ACUPUNCTURE IN DRUG AND TOBACCO DETOXIFICATION Evaluation on the treatment of morphine add

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ACUPUNCTURE IN DRUG AND TOBACCO DETOXIFICATION Evaluation on the treatment of morphine addiction by acupuncture Chinese herbs and opioid peptides. Yang MM; Kwok JS Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong. Am J Chin Med (UNITED STATES) ,1986, 14 (1-2) p46-50, Experimental studies on the effects of acupuncture, combined Chinese herbs, and opioid peptides on morphine withdrawal symptoms were carried out in 119 addicted rats. Electroacupuncture was found to be the most effective method as it reduced the morphine withdrawal scores to -85%. The combined herbs, Qiang Huo, Gou Teng, Chuan Xion, Fu Zi and Yan Hu Suo suppressed the withdrawal scores of -68%. The opioid peptides, endorphin, enkephalin, and dynorphin, produced marked sedative effect and alleviated the withdrawal symptoms, reducing the scores from -28% to -74%. It is suggested that acupuncture and herbs, being non-opiate and having less side effect, might be used as alternative or supplementary treatment on morphine addiction. Smoking withdrawal and acupuncture. Fuller JA Epworth Medical Centre, Richmond, Vic. Med J Aust (AUSTRALIA) ,Jan 9 1982, 1 (1) p28-9 Nicotine addiction makes it very difficult for most smokers to quit. This study examined the relapse rate of 194 people (118 men and 76 women) who were given acupuncture treatment to help them stop smoking. Ninety five per cent of patients quit smoking after three acupuncture treatments. Fifty-five (32%) of the 174 patients who replied to a mailed questionnaire said they had not smoked since treatment; the success rate was: one week, 86%; six months 41%; 12 months, 34% and 24 months, 30%. There were no further relapses amongst those patients who abstained for more than 24 months. Eighty-five per cent of those who responded reported that acupuncture had eased the symptoms of smoking withdrawal. However, if the patient's motivation is weak, subsequent relapse will occur. @PAGE BREAK = [Acupuncture as a part of a program of detoxification and weaning from opiates: 25 cases] Agopuntura come parte di un programma di disintossicazione e disassuefazione da oppiacei: 25 cases. Lorini G; Fazio L; Cocchi R; Fusari A; Roccia L Minerva Med ,Dec 15 1979, 70 (56) p3831-6 Presents results of a detoxification and habit loosing program carried out in 25 morphine-like substances addicts (mainly heroine) aged 19-26. The therapeutic treatment based on gabaergic drugs (l-glutamine, sodium valproate and piridoxine), low doses psychodrugs (tricyclics and benzodiacepines) and acupuncture, began in 13 subjects at the hospital and continued at the outpatients' service, while 12 subjects were treated only at the outpatients' service. Follow up: 6 subjects of the hospitalized group free from the addiction (5 subjects from more than 1 year after their discharge); 3 subjects of the outpatients' group abstinent from no more than 4 months after discharge. Biochemical mechanisms involved in this therapeutic program are extensively discussed. Rapid narcotic detoxification in chronic pain patients treated with auricular electroacupuncture and naloxone. Kroening RJ; Oleson TD Int J Addict Sep 1985, 20 (9) p1347-60, Severe withdrawal signs which accompany the detoxification of narcotic addicts from opiate drugs are also a serious problem for chronic pain patients taking high levels of analgesic medications. A rapid narcotic detoxification procedure utilizing auricular electroacupuncture was applied to 14 chronic pain patients to be withdrawn from their opiate medications. All patients were first switched to oral methadone. They were then given bilateral electrical stimulation to needles inserted in the <169>lung<170> and <169>shen men<170> acupuncture points on the ear, followed by periodic intravenous injections of low doses of naloxone. Twelve of the patients, 85.7%, were completely withdrawn from narcotic medications within 2-7 days, and they experienced no to minimal side effects. These results are explained by the relationship of electroacupuncture to the release of endorphins @PAGE BREAK = The role of endogenous peptides in the action of opioid analgesics. Adams ML; Brase DA; Welch SP; Dewey WL Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Virginia/Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond 23298-0001. Ann Emerg Med (UNITED STATES) ,Sep 1986, 15 (9) p1030-5, The observation that the narcotic antagonist naloxone could inhibit analgesia produced by electrical stimulation of the brain indicated the involvement of an endogenous chemical in the relief of pain. Multiple endogenous opioid peptides have been identified that have similar pharmacological properties to known narcotic analgesics. The biosynthesis, release, and degradation of opioid peptides have been studied in order to better understand how the manipulation of endogenous opioid systems can be used to produce or augment analgesia. The results of our studies reveal that various conditions and manipulations, such as electrical brain stimulation, acupuncture, stress, and the administration of opioid analgesics, can cause the release of endogenous opioid peptides and possibly endogenous nonpeptide substances. It has also been discovered that nonopioid peptides, such as cholecystokinin, calcitonin, and angiotensin II, can alter the action of opioid analgesics by antagonizing or potentiating their effects. An understanding of the role of endogenous peptides in endogenous opioid mechanisms is necessary for the development of new ways to treat pain and such other disorders as sleep apnea in children (sudden infant death syndrome), head injury, and opioid addiction that involve the activation or alteration of endogenous opioid systems. (92 Refs.) Evaluation on the treatment of morphine addiction by acupuncture Chinese herbs and opioid peptides. Yang MM; Kwok JS Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong. Am J Chin Med (UNITED STATES) ,1986, 14 (1-2) p46-50, Experimental studies on the effects of acupuncture, combined Chinese herbs, and opioid peptides on morphine withdrawal symptoms were carried out in 119 addicted rats. Electroacupuncture was found to be the most effective method as it reduced the morphine withdrawal scores to -85%. The combined herbs, Qiang Huo, Gou Teng, Chuan Xion, Fu Zi and Yan Hu Suo suppressed the withdrawal scores of -68%. The opioid peptides, endorphin, enkephalin, and dynorphin, produced marked sedative effect and alleviated the withdrawal symptoms, reducing the scores from -28% to -74%. It is suggested that acupuncture and herbs, being non-opiate and having less side effect, might be used as alternative or supplementary treatment on morphine addiction. @PAGEBREAK = [Morphine receptors in rat liver mitochondrial membranes] Recepteurs de membranes mitochondriales hepatiques de rat pour la morphine. di Jeso B; Truscello A; di Jeso F Seconda Chimica Biologica Universite de Pavie, Faculte de Medecine, Italie. C R Soc Biol (Paris) (FRANCE) ,1984, 178 (1) p52-5 In vitro essays carried out on rat liver mitochondria show that morphine enhances fluorescence of membrane-bound 1-anilinonaphtalene-8-sulphonate. These and our previous reports about morphine action on oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver mitochondria demonstrate that the neurotropic drug has also a more general effect on non-nervous cells, masked till now by the more impressive effect on the nervous system. Our results may open a way to explain how injecting opiates continuously and directly in the cerebrospinal fluid or producing endorphins directly at the cerebrospinal level by acupuncture prevent addiction, constipation and other side-effects. Acupuncture therapy for the treatment of tobacco smoking addiction. Steiner RP; Hay DL; Davis AW Department of Family Practice, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Kentucky. Am J Chin Med (UNITED STATES) ,1982, 10 (1-4) p107-21, Acupuncture has been reported as an effective treatment for some addictions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate acupuncture treatment effect on the cigarette smoking habit with a motivated population in a controlled clinical setting. From a volunteer research population, sixteen matched pairs were assembled according to age, sex, and severity of smoking habit. Research subjects were randomly assigned to real or sham acupuncture treatment groups. Self-reported cigarette logs were measured pre-treatment and post-treatment. Analysis of variants confirmed homogeneity of group pre-treatment cigarette consumption. Cigarette consumption significantly decreased in both th e real and sham treatment groups. Treatment group, age, sex, or severity of smoking habit were not significant factors in treatment effects for cessation of smoking. Legitimate crossover treatment for sham research group showed a significant decrease (p less than or equal to 0.05) in cigarette consumption; this change was not statistically different from change in cigarette consumption during placebo treatment. A discussion of acupuncture point selection rationale is made as is an analysis of Tehchi sensations and subjective reports of appetite for cigarettes. Acupuncture did not enhance the cessation of cigarette smoking in this study. @PAGEBREAK = Smoking withdrawal and acupuncture. Fuller JA Epworth Medical Centre, Richmond, Vic. Med J Aust (AUSTRALIA) ,Jan 9 1982, 1 (1) p28-9, Nicotine addiction makes it very difficult for most smokers to quit. This study examined the relapse rate of 194 people (118 men and 76 women) who were given acupuncture treatment to help them stop smoking. Ninety five per cent of patients quit smoking after three acupuncture treatments. Fifty-five (32%) of the 174 patients who replied to a mailed questionnaire said they had not smoked since treatment; the success rate was: one week, 86%; six months 41%; 12 months, 34% and 24 months, 30%. There were no further relapses amongst those patients who abstained for more than 24 months. Eighty-five per cent of those who responded reported that acupuncture had eased the symptoms of smoking withdrawal. However, if the patient's motivation is weak, subsequent relapse will occur. Immunoassayable beta-endorphin level in the plasma and CSF of heroin addicted and normal subjects before and after electroacupuncture. Wen HL; Ho WK; Ling N; Mehal ZD; Ng YH Am J Chin Med ,Spring-Summer 1980, 8 (1-2) p154-9 The present study was undertaken to evaluate if plasma or CSF beta-endorphin level can be induced to rise during the treatment of heroin addiction by electroacupuncture. Based on the examination of 30 addicts, we obtained no evidence indicating an increase of beta-endorphin level in either the plasma or the CSF after 30 min of acupuncture. In spite of this, the majority of the addicts experienced a reduction of withdrawal symptoms during treatment. Since electroacupuncture may only induce a highly localized secretion of beta-endorphin in the brain, our results cannot unequivocally exclude the possibility that this peptide is involved in mediating the action of acupuncture. @PAGEBREAK = [Acupuncture as a part of a program of detoxification and weaning from opiates: 25 cases] Agopuntura come parte di un programma di disintossicazione e disassuefazione da oppiacei: 25 cases. Lorini G; Fazio L; Cocchi R; Fusari A; Roccia L Minerva Med ,Dec 15 1979, 70 (56) p3831-6 Presents results of a detoxification and habit loosing program carried out in 25 morphine-like substances addicts (mainly heroine) aged 19-26. The therapeutic treatment based on gabaergic drugs (l-glutamine, sodium valproate and piridoxine), low doses psychodrugs (tricyclics and benzodiacepines) and acupuncture, began in 13 subjects at the hospital and continued at the outpatients' service, while 12 subjects were treated only at the outpatients' service. Follow up: 6 subjects of the hospitalized group free from the addiction (5 subjects from more than 1 year after their discharge); 3 subjects of the outpatients' group abstinent from no more than 4 months after discharge. Biochemical mechanisms involved in this therapeutic program are extensively discussed. [Endogenous opiates (endorphins) and pain] Endogene Opiate (Endorphine) und das Schmerzgeschehen. Herz A Acta Med Austriaca ,1978, 5 (3) p63-8 The current knowledge of the physiological role of endogenous opioid peptides and their receptors, is presented. The possible role for pain perception, acupuncture analgesia, stress analgesia and opiate addiction is discussed. (39 Refs.) Reception of acupuncture by the scientific community: from scorn to a degree of interest. Bowers JZ Comp Med East West ,1978 Summer, 6 (2) p89-96 This article presents a comprehensive review of the clinical phenomenon of acupuncture. The historical development of this technique, in China, in other parts of Asia, and in the West is discussed. Contemporary advances in acupuncture applications, such as in anesthesia and in the treatment of drug addiction are reviewed. Up-to-date material regarding current physiological theories of acupuncture's mechanism is included. Acupuncture is seen as presenting of challenge to the scientific community which is moving from a posture of scorn to justifiable interest. @PAGE BREAK = Reduction of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in drug addicts treated by acupuncture and electrical stimulation (AES). Wen HL; Ho WK; Wong HK; Mehal ZD; Ng YH; Ma L Comp Med East West ,1978 Spring, 6 (1) p61-6 Forty-two heroin addicts and 31 normal persons were examined for the effect of acupuncture and electrical stimulation (AES) on plasma ACTH, cortisol and cyclic-AMP levels. Both ACTH and cortisol levels were reduced significantly in the addicts after treatment whereas no such significant reduction was observed in the normals. Plasma cyclic-AMP level was not affected in either group. Taken together, results from the present study suggest that the mechanism of AES in the treatment of addiction may have a neuroendocrinological basis. This hypothesis is particularly attractive in view of the isolation of opiate-like peptides from the brain. Enkephalin, drug addiction and acupuncture. Chen GS Am J Chin Med ,Spring 1977, 5 (1) p25-30 From the results of clinical and basic research, there is clear evidence that acupuncture analgesia is closely associated with the nervous system, especially the central nervous system. Stimulation of certain acupuncture loci which have been used for analgesia during operations also can calm the withdrawal symptoms of morphine and heroin addicts. Acupuncture analgesia can be antagonized by the specific narcotic antagonist, naloxone. These findings suggest the factor or factors produced by acupuncture stimulation would also have agonist activity on opiate receptors. Moreover, the morphine receptors are most concentrated in those parts of the brain concerned with perception of pain and the pathway of acupuncture stimulation. Since the opiate receptors are associated with the synaptic fraction of brain cell membrane preparations, the natural ligand of these receptors may be a neurotransmitter. Enkephalin has stronger binding affinity to opiate receptors than morphine, which suggests that it is the natural ligand for these receptors. In other words, enkephalin might be the natural "pain killer" produced in the brain to suppress pain. If we summate all the information available now, it is possible to suggest that enkephalin may be the product of the nervous system released by acupuncture stimulation to create an analgesic effect as well as suppress opiate withdrawal symptoms. (41 Refs.) @PAGEBREAK = Non-pharmacological approaches to the treatment of drug abuse. Bourne PG Am J Chin Med ,1975 Jul, 3 (3) p235-44 As a result largely of dissatisfaction with existing treatment methods for narcotic addiction, there has been considerable recent interest in various non-pharmacological approaches to treatment. Acupuncture, transcendental meditation, electrosleep, biofeedback and hypnotism all have generated considerable interest and seem to be effective in a number of cases. Although apparently quite different, all of these approaches seek to induce a state of relaxation which in turn appears to exert specific neurophysiological changes in the brain. These treatment methods not only help for some addicts, but should contribute to our overall understanding of the addiction process. Detoxification from heroin dependency: An overview of method and effectiveness. Lipton, Douglas S.; Maranda, Michael J. New York State Div of Substance Abuse Services, New York Advances in Alcohol & Substance Abuse 1982 Fal Vol 2(1) 31-55 CODEN: AASADR Reviews the history of opiate detoxification; research findings contrasting various contemporary approaches to detoxification that utilize methadone; and studies of different chemotherapeutic and other experimental methods such as acupuncture, propoxyphene napsylate, propranolol, ascorbic acid, and clonidine HCl. It is concluded that detoxification has not been successful in producing satisfactory retention rates and lasting abstinence from opiates. Nonetheless, detoxification remains an important emergency procedure and a humane means of withdrawing addicts from heroin prior to long-term treatment. (79 ref) @PAGEBREAK = Acupuncture as a detoxification modality. Newmeyer, John A.; Johnson, Gregory; Klot, Steven Haight-Ashbury Free Medical Clinic, San Francisco, CA Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 1984 Jul-Sep Vol 16(3) 241-261 Investigated the effects of acupuncture (APT) detoxification on heroin abusers (aged 18+ yrs), who were clients of a drug detoxification project in San Francisco. Of 460 Ss, 69% were male, 78% were White, and 65% were unemployed. Continuous APT treatment was made available to the Ss for a 21-day period; during this time Ss were assessed by an intake interview, a daily checklist of symptoms, a symptom evaluation sheet, the Profile of Mood States, a urinalysis, and a closing interview. After 3 mo, a follow-up interview was conducted. Ss were offered the opportunity to participate in (1) APT only ( n = 72), (2) APT and medication ( n = 334), or (3) medication only ( n = 54) treatments. Findings provide limited support to the relative efficacy of the APT modality. Results indicate that soft-core users were retained longer in APT treatment than hard-core users. The short-term effects of APT treatment, overall S evaluation of APT, APT's successes, and a cost-benefit analysis are discussed. (41 ref) @PAGE BREAK = Reduction of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in drug addicts treated by acupuncture and electrical stimulation (AES). Wen, H. L. et al Kwong Wah Hosp, Neurosurgical Unit, Hong Kong *Comparative Medicine East & West 1978 Spr Vol 6(1) 61-66 Examined 42 heroin addicts and 31 normal persons for the effect of acupuncture and electrical stimulation (AES) on plasma ACTH, cortisol and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. Both ACTH and cortisol levels were reduced significantly in the addicts after treatment, whereas no such significant reduction was observed in the normals. Plasma cAMP level was not affected in either group. Taken together, results suggest that the mechanism of AES in the treatment of addiction may have a neuroendocrinological basis. This hypothesis is particularly attractive in view of the isolation of opiate-like peptides from the brain. (12 ref) Fast detoxification of heroin addicts by acupuncture and electrical stimulation (AES) in combination with naloxone. Wen, H. L. Kwong Wah Hosp, Neurosurgical Dept, Kowloon, Hong Kong Comparative Medicine East & West 1977 Fal-Win Vol 5(3-4) 257-263 Used acupuncture and electrical stimulation (AES) in combination with naloxone for detoxification of 50 heroin addicts. 41 Ss were detoxified, and 9 failures occurred. It is suggested that AES increases endorphin and relieves abstinence syndrome, but also inhibits the autonomic nervous system, mainly the parasympathetic nervous system. The technique does not stop the craving. (16 ref) Acupuncture and the treatment of drug withdrawal symptoms. Sharps, Holly PharmChem Newsletter 1977 Sep Vol 6(7) 6 p Briefly describes the history and technique of acupuncture therapy, and discusses Western theories for the effects of acupuncture based on neurological, biochemical, and biopsychological models. Research is summarized concerning the use of acupuncture in the treatment of drug addiction, but all the studies emphasize that the acupuncture treated only the withdrawal symptoms and did not cure drug addiction itself. Some success has been reported, however, in treating smoking and obesity. Controlled studies are urged to test the potential of acupuncture therapy for drug abuse; when supported by psychosocial counseling, acupuncture may prove to be a successful and cost-efficient treatment modality. (15 ref) Acupuncture and addiction: An overview. Lau, M. P. Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, Canada Addictive Diseases: An International Journal 1976 Vol 2(3) 449-463 Summarizes theories and hypotheses on the mechanism of action of acupuncture, and classifies existing studies that have acupuncture as their main theme. Clinical studies conducted in Canada and the US that used acupuncture in the treatment of narcotic, alcohol, and nicotine addiction are reviewed. Possible future applications of the technique in the field of addiction are offered. (23 ref) Heroin detoxification with acupuncture and electrical stimulation. Severson, Larry; Markoff, Richard A.; Chun-Hoon, Albert U Hawaii Medical School International Journal of the Addictions 1977 Oct Vol 12(7) 911-922 Used acupuncture with electrical stimulation (AES) to detoxify 6 male and 3 female heroin addicts. Results of immediate and 4-mo follow-ups show that (a) 5 patients were successfully detoxified, (b) later reversion to heroin was comparable to that of other detoxification methods, and (c) none of the patients sought outpatient AES treatment. @PAGE BREAK = Effects of neuro-electric therapy (N.E.T.) in drug addiction: Interim report. Patterson, Margaret A. Bulletin on Narcotics 1976 Oct-Dec Vol 28(4) 55-62 Presents a preliminary report on the use of electro-acupuncture (neuro-electric therapy) with hard-core heroin addicts, in London. Of the 10 inpatients treated, 6 showed marked improvement, 3 moderate, and 1 fair improvement. About half of the 13 outpatients showed moderate improvement, the others none. Detailed information is presented on the previous drug-taking, the treatment (including the frequency range, optimum frequency and wave-form used, and duration of the electro-acupuncture) and follow-up data. However, the neuro-electro treatment is only part of the work with the addict; equally important is intensive counseling during the therapy period. An important effect was that the sleep pattern returned to normal far more rapidly than usual in narcotic withdrawal. Non-pharmacological approaches to the treatment of drug abuse. Bourne, Peter G. Drug Abuse Council, Washington, DC American Journal of Chinese Medicine 1975 Jul Vol 3(3) 235-244 As a result largely of dissatisfaction with existing treatment methods for narcotic addiction, there has been considerable recent interest in various nonpharmacological approaches to treatment. Acupuncture, transcendental meditation, electrosleep, biofeedback, and hypnotism have generated interest and seem to be effective in a number of cases. Although apparently different, all of these approaches seek to induce a state of relaxation which in turn appears to exert specific neurophysiological changes in the brain. These treatment methods not only provide help for some addicts, but contribute to our overall understanding of the addiction process. (23 ref) @PAGE BREAK = @HEAD LEVEL 2 = ACUPUNCTURE FOR DYSMENORRHEA Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in the relief of primary dysmenorrhea. Lewers D; Clelland JA; Jackson JR; Varner RE; Bergman J Spain Rehabilitation Center, University of Alabama Hospitals, Birmingham 35294. Phys Ther (UNITED STATES) Jan 1989, 69 (1) p3-9 The purpose of this study was to replicate a previous study to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in treating primary dysmenorrhea. Twenty-one women with dysmenorrhea received a placebo pill or 30 minutes of acupuncture-like TENS. All subjects completed two pain questionnaires before treatment; immediately posttreatment; 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes posttreatment; and the next morning upon awakening. Each woman also participated in a separate study measuring electrical resistance at four auricular acupuncture points before and immediately after treatment. The data were analyzed with a two-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance, which revealed statistical significance over time but not for group or interaction between group and time. Results revealed an average pain relief of at least 50% immediately posttreatment, indicating that acupuncture-like TENS may be useful for dysmenorrheic pain. This study also suggests that auriculotherapy via acupressure may relieve the pain of primary dysmenorrhea. Acupuncture for the management of primary dysmenorrhea. Helms JM Obstet Gynecol Jan 1987, 69 (1) p51-6 The effectiveness of acupuncture in managing the pain of primary dysmenorrhea was investigated in a randomized and controlled prospective clinical study. Forty-three women were followed for one year in one of four groups: the Real Acupuncture group was given appropriate acupuncture and the Placebo Acupuncture group was given random point acupuncture on a weekly basis for three menstrual cycles; the Standard Control group was followed without medical or acupuncture intervention; the Visitation Control group had monthly nonacupuncture visits with the project physician for three cycles. In the Real Acupuncture group, 10 of 11 (90.9%) women showed improvement; in the Placebo Acupuncture group, 4 of 11 (36.4%); in the Standard Control group, 2 of 11 (18.2%); and in the Visitation Control group 1 of 10 (10%). There was a 41% reduction of analgesic medication used by the women in the Real Acupuncture group after their treatment series, and no change or increased use of medication seen in the other groups. [Use of acupuncture in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea] Primena akupunkture u lecenju primarn ih dismenoreja. Maric R Jugosl Ginekol Opstet Sep-Dec 1984, 24 (5-6) p104-6 Acupuncture was applied in the treatment of 32 patients with primary dysmenorrhea. Different acupuncture points on several channels were stimulated, depending on shi or xu types. The therapy proceeded in sessions for three consecutive days before the expected menstruation, in the course of three consecutive cycles. A relief of dysmenorrheic pain was already evidenced after the first menstruation. One year after the completed therapy there was a full disappearance of dysmenorrheic pain in 93% and a partial one in 7% of cases. ============================================================================= Another text file from STONEHENGE BBS [415] 479-8328 =============================================================================

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