~0BPreamble~0B ~0A ~0A We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect

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~0BPreamble~0B ~0A ~0A We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, ~0A establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common ~0A defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessing of liberty ~0A to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish the Constitution ~0A of the United States of America. ~#2 ~0E Article I. ~03 ~0C Sect. 1.~03 All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a ~03 Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and a House ~03 of Representatives. ~0C Sect. 2.~03 The House of Representatives shall be composed of members ~03 chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the ~03 electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for ~03 electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature. ~03 No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the ~03 age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United ~03 States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in ~03 which he shall be chosen. ~03 Representative and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several ~03 states which may be included within this Union, according to their ~03 respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole ~03 number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of ~03 years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. ~03 The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first ~03 meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent ~03 term of ten years in such manner as they shall be law direct. The number ~03 of representative shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each ~03 state shall have at least one representative; and until such enumeration ~03 shall be made, the state of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose ~03 three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, ~03 Connecticut five, New-York six, New-Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, ~03 Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North-Carolina five, South- ~03 Carolina five, and Georgia three. ~03 When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the ~03 Executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such ~03 vacancies. ~03 The House of Representatives shall choose the Speaker and other ~03 officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment. ~0C Sect. 3.~03 The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two ~03 senators from each state chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years ~03 and each senator shall have one vote. ~03 Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first ~03 election, they hall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. ~03 The seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the ~03 expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of ~03 the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth ~03 year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies ~03 happen by resignation, or otherwise during the recess of the legislature ~03 of any state, the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until ~03 the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. ~03 No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained to the age of ~03 thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, who ~03 shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall ~03 be chosen. ~03 The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the ~03 Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided. ~03 The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro ~03 tempore, in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall exercise ~03 the office of President of the United States. ~03 The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When ~03 sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the ~03 President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: ~03 And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of ~03 the members present. ~03 Judgement in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to ~03 removal from office and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of ~03 honor, trust or profit under the United States; but the party convicted ~03 shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment ~03 and punishment, according to law. ~0C Sect. 4.~03 The times, places and manner of holding elections for senators ~03 and representatives, shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature ~03 thereof: but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such ~03 regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators. ~03 The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such ~03 meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall be law ~03 appoint a different day. ~0C Sect. 5.~03 Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns and ~03 qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute ~03 a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, ~03 and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such ~03 manner, and under such penalties as each house may provide. ~03 Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its ~03 members for disorderly behaviour, and with the concurrence of two-thirds, ~03 expel a member. ~03 Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to ~03 time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment ~03 require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members either house on any ~03 question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present be entered on ~03 the journal. ~03 Neither house, during the session of Congress shall, without the consent ~03 of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place ~03 than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. ~0C Sect. 6.~03 The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation ~03 for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury ~03 of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony and ~03 breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at ~03 the session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from ~03 the same; and for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be ~03 questioned in any other place. ~03 No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he was ~03 elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the ~03 United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof ~03 shall have been increased during such time; and no person holding any ~03 office under the United States, shall be a member of either house during ~03 his continuance in office. ~0C Sect. 7.~03 All bill for raising revenue shall originate in the house of ~03 representative; but the senate may propose or concur with amendments as on ~03 other bills. ~03 Every bill which shall have passed the house of representatives and the ~03 senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the president of ~03 the United States; if he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall ~03 return it, with his objections to that house in which it shall have ~03 originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and ~03 proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two-thirds of ~03 that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with ~03 the objections, to the other house, by which is shall likewise be ~03 reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become ~03 a law. But in all such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined ~03 by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the ~03 bill shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any ~03 bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays ~03 excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a ~03 law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their ~03 adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law. ~03 Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate ~03 and House of Representative may be necessary (except on a question of ~03 adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and ~03 before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being ~03 disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate and ~03 House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations ~03 prescribed in the case of a bill. ~0C Sect. 8.~03 The Congress shall have power ~03 To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts ~03 and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United ~03 States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout ~03 the United States. ~03 To borrow money on the credit of the United States; ~03 To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, ~03 and with the Indian tribes; ~03 To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the ~03 subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States; ~03 To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix ~03 the standard of weights and measures; ~03 To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and ~03 current coin of the United States; ~03 To establish post offices and post roads; ~03 To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for ~03 limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their ~03 respective writings and discoveries; ~03 To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court; ~03 To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, ~03 and offences against the law of nations; ~03 To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules ~03 concerning captures on land and water; ~03 To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use ~03 shall be for a longer term than two years; ~03 To provide and maintain a navy; ~03 To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval ~03 forces; ~03 To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the ~03 union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions.; ~03 To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia, and ~03 for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the ~03 United States, reserving to the States respectively, the appointment of ~03 the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the ~03 discipline prescribed by Congress; ~03 To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such ~03 district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular ~03 States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government ~03 of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places ~03 purchased by the consent of the legislature of the states in which the ~03 same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, ~03 and other needful buildings; -And ~03 To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into ~03 execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by the ~03 Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department ~03 or officer thereof. ~03 ~0C Sect. 9.~03 The migration or importation of such persons as any of the ~03 states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited ~03 by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, ~03 but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten ~03 dollars for each person. ~03 The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, ~03 unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety require ~03 it. ~03 No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. ~03 No capitation, or other direct, tax shall be laid, unless in proportion ~03 to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken. ~03 No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. No ~03 preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ~03 ports of one state over those of another: nor shall vessels bound to, or ~03 from, one state, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another. ~03 No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of ~03 appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the ~03 receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time ~03 to time. ~03 No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States:--And no ~03 person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without ~03 the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or ~03 title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state. ~0C Sect. 10.~03 No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or ~03 confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit ~03 bills of credit; make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in ~03 payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law ~03 impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. ~03 No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or ~03 duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for ~03 executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and ~03 imposts, laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of ~03 the Treasury of the United States; all such laws shall be subject to the ~03 revision and control of the Congress. No state shall, without the consent ~03 of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time ~03 of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state, or with ~03 a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such ~03 imminent danger as will not admit of delay. ~0E Article II. ~03 ~0C Sect. 1. ~03 The executive power shall be vested in a president of the ~03 United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of ~03 four years, and, together with the vice-president, chosen for the same ~03 term, be elected as follows. ~03 Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may ~03 direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of senators and ~03 representatives to which the state may be entitled in the Congress: but no ~03 senator or representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit ~03 under the United States, shall be appointed an elector. ~03 The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot ~03 for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the ~03 same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons ~03 voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign ~03 and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the ~03 United States, directed to the president of the senate. The president of ~03 the senate shall, in the presence of the senate and house of ~03 representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be ~03 counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the ~03 president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors ~03 appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have ~03 am equal number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who ~03 have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the house of ~03 representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them for ~03 president; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on ~03 the list the said house shall in like manner choose the president. But in ~03 choosing the president, the votes shall be taken by states, the ~03 representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose ~03 shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a ~03 majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, ~03 after the choice of the president, the person having the greatest number ~03 of votes of the electors shall be the vice-president. But if there should ~03 remain two or more who have equal votes, the senate shall choose from them ~03 by ballot the vice-president. ~03 The Congress may determine the time of the choosing the electors, and ~03 the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same ~03 throughout the United States. ~03 No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United ~03 States, at the time of the adoption of this constitution, shall be ~03 eligible to the office of president; neither shall any person be eligible ~03 to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five ~03 years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States. ~03 In case of the removal of the president from office, or his death, ~03 resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said ~03 office, the same shall devolve on the vice-president, and the Congress may ~03 by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability, ~03 both of the president and vice-president, declaring what officer shall ~03 then act as president, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the ~03 disability be removed, or a president be elected. ~03 The president shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a ~03 compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the ~03 period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive ~03 within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of ~03 them. ~03 Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the ~03 following oath or affirmation: ~03 "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the ~03 office of president of the United States, and will to the best of my ~03 ability, preserve, protect and defend the constitution of the United ~03 States." ~03 ~0C Sect. 2. ~03The president shall be commander in chief of the army and navy ~03 of the United States, and of the militia of the several States, when ~03 called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the ~03 opinion, in writing of the principal officer in each of the executive ~03 departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective ~03 offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for ~03 offences against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. ~03 He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, ~03 to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the senators present concur; and ~03 he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the senate, ~03 shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of ~03 the supreme court, and all other officers of the United States, whose ~03 appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be ~03 established by law. But the Congress may by law vest the appointment of ~03 such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the president alone, in ~03 the courts of law, or in the heads of departments. ~03 The president shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen ~03 during the recess of the senate, by granting commissions which shall ~03 expire at the end of their session. ~0C Sect. 3. ~03He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of ~03 the state of the union, and recommend to their consideration such measures ~03 as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary ~03 occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of ~03 disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may ~03 adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ~03 ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws ~03 be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the ~03 United States. ~0C Sect. 4. ~03The president, vice-president and all civil officers of the ~03 United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and ~03 conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. ~0E Article III. ~03 ~0C Sect. 1. ~03 The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one ~03 Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time ~03 to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the Supreme and ~03 inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, ~03 at stated time, receive for their services a compensation which shall not ~03 be diminished during their continuance in office. ~0C Sect. 2. ~03 ~0A 1.~03 The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, ~03 arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and ~03 treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases ~03 affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls; to all cases ~03 of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the ~03 United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more ~03 States, between a State and citizens of another State, between citizens of ~03 different States, between citizens of the same State claiming lands under ~03 grants of different States, and between a State or the citizens thereof, ~03 and foreign states, citizens, or subjects. ~0A 2.~03 In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and ~03 consuls, and those in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme Court ~03 shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before ~03 mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to ~03 law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the ~03 Congress shall make. ~0A 3.~03 The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by ~03 jury; and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes ~03 shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State the ~03 trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have ~03 directed. ~03 ~0C Sect. 3. ~03 ~0A 1.~03 Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war ~03 against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and ~03 comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony ~03 of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. ~0A 2.~03 The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, ~03 but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture ~03 except during the life of the person attained. ~0E Article IV. ~03 ~0C Sect. 1. ~03Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the ~03 public act, records, and judicial proceedings of every other State. And ~03 the Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such ~03 acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. ~03 ~0C Sect. 2. ~03 ~0A 1.~03 The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and ~03 immunities of citizens in the several States. ~0A 2.~03 A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime, ~03 who shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, shall, on ~03 demand of the executive authority of the State from which he fled, be ~03 delivered up, to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime. ~0A 3.~03 No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws ~03 thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or ~03 regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be ~03 delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be ~03 due. ~03 ~0C Sect. 3. ~03 ~0A 1.~03 New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no ~03 new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other ~03 State, nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, or ~03 parts of States, without the consent of the legislatures of the States ~03 concerned as well as of the Congress. ~0A 2.~03 The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful ~03 rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging ~03 to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so ~03 construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any ~03 particular State. ~03 ~0C Sect. 4. ~03 The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union ~03 a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against ~03 invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when ~03 the legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence. ~03 ~0E Article V. ~03 ~03 The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both House shall deem it necessary, ~03 shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of ~03 the legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, shall call a ~03 convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be ~03 valid, to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ~03 ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States, or by ~03 conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ~03 ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided [that no amendment ~03 which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight ~03 shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth ~03 section of the first Article;] and that no State, without its consent, ~03 shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. ~03 ~0E Article VI.~03 ~0C Sect. 1. ~03 All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the ~03 adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States ~03 under this Constitution, as under the Confederation. ~0C Sect. 2. ~03 This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which ~03 shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall ~03 be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme ~03 law of the land; and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby, ~03 anything in the constitution or laws of any State to the contrary ~03 notwithstanding. ~0C Sect. 3. ~03 The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the ~03 members of the several State legislatures, and all executive and judicial ~03 officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be ~03 bound, by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no ~03 religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or ~03 public trust under the United States. ~03 ~0E Article VII. ~03 ~03 ~03 The ratification of the conventions of nine States shall be sufficient ~03 for the establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying ~03 the same. ~03 ~03 Done in Convention, by the unanimous consent of the States present, the ~03 seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven ~03 hundred and eighty-seven, and of the Independence of the United States of ~03 America the twelfth. In Witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our ~03 names. ~#3~03 ~0FAttest:~0A William Jackson, Secretary ~0A George Washington ~0F PRESIDENT AND DEPUTY FROM VIRGINIA ~0F ~0FNEW HAMPSHIRE~0F ~0AJohn Langdon ~0ANicholas Gilman ~0A ~0FMASSACHUSETTS~0F ~0ANathaniel Gorham ~0ARufus King ~0A ~0FNEW YORK~0F ~0AAlexander Hamilton ~0A ~0FNEW JERSEY~0F ~0AWilliam Livingston ~0ADavid Brearley ~0AWilliam Paterson ~0AJonathan Dayton ~0A ~0FPENNSYLVANIA~0F ~0ABenjamin Franklin ~0AThomas Mifflin ~0ARobert Morris ~0AGeorge Clymer ~0AThomas Fitzsimons ~0AJared Ingersoll ~0AJames Wilson ~0AGouverneur Morris ~0A ~0FDELAWARE~0F ~0AGeorge Read ~0AGunning Bedford, Jr. ~0AJohn Dickinson ~0ARichard Bassett ~0AJacob Broom ~0A ~0FMARYLAND~0F ~0AJames McHenry ~0ADan of St. Thomas Jennifer ~0ADaniel Carroll ~0A ~0FVIRGINIA~0F ~0AJohn Blair ~0AJames Madison, Jr. ~0A ~0FNORTH CAROLINA~0F ~0AWilliam Blount ~0ARichard Dobbs Spaight ~0AHugh Williamson ~0A ~0FSOUTH CAROLINA~0F ~0AJohn Rutledge ~0ACharles Cotesworth Pinckney ~0ACharles Pinckney ~0APierce Butler ~0A ~0FGEORGIA~0F ~0AWilliam Few ~0AAbraham Baldwin ~#4~0A ~0BAMENDMENTS~0B ~03 ~0E1st Amendment~03 ~03 Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or ~03 prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, ~03 or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to ~03 petition the government for a redress of grievances. ~0E2nd Amendment~03 ~03 A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free ~03 state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be ~03 infringed. ~0E3rd Amendment~03 ~03 No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quarters in any house, without ~03 the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be ~03 prescribed by law. ~0E4th Amendment~03 ~03 The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, ~03 and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be ~03 violated; and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported ~03 by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be ~03 searched and the persons or things to be seized. ~03 ~0E5th Amendment~03 ~03 No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous, ~03 crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in ~03 cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in ~03 actual service, in time of war, or public danger; nor shall any person be ~03 subject, for the same offence, to be twice put in jeopardy of life or ~03 limb; nor shall be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness ~03 against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without ~03 due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, ~03 without just compensation. ~03 ~0E6th Amendment~03 ~03 In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a ~03 speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district ~03 wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have ~03 been previously ascertained by law; and to be informed of the nature and ~03 cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; ~03 to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to ~03 have the assistance of counsel for his defence. ~03 ~0E7th Amendment~03 ~03 In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed ~03 twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved; and no ~03 fact, tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the ~03 United States than according to the rules of the common law. ~03 ~0E8th Amendment~03 ~03 Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor ~03 cruel and unusual punishment inflicted. ~03 ~0E9th Amendment~03 ~03 The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be ~03 construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. ~03 ~0E10th Amendment~03 ~03 The powers not delegated to the United States shall not be construed to ~03 extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one ~03 of the United States by citizens of another State or by citizens or ~03 subjects of any foreign state. ~03 ~0E11th Amendment~03 ~03 The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend ~03 to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the ~03 United States by citizens of another State or by citizens or subjects of ~03 any foreign state. ~03 ~0E12th Amendment~03 ~03 The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot ~03 for President and Vice President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an ~03 inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their ~03 ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the ~03 person voted for as Vice President; and they shall make distinct lists of ~03 all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice ~03 President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall ~03 sign, and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Government of ~03 the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; the President ~03 of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and the House of ~03 Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be ~03 counted; the person having the greatest number of votes for President ~03 shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number ~03 of Electors appointed; and if no person have such a majority, then, from ~03 the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list ~03 of those voted for a President, the House of Representative shall choose ~03 immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the ~03 votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having ~03 one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members ~03 from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be ~03 necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not ~03 choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, ~03 [before the fourth day of March next following] the Vice President shall ~03 act as President, as in case of death, or other constitutional disability ~03 of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice ~03 President, shall be the Vice President, if such number be a majority of ~03 the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have a majority, ~03 then, form the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose ~03 the Vice President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds ~03 of the whole number of Senators; a majority of the whole number shall be ~03 necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the ~03 office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the ~03 United States. ~03 ~0E13th Amendment~03 ~0C Sect. 1. ~03Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a ~03 punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, ~03 shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their ~03 jurisdiction. ~0C Sect. 2. ~03Congress shall have power to enforce this article by ~03 appropriate legislation. ~03 ~0E14th Amendment~03 ~0C Sect. 1. ~03All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and ~03 subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and ~03 of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law ~03 which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United ~03 States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or ~03 property, without due process of law, nor deny any person within its ~03 jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. ~0C Sect. 2. ~03Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States ~03 according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of ~03 persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to ~03 vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice ~03 President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive ~03 and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the legislature ~03 thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being ~03 twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way ~03 abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis ~03 of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the ~03 number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male ~03 citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. ~0C Sect. 3. ~03No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or ~03 elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or ~03 military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having ~03 previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the ~03 United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive ~03 or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the ~03 United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the ~03 same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, ~03 by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. ~0C Sect. 4. ~03The validity of the public debt of the United States, ~03 authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and ~03 bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not ~03 be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume ~03 or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion ~03 against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of ~03 any slave; but all such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held ~03 illegal and void. ~0C Sect. 5. ~03The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate ~03 legislation, the provisions of this article. ~03 ~0E15th Amendment~03 ~0C Sect. 1. ~03The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be ~03 denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of ~03 race, color, or previous condition of servitude. ~0C Sect. 2. ~03The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by ~03 appropriate legislation. ~03 ~0E16th Amendment~03 ~03 The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from ~03 whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States ~03 and without regard to any census or enumeration. ~03 ~0E17th Amendment~03 ~03 The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from ~03 each State, elected by the people thereof, for sex years; and each Senator ~03 shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the ~03 qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the ~03 State legislatures. ~03 When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, ~03 the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to ~03 fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may ~03 empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointment until the ~03 people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct. ~03 This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or ~03 term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the ~03 Constitution. ~03 ~0E18th Amendment~03 ~0C Sect. 1. ~03After one year from the ratification of this article the ~03 manufacture, sale or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the ~03 importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United ~03 States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage ~03 purposes is hereby prohibited. ~0C Sect. 2. ~03The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power ~03 to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. ~0C Sect. 3. ~03This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ~03 ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the ~03 several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years of the ~03 date of the submission hereof to the States by Congress. ~03 ~0E19th Amendment~03 ~03 The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied ~03 or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. ~03 Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate ~03 legislation. ~03 ~0E20th Amendment~03 ~0C Sect. 1. ~03The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon ~03 on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives ~03 at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would ~03 have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their ~03 successors shall then begin. ~0C Sect. 2. ~03The Congress shall assemble at least once in every years, and ~03 such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they ~03 shall by law appoint a different day. ~0C Sect. 3. ~03 If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the ~03 President, the President-elect shall have died, the Vice President-elect ~03 shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before ~03 the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President-elect ~03 shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President-elect shall act as ~03 President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by ~03 law provide for the case wherein neither a President-elect nor a Vice ~03 President-elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as ~03 President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and ~03 such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President ~03 shall have qualified. ~0C Sect. 4. ~03The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of ~03 any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a ~03 President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and ~03 for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may ~03 choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved ~03 upon them. ~0C Sect. 5. ~03Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October ~03 following the ratification of this article. ~0C Sect. 6. ~03This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ~03 ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by three-fourths of the ~03 several States within seven years from the date of its submission. ~03 ~0E21st Amendment~03 ~0C Sect. 1. ~03The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the ~03 United States is hereby repealed. ~0C Sect. 2. ~03The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or ~03 possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of ~03 intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby ~03 prohibited. ~0C Sect. 3. ~03This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ~03 ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several ~03 States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date ~03 of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress. ~03 ~0E22nd Amendment~03 ~0C Sect. 1. ~03No person shall be elected to the office of the President more ~03 than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted ~03 as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person ~03 was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more ~03 than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the ~03 office of President when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and ~03 shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, ~03 or acting as President, during the term within which his Article becomes ~03 operative from holding the office of President or acting as President ~03 during the remainder of such term. ~0C Sect. 2. ~03This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ~03 ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three- ~03 fourths of the several states within seven years from the date of its ~03 submission to the States by the Congress. ~03 ~0E23rd Amendment~03 ~0C Sect. 1. ~03The District constituting the seat of Government of the United ~03 States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: ~03 A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole ~03 number of Senators and Representative in Congress to which the District ~03 would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least ~03 populous State; they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election ~03 of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and ~03 they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the ~03 twelfth article of amendment. ~0C Sect. 2. ~03The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by ~03 appropriate legislation. ~03 ~0E24th Amendment~03 ~0C Sect. 1. ~03The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any ~03 primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors ~03 for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in ~03 Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any ~03 State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax. ~0C Sect. 2. ~03The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by ~03 appropriate legislation. ~03 ~0E25th Amendment~03 ~0C Sect. 1. ~03In case of the removal of the President from office or of his ~03 death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President. ~0C Sect. 2. ~03Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice ~03 President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take ~03 office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress. ~0C Sect. 3. ~03Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore ~03 of the Senate and the Speakers of the House of Representatives his written ~03 declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his ~03 office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the ~03 contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President ~03 as Acting President. ~0C Sect. 4. ~03Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the ~03 principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as ~03 Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the ~03 Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written ~03 declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and ~03 duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the ~03 powers and duties of the office as Acting President. ~03 Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of ~03 the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written ~03 declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and ~03 duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either ~03 the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body ~03 as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President ~03 pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives ~03 their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the ~03 powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the ~03 issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in ~03 session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after Congress is ~03 required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that ~03 the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, ~03 the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting ~03 President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of ~03 his office. ~03 ~0E26th Amendment~03 ~0C Sect. 1. ~03The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen ~03 years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the ~03 United States or by any State on account of age. ~0C Sect. 2. ~03The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by ~03 appropriate legislation.

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