~0BPreamble~0B ~0A ~0A We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect
~0A We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union,
~0A establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common
~0A defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessing of liberty
~0A to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish the Constitution
~0A of the United States of America.
~0E Article I. ~03
~0C Sect. 1.~03 All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a
~03 Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and a House
~03 of Representatives.
~0C Sect. 2.~03 The House of Representatives shall be composed of members
~03 chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the
~03 electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for
~03 electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature.
~03 No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the
~03 age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United
~03 States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in
~03 which he shall be chosen.
~03 Representative and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several
~03 states which may be included within this Union, according to their
~03 respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole
~03 number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of
~03 years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons.
~03 The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first
~03 meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent
~03 term of ten years in such manner as they shall be law direct. The number
~03 of representative shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each
~03 state shall have at least one representative; and until such enumeration
~03 shall be made, the state of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose
~03 three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one,
~03 Connecticut five, New-York six, New-Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight,
~03 Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North-Carolina five, South-
~03 Carolina five, and Georgia three.
~03 When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the
~03 Executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such
~03 The House of Representatives shall choose the Speaker and other
~03 officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment.
~0C Sect. 3.~03 The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two
~03 senators from each state chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years
~03 and each senator shall have one vote.
~03 Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first
~03 election, they hall be divided as equally as may be into three classes.
~03 The seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the
~03 expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of
~03 the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth
~03 year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies
~03 happen by resignation, or otherwise during the recess of the legislature
~03 of any state, the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until
~03 the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.
~03 No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained to the age of
~03 thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, who
~03 shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall
~03 be chosen.
~03 The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the
~03 Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided.
~03 The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro
~03 tempore, in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall exercise
~03 the office of President of the United States.
~03 The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When
~03 sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the
~03 President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside:
~03 And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of
~03 the members present.
~03 Judgement in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to
~03 removal from office and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of
~03 honor, trust or profit under the United States; but the party convicted
~03 shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment
~03 and punishment, according to law.
~0C Sect. 4.~03 The times, places and manner of holding elections for senators
~03 and representatives, shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature
~03 thereof: but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such
~03 regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.
~03 The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such
~03 meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall be law
~03 appoint a different day.
~0C Sect. 5.~03 Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns and
~03 qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute
~03 a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day,
~03 and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such
~03 manner, and under such penalties as each house may provide.
~03 Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its
~03 members for disorderly behaviour, and with the concurrence of two-thirds,
~03 expel a member.
~03 Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to
~03 time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment
~03 require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members either house on any
~03 question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present be entered on
~03 the journal.
~03 Neither house, during the session of Congress shall, without the consent
~03 of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place
~03 than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.
~0C Sect. 6.~03 The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation
~03 for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury
~03 of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony and
~03 breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at
~03 the session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from
~03 the same; and for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be
~03 questioned in any other place.
~03 No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he was
~03 elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the
~03 United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof
~03 shall have been increased during such time; and no person holding any
~03 office under the United States, shall be a member of either house during
~03 his continuance in office.
~0C Sect. 7.~03 All bill for raising revenue shall originate in the house of
~03 representative; but the senate may propose or concur with amendments as on
~03 other bills.
~03 Every bill which shall have passed the house of representatives and the
~03 senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the president of
~03 the United States; if he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall
~03 return it, with his objections to that house in which it shall have
~03 originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and
~03 proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two-thirds of
~03 that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with
~03 the objections, to the other house, by which is shall likewise be
~03 reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become
~03 a law. But in all such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined
~03 by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the
~03 bill shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any
~03 bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays
~03 excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a
~03 law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their
~03 adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.
~03 Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate
~03 and House of Representative may be necessary (except on a question of
~03 adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and
~03 before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being
~03 disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate and
~03 House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations
~03 prescribed in the case of a bill.
~0C Sect. 8.~03 The Congress shall have power
~03 To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts
~03 and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United
~03 States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout
~03 the United States.
~03 To borrow money on the credit of the United States;
~03 To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states,
~03 and with the Indian tribes;
~03 To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the
~03 subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States;
~03 To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix
~03 the standard of weights and measures;
~03 To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and
~03 current coin of the United States;
~03 To establish post offices and post roads;
~03 To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for
~03 limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their
~03 respective writings and discoveries;
~03 To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court;
~03 To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas,
~03 and offences against the law of nations;
~03 To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules
~03 concerning captures on land and water;
~03 To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use
~03 shall be for a longer term than two years;
~03 To provide and maintain a navy;
~03 To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval
~03 To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the
~03 union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions.;
~03 To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia, and
~03 for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the
~03 United States, reserving to the States respectively, the appointment of
~03 the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the
~03 discipline prescribed by Congress;
~03 To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such
~03 district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular
~03 States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government
~03 of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places
~03 purchased by the consent of the legislature of the states in which the
~03 same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards,
~03 and other needful buildings; -And
~03 To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into
~03 execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by the
~03 Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department
~03 or officer thereof.
~0C Sect. 9.~03 The migration or importation of such persons as any of the
~03 states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited
~03 by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight,
~03 but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten
~03 dollars for each person.
~03 The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended,
~03 unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety require
~03 No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.
~03 No capitation, or other direct, tax shall be laid, unless in proportion
~03 to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.
~03 No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. No
~03 preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the
~03 ports of one state over those of another: nor shall vessels bound to, or
~03 from, one state, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.
~03 No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of
~03 appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the
~03 receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time
~03 to time.
~03 No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States:--And no
~03 person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without
~03 the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or
~03 title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.
~0C Sect. 10.~03 No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or
~03 confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit
~03 bills of credit; make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in
~03 payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law
~03 impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.
~03 No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or
~03 duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for
~03 executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and
~03 imposts, laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of
~03 the Treasury of the United States; all such laws shall be subject to the
~03 revision and control of the Congress. No state shall, without the consent
~03 of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time
~03 of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state, or with
~03 a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such
~03 imminent danger as will not admit of delay.
~0E Article II. ~03
~0C Sect. 1. ~03 The executive power shall be vested in a president of the
~03 United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of
~03 four years, and, together with the vice-president, chosen for the same
~03 term, be elected as follows.
~03 Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may
~03 direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of senators and
~03 representatives to which the state may be entitled in the Congress: but no
~03 senator or representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit
~03 under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.
~03 The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot
~03 for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the
~03 same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons
~03 voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign
~03 and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the
~03 United States, directed to the president of the senate. The president of
~03 the senate shall, in the presence of the senate and house of
~03 representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be
~03 counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the
~03 president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors
~03 appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have
~03 am equal number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who
~03 have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the house of
~03 representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them for
~03 president; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on
~03 the list the said house shall in like manner choose the president. But in
~03 choosing the president, the votes shall be taken by states, the
~03 representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose
~03 shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a
~03 majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In every case,
~03 after the choice of the president, the person having the greatest number
~03 of votes of the electors shall be the vice-president. But if there should
~03 remain two or more who have equal votes, the senate shall choose from them
~03 by ballot the vice-president.
~03 The Congress may determine the time of the choosing the electors, and
~03 the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same
~03 throughout the United States.
~03 No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United
~03 States, at the time of the adoption of this constitution, shall be
~03 eligible to the office of president; neither shall any person be eligible
~03 to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five
~03 years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.
~03 In case of the removal of the president from office, or his death,
~03 resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said
~03 office, the same shall devolve on the vice-president, and the Congress may
~03 by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability,
~03 both of the president and vice-president, declaring what officer shall
~03 then act as president, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the
~03 disability be removed, or a president be elected.
~03 The president shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a
~03 compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the
~03 period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive
~03 within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of
~03 Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the
~03 following oath or affirmation:
~03 "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the
~03 office of president of the United States, and will to the best of my
~03 ability, preserve, protect and defend the constitution of the United
~0C Sect. 2. ~03The president shall be commander in chief of the army and navy
~03 of the United States, and of the militia of the several States, when
~03 called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the
~03 opinion, in writing of the principal officer in each of the executive
~03 departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective
~03 offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for
~03 offences against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.
~03 He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the senate,
~03 to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the senators present concur; and
~03 he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the senate,
~03 shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of
~03 the supreme court, and all other officers of the United States, whose
~03 appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be
~03 established by law. But the Congress may by law vest the appointment of
~03 such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the president alone, in
~03 the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.
~03 The president shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen
~03 during the recess of the senate, by granting commissions which shall
~03 expire at the end of their session.
~0C Sect. 3. ~03He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of
~03 the state of the union, and recommend to their consideration such measures
~03 as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary
~03 occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of
~03 disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may
~03 adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive
~03 ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws
~03 be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the
~03 United States.
~0C Sect. 4. ~03The president, vice-president and all civil officers of the
~03 United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and
~03 conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
~0E Article III. ~03
~0C Sect. 1. ~03 The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one
~03 Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time
~03 to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the Supreme and
~03 inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall,
~03 at stated time, receive for their services a compensation which shall not
~03 be diminished during their continuance in office.
~0C Sect. 2. ~03
~0A 1.~03 The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity,
~03 arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and
~03 treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases
~03 affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls; to all cases
~03 of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the
~03 United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more
~03 States, between a State and citizens of another State, between citizens of
~03 different States, between citizens of the same State claiming lands under
~03 grants of different States, and between a State or the citizens thereof,
~03 and foreign states, citizens, or subjects.
~0A 2.~03 In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and
~03 consuls, and those in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme Court
~03 shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before
~03 mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to
~03 law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the
~03 Congress shall make.
~0A 3.~03 The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by
~03 jury; and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes
~03 shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State the
~03 trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have
~0C Sect. 3. ~03
~0A 1.~03 Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war
~03 against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and
~03 comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony
~03 of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.
~0A 2.~03 The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason,
~03 but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture
~03 except during the life of the person attained.
~0E Article IV.
~0C Sect. 1. ~03Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the
~03 public act, records, and judicial proceedings of every other State. And
~03 the Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such
~03 acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.
~0C Sect. 2. ~03
~0A 1.~03 The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and
~03 immunities of citizens in the several States.
~0A 2.~03 A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime,
~03 who shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, shall, on
~03 demand of the executive authority of the State from which he fled, be
~03 delivered up, to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime.
~0A 3.~03 No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws
~03 thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or
~03 regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be
~03 delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be
~0C Sect. 3. ~03
~0A 1.~03 New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no
~03 new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other
~03 State, nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, or
~03 parts of States, without the consent of the legislatures of the States
~03 concerned as well as of the Congress.
~0A 2.~03 The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful
~03 rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging
~03 to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so
~03 construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any
~03 particular State.
~0C Sect. 4. ~03 The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union
~03 a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against
~03 invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when
~03 the legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence.
~0E Article V.
~03 The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both House shall deem it necessary,
~03 shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of
~03 the legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, shall call a
~03 convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be
~03 valid, to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when
~03 ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States, or by
~03 conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of
~03 ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided [that no amendment
~03 which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight
~03 shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth
~03 section of the first Article;] and that no State, without its consent,
~03 shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.
~0E Article VI.~03
~0C Sect. 1. ~03 All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the
~03 adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States
~03 under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.
~0C Sect. 2. ~03 This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which
~03 shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall
~03 be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme
~03 law of the land; and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby,
~03 anything in the constitution or laws of any State to the contrary
~0C Sect. 3. ~03 The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the
~03 members of the several State legislatures, and all executive and judicial
~03 officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be
~03 bound, by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no
~03 religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or
~03 public trust under the United States.
~0E Article VII. ~03
~03 The ratification of the conventions of nine States shall be sufficient
~03 for the establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying
~03 the same.
~03 Done in Convention, by the unanimous consent of the States present, the
~03 seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven
~03 hundred and eighty-seven, and of the Independence of the United States of
~03 America the twelfth. In Witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our
~0FAttest:~0A William Jackson, Secretary
~0A George Washington
~0F PRESIDENT AND DEPUTY FROM VIRGINIA
~0AGunning Bedford, Jr.
~0ADan of St. Thomas Jennifer
~0AJames Madison, Jr.
~0ARichard Dobbs Spaight
~0ACharles Cotesworth Pinckney
~03 Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or
~03 prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech,
~03 or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to
~03 petition the government for a redress of grievances.
~03 A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free
~03 state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be
~03 No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quarters in any house, without
~03 the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be
~03 prescribed by law.
~03 The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers,
~03 and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be
~03 violated; and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported
~03 by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be
~03 searched and the persons or things to be seized.
~03 No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous,
~03 crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in
~03 cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in
~03 actual service, in time of war, or public danger; nor shall any person be
~03 subject, for the same offence, to be twice put in jeopardy of life or
~03 limb; nor shall be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness
~03 against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without
~03 due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use,
~03 without just compensation.
~03 In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a
~03 speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district
~03 wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have
~03 been previously ascertained by law; and to be informed of the nature and
~03 cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him;
~03 to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to
~03 have the assistance of counsel for his defence.
~03 In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed
~03 twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved; and no
~03 fact, tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the
~03 United States than according to the rules of the common law.
~03 Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor
~03 cruel and unusual punishment inflicted.
~03 The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be
~03 construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
~03 The powers not delegated to the United States shall not be construed to
~03 extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one
~03 of the United States by citizens of another State or by citizens or
~03 subjects of any foreign state.
~03 The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend
~03 to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the
~03 United States by citizens of another State or by citizens or subjects of
~03 any foreign state.
~03 The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot
~03 for President and Vice President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an
~03 inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their
~03 ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the
~03 person voted for as Vice President; and they shall make distinct lists of
~03 all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice
~03 President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall
~03 sign, and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the Government of
~03 the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; the President
~03 of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and the House of
~03 Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be
~03 counted; the person having the greatest number of votes for President
~03 shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number
~03 of Electors appointed; and if no person have such a majority, then, from
~03 the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list
~03 of those voted for a President, the House of Representative shall choose
~03 immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the
~03 votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having
~03 one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members
~03 from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be
~03 necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not
~03 choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them,
~03 [before the fourth day of March next following] the Vice President shall
~03 act as President, as in case of death, or other constitutional disability
~03 of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice
~03 President, shall be the Vice President, if such number be a majority of
~03 the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have a majority,
~03 then, form the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose
~03 the Vice President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds
~03 of the whole number of Senators; a majority of the whole number shall be
~03 necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the
~03 office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the
~03 United States.
~0C Sect. 1. ~03Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a
~03 punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted,
~03 shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their
~0C Sect. 2. ~03Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
~03 appropriate legislation.
~0C Sect. 1. ~03All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and
~03 subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and
~03 of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law
~03 which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United
~03 States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or
~03 property, without due process of law, nor deny any person within its
~03 jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
~0C Sect. 2. ~03Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States
~03 according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of
~03 persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to
~03 vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice
~03 President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive
~03 and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the legislature
~03 thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being
~03 twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way
~03 abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis
~03 of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the
~03 number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male
~03 citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
~0C Sect. 3. ~03No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or
~03 elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or
~03 military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having
~03 previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the
~03 United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive
~03 or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the
~03 United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the
~03 same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may,
~03 by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
~0C Sect. 4. ~03The validity of the public debt of the United States,
~03 authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and
~03 bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not
~03 be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume
~03 or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion
~03 against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of
~03 any slave; but all such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held
~03 illegal and void.
~0C Sect. 5. ~03The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate
~03 legislation, the provisions of this article.
~0C Sect. 1. ~03The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be
~03 denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of
~03 race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
~0C Sect. 2. ~03The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
~03 appropriate legislation.
~03 The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from
~03 whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States
~03 and without regard to any census or enumeration.
~03 The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from
~03 each State, elected by the people thereof, for sex years; and each Senator
~03 shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the
~03 qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the
~03 State legislatures.
~03 When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate,
~03 the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to
~03 fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may
~03 empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointment until the
~03 people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.
~03 This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or
~03 term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the
~0C Sect. 1. ~03After one year from the ratification of this article the
~03 manufacture, sale or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the
~03 importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United
~03 States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage
~03 purposes is hereby prohibited.
~0C Sect. 2. ~03The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power
~03 to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
~0C Sect. 3. ~03This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been
~03 ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the
~03 several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years of the
~03 date of the submission hereof to the States by Congress.
~03 The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied
~03 or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
~03 Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate
~0C Sect. 1. ~03The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon
~03 on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives
~03 at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would
~03 have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their
~03 successors shall then begin.
~0C Sect. 2. ~03The Congress shall assemble at least once in every years, and
~03 such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they
~03 shall by law appoint a different day.
~0C Sect. 3. ~03 If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the
~03 President, the President-elect shall have died, the Vice President-elect
~03 shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before
~03 the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President-elect
~03 shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President-elect shall act as
~03 President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by
~03 law provide for the case wherein neither a President-elect nor a Vice
~03 President-elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as
~03 President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and
~03 such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President
~03 shall have qualified.
~0C Sect. 4. ~03The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of
~03 any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a
~03 President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and
~03 for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may
~03 choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved
~03 upon them.
~0C Sect. 5. ~03Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October
~03 following the ratification of this article.
~0C Sect. 6. ~03This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been
~03 ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by three-fourths of the
~03 several States within seven years from the date of its submission.
~0C Sect. 1. ~03The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the
~03 United States is hereby repealed.
~0C Sect. 2. ~03The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or
~03 possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of
~03 intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby
~0C Sect. 3. ~03This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been
~03 ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several
~03 States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date
~03 of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
~0C Sect. 1. ~03No person shall be elected to the office of the President more
~03 than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted
~03 as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person
~03 was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more
~03 than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the
~03 office of President when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and
~03 shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President,
~03 or acting as President, during the term within which his Article becomes
~03 operative from holding the office of President or acting as President
~03 during the remainder of such term.
~0C Sect. 2. ~03This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been
~03 ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-
~03 fourths of the several states within seven years from the date of its
~03 submission to the States by the Congress.
~0C Sect. 1. ~03The District constituting the seat of Government of the United
~03 States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct:
~03 A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole
~03 number of Senators and Representative in Congress to which the District
~03 would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least
~03 populous State; they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election
~03 of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and
~03 they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the
~03 twelfth article of amendment.
~0C Sect. 2. ~03The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
~03 appropriate legislation.
~0C Sect. 1. ~03The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any
~03 primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors
~03 for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in
~03 Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any
~03 State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.
~0C Sect. 2. ~03The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
~03 appropriate legislation.
~0C Sect. 1. ~03In case of the removal of the President from office or of his
~03 death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.
~0C Sect. 2. ~03Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice
~03 President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take
~03 office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.
~0C Sect. 3. ~03Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore
~03 of the Senate and the Speakers of the House of Representatives his written
~03 declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his
~03 office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the
~03 contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President
~03 as Acting President.
~0C Sect. 4. ~03Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the
~03 principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as
~03 Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the
~03 Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written
~03 declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and
~03 duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the
~03 powers and duties of the office as Acting President.
~03 Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of
~03 the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written
~03 declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and
~03 duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either
~03 the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body
~03 as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President
~03 pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives
~03 their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the
~03 powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the
~03 issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in
~03 session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after Congress is
~03 required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that
~03 the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office,
~03 the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting
~03 President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of
~03 his office.
~0C Sect. 1. ~03The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen
~03 years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the
~03 United States or by any State on account of age.
~0C Sect. 2. ~03The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by
~03 appropriate legislation.
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