his father.
"As concerning the day wherein [Anubis said to the Seven Spirits],
'Come ye hither,' [the allusion here] is to the words 'Come ye
hither,' which Ra spake unto Osiris."
Verily may these same words be said unto me in Amentet.
"I am the Divine Soul which dwelleth in the Divine Twin-gods."
Who is this Divine Soul?
"It is Osiris. [When] he goeth into Tetu, and findeth there the Soul
of Ra, the one god embraceth the other, and two Divine Souls spring
into being within the Divine Twin-gods."
(From the Papyrus of Nebseni, Brit. Mus. No. 9900, Sheet 14, ll.
"As concerning the Divine Twin-gods they are Heru-netch-her-tefef
and Heru-khent-en-Ariti (Horus the Advocate of his father [Osiris],
and Horus the sightless).
"Others say that the double Divine Soul which dwelleth in the Divine
Twin-gods is the Soul of Ra and the Soul of Osiris, and yet others say
that it is the Soul which dwelleth in Shu, and the Sould which
dwelleth in Tefnut, and that these two Souls form the double Divine
Soul which dwelleth in Tetu.
"I am the Cat which fought near the Persea Tree in Anu on the
night when the foes of Neb-er-tcher were destroyed."
Who is this Cat?
"This male Cat is Ra himself, and he was called 'Mau' because of the
speech of the god Sa, who said concerning him: 'He is like (mau)
unto that which he hath made'; therefore, did the name of Ra become
"Others, however, say that the male Cat is the god Shu, who made
over the possessions of Keb to Osiris.
"As concerning the fight which took place near the Persea Tree in
Anu [these words have reference to the slaughter] of the children of
rebellion, when righteous retribution was meted out to them for [the
evil] which they had done.
"As concerning the 'night of the battle,' [these words refer to] the
invasion of the eastern portion of the heaven by the children of
rebellion, whereupon a great battle arose in heaven and in all the
"O thou who art in thine egg (Ra,) who showest from thy Disk, who
risest on thy horizon, and dost shine with golden beams in the
height of heaven, like unto whom there is none among the gods, who
sailest above the Pillars of Shu, who sendest forth blasts of fire
from thy mouth, [who illuminest the Two Lands with thy splendour,
deliver] thou Nebseni, the lord of fealty [to Osiris], from the god
whose form is hidden, and whose eyebrows are like unto the two arms of
the Balance on the night when the sentences of doom are promulgated."
Who is this invisible god?
"It is An-a-f (he who bringeth his arm.).
"As concerning 'the night when the sentences of doom are
promulgated,' it is the night of the burning of the damned, and of the
overthrow of the wicked at the Block, and of the slaughter of souls."
Who is this [slaughterer of souls]?
"It is Shesmu, the headsman of Osiris.
"[Concerning the invisible god] some say that he is Aapep when he
riseth up with a head bearing upon it [the feather of] Maat (Truth).
But others say that he is Horus when he riseth up with two heads,
whereon one beareth [the feather of] Maat, and the other [the symbol
of] wickedness. He bestoweth wickedness on him that worketh
wickedness, and right and truth upon him that followeth
righteousness and truth.
"Others say that he is Heru-ur (the Old Horus), who dwelleth in
Sekhem; others say that he is Thoth; others say that he is
Nefer-Tem; and others say that he is Sept who doth bring to nought the
acts of the foes of Nebertcher.
"Deliver thou the scribe Nebseni, whose word is truth, from the
Watchers, who carry murderous knives, who possess cruel fingers, and
who would slay those who are in the following of Osiris."
May these Watchers never gain the mastery over me, and may I never
fall under their knives!
Who are these Watchers?
"They are Anubis and Horus, [the latter being] in the form of
Horus the sightless. Others, however, say that they are the Tchatcha
(sovereign princes of Osiris), who bring to nought the operations of
their knives; and others say that they are the chiefs of the Sheniu
"May their knives never gain the mastery over me. May I never fall
under the knives wherewith they inflict cruel tortures. For I know
their names, and I know the being, Matchet, who is among them in the
House of Osiris. He shooteth forth rays of light from his eye, being
himself invisible, and he goeth round about heaven robed in the flames
which come from his mouth, commanding Hapi, but remaining invisible
himself. May I be strong on earth before Ra, may I arrive safely in
the presence of Osiris. O ye who preside over your altars, let not
your offerings to me be wanting, for I am one of those who follow
after Nebertcher, according to the writings of Khepera. Let me fly
like a hawk, let me cackle like a goose, let me lay always like the
Who are those who preside over their altars?
"Those who preside over their altars are the similitude of the Eye
of Ra, and the similitude of the Eye of Horus.
"O Ra-Tem, thou Lord of the Great House [in Anu], thou Sovereign
(life, strentgh, health [be to thee]) of all the gods, deliver thou
the scribe Nebseni, whose word is truth, from the god whose face is
like unto that of a greyhound, whose brows are like those of a man,
who feedeth upon the dead, who watcheth at the Bend of the Lake of
Fire, who devoureth the bodies of the dead, and swalloweth hearts, and
who voideth filth, but who himself remaineth unseen."
Who is this greyhound-faced god?
"His name is 'Everlasting Devourer,' and he liveth in the Domain [of
Fire] (the Lake of Unt).
"As concerning the Domain of Fire, it is that Aat which is in
Naarutef, and is near the Sheniu chamber. The sinner who walketh
over this place falleth down among the knives [of the Watchers].
"Others, however, say that the name of this god is 'Mates,' and that
he keepeth watch over the door of Amentet; others say that his name is
'Beba,' and that he keepeth watch over the Bend [of the stream] of
Amentet, and yet others say that his name is 'Herisepef.'
"Hail, Lord of Terror, Chief of the Lands of the South and North,
thou Lord of the Desert, who dost keep prepared the block of
slaughter, and who dost feed on the intestines [of men]!"
Who is this Lord of Terror?
[... rest missing...]