Many organisms show features of appallingly bad design. This is because evolution via natu

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Many organisms show features of appallingly bad design. This is because evolution via natural selection cannot construct traits from scratch; new traits must be mod- ifications of previously existing traits. This is called historical constraint. A few examples of bad design imposed by historical constraint: In parthenogenetic lizards of the genus _Cnenidophorus_, only females exist. Fertility in these lizards is increased when another lizard engages in pseudomale behaviour and attempts to copulaMany organisms show features of appallingly bad design. This is because evolution via natural selection cannot construct traits from scratch; new traits must be mod- ifications of previously existing traits. This is called historical constraint. A few examples of bad design imposed by historical constraint: In parthenogenetic lizards of the genus _Cnenidophorus_, only females exist. Fertility in these lizards is increased when another lizard engages in pseudomale behaviour and attempts to copulaMany organisms show features of appallingly bad design. This is because evolution via natural selection cannot construct traits from scratch; new traits must be mod- ifications of previously existing traits. This is called historical constraint. A few examples of bad design imposed by historical constraint: In parthenogenetic lizards of the genus _Cnenidophorus_, only females exist. Fertility in these lizards is increased when another lizard engages in pseudomale behaviour and attempts to copulaMany organisms show features of appallingly bad design. This is because evolution via natural selection cannot construct traits from scratch; new traits must be mod- ifications of previously existing traits. This is called historical constraint. A few examples of bad design imposed by historical constraint: In parthenogenetic lizards of the genus _Cnenidophorus_, only females exist. Fertility in these lizards is increased when another lizard engages in pseudomale behaviour and attempts to copulafingers are made of. The thumb is con- structed by enlarging a few bones that form the wrist in other species. The muscles that operate it are "rerouted" muscles present in the hand of vertabrates (see S.J. Gould book "The Panda's Thumb" for an engaging discussion of this case). Again, this is not good design. In addition, organisms betray their history (phylogeny) in their development (ontogeny). All mammals (including humans) go through a stage were gills begin to form. Many organisms contain fingers are made of. The thumb is con- structed by enlarging a few bones that form the wrist in other species. The muscles that operate it are "rerouted" muscles present in the hand of vertabrates (see S.J. Gould book "The Panda's Thumb" for an engaging discussion of this case). Again, this is not good design. In addition, organisms betray their history (phylogeny) in their development (ontogeny). All mammals (including humans) go through a stage were gill

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