Computer underground Digest Wed Sep 14, 1994 Volume 6 : Issue 81 ISSN 1004-042X Editors: J

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Computer underground Digest Wed Sep 14, 1994 Volume 6 : Issue 81 ISSN 1004-042X Editors: Jim Thomas and Gordon Meyer (TK0JUT2@NIU.BITNET) Archivist: Brendan Kehoe Retiring Shadow Archivist: Stanton McCandlish Shadow-Archivists: Dan Carosone / Paul Southworth Ralph Sims / Jyrki Kuoppala Ian Dickinson Urban Legend Editor: E. Greg Shrdlugold CONTENTS, #6.81 (Wed, Sep 14, 1994) File 1--Re: Exon Amendment -- text of existing laws File 2--"Computer Related Crime" (Book Review) File 3--First French book on Internet (Book Review) File 4--Clipper T-shirts File 5--Five "Hackers" Indicted for Credit Card/Computer Fraud File 6--Wiretap Bill Update File 7--Women's Work and Informatics -- Call for Contributions File 8--GovAccess.048: SF ElEx free candidate info & net hosts/GNPs File 9--Cu Digest Header Information (last changed 11 Sep '94) CuD ADMINISTRATIVE, EDITORIAL, AND SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION APPEARS IN THE CONCLUDING FILE AT THE END OF EACH ISSUE. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Tue, 13 Sep 1994 13:08:09 -0400 (EDT) From: Steve Barber Subject: File 1--Re: Exon Amendment - text of existing laws OK, so now that we've put the Exon amendment text out there (see CuD 6.79), it occurred to me that it isn't all that useful if you don't have the text of what it proposes to amend! So here is Section 223 of the Communications Act as it exists today, and the text of the "safe-harbor" regulation that implements part of it. -Steve Barber ============================ FCC RESTRICTIONS ON OBSCENE AND INDECENT TELEPHONE TRANSMISSIONS A. STATUTE - Title 47, Section 223 of the United States Code (rev. 1989) @ 223. Obscene or harassing telephone calls in the District of Columbia or in interstate or foreign communications (a) Whoever-- (1) in the District of Columbia or in interstate or foreign communication by means of telephone-- (A) makes any comment, request, suggestion or proposal which is obscene, lewd, lascivious, filthy, or indecent; (B) makes a telephone call, whether or not conversation ensues, without disclosing his identity and with intent to annoy, abuse, threaten, or harass any person at the called number; (C) makes or causes the telephone of another repeatedly or continuously to ring, with intent to harass any person at the called number; or (D) makes repeated telephone calls, during which conversation ensues, solely to harass any person at the called number; or (2) knowingly permits any telephone facility under his control to be used for any purpose prohibited by this section, shall be fined not more than $ 50,000 or imprisoned not more than six months, or both. (b)(1) Whoever knowingly-- (A) within the United States, by means of telephone, makes (directly or by recording device) any obscene communication for commercial purposes to any person, regardless of whether the maker of such communication placed the call; or (B) permits any telephone facility under such person's control to be used for an activity prohibited by subparagraph (A), shall be fined in accordance with title 18, United States Code, or imprisoned not more than two years, or both. (2) Whoever knowingly-- (A) within the United States, by means of telephone, makes (directly or by recording device) any indecent communication for commercial purposes which is available to any person under 18 years of age or to any other person without that person's consent, regardless of whether the maker of such communication placed the call; or (B) permits any telephone facility under such person's control to be used for an activity prohibited by subparagraph (A), shall be fined not more than $ 50,000 or imprisoned not more than six months, or both. (3) It is a defense to prosecution under paragraph (2) of this subsection that the defendant restrict access to the prohibited communication to persons 18 years of age or older in accordance with subsection (c) of this section and with such procedures as the Commission may prescribe by regulation. (4) In addition to the penalties under paragraph (1), whoever, within the United States, intentionally violates paragraph (1) or (2) shall be subject to a fine of not more than $ 50,000 for each violation. For purposes of this paragraph, each day of violation shall constitute a separate violation. (5)(A) In addition to the penalties under paragraphs (1), (2), and (5), whoever, within the United States, violates paragraph (1) or (2) shall be subject to a civil fine of not more than $ 50,000 for each violation. For purposes of this paragraph, each day of violation shall constitute a separate violation. (B) A fine under this paragraph may be assessed either-- (i) by a court, pursuant to civil action by the Commission or any attorney employed by the Commission who is designated by the Commission for such purposes, or (ii) by the Commission after appropriate administrative proceedings. (6) The Attorney General may bring a suit in the appropriate district court of the United States to enjoin any act or practice which violates paragraph (1) or (2). An injunction may be granted in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. (c)(1) A common carrier within the District of Columbia or within any State, or in interstate or foreign commerce, shall not, to the extent technically feasible, provide access to a communication specified in subsection (b) from the telephone of any subscriber who has not previously requested in writing the carrier to provide access to such communication if the carrier collects from subscribers an identifiable charge for such communication that the carrier remits, in whole or in part, to the provider of such communication. (2) Except as provided in paragraph (3), no cause of action may be brought in any court or administrative agency against any common carrier, or any of its affiliates, including their officers, directors, employees, agents, or authorized representatives on account of-- (A) any action which the carrier demonstrates was taken in good faith to restrict access pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection; or (B) any access permitted-- (i) in good faith reliance upon the lack of any representation by a provider of communications that communications provided by that provider are communications specified in subsection (b), or (ii) because a specific representation by the provider did not allow the carrier, acting in good faith, a sufficient period to restrict access to communications described in subsection (b). (3) Notwithstanding paragraph (2) of this subsection, a provider of communications services to which subscribers are denied access pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection may bring an action for a declaratory judgment or similar action in a court. Any such action shall be limited to the question of whether the communications which the provider seeks to provide fall within the category of communications to which the carrier will provide access only to subscribers who have previously requested such access. B. FCC REGULATION - Title 47, Section 64.201 of the Code of Federal Regulations Restrictions on obscene or indecent telephone message services. 47 CFR 64.201 It is a defense to prosecution under section 223(b) of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, 47 U.S.C. 223(b), that the defendant has taken one of the actions set forth in paragraph (a), (b), or (c) of this section to restrict access to prohibited communications to persons eighteen years of age or older, and has additionally complied with paragraph (d) of this section, where applicable: (a) Requires payment by credit card before transmission of the message; or (b) Requires an authorized access or identification code before transmission of the message, and where the defendant has: (1) Issued the code by mailing it to the applicant after reasonably ascertaining through receipt of a written application that the applicant is not under eighteen years of age; and (2) Established a procedure to cancel immediately the code of any person upon written, telephonic or other notice to the defendant's business office that such code has been lost, stolen, or used by a person or persons under the age of eighteen, or that such code is no longer desired; or (c) Scrambles the message using frequency inversion techniques so that it is unintelligible and incomprehensible to the calling party without use of a descrambler by the calling party; and (d) Where the defendant is a message sponsor or subscriber to mass announcement services tariffed at this Commission and such defendant prior to the transmission of the message has requested in writing to the carrier providing the public announcement service that calls to his message service be subject to billing notification as an adult telephone message service. ------------------------------ Date: Mon, 05 Sep 1994 15:11:36 -0600 (MDT) From: "Rob Slade, Ed. DECrypt & ComNet, VARUG rep, 604-984-4067" Subject: File 2--"Computer Related Crime" (Book Review) BKCMRLCR.RVW 940622 Loompanics Unlimited P.O. Box 1197 Port Townsend, WA 98368 "Computer Related Crime", 1-55950-027-1, U$10.00 This purports to be Field Circular 19-146 of the US Army Military Policy School. Supposedly intended for US Army Criminal Investigation (Defence?) Command Special Agents only, it appears to be an unauthorized photocopy of a typed government document. No date is included in any of the supposed government material: the Loompanics copyright date is 1990. It doesn't really matter if this is an official government document or not. The material is fairly pedestrian: after a reasonably detailed set of instructions on how to exercise a search warrant for computer equipment (although not how to analyze the equipment, once you have it), the bulk of the book defines various types of computer crimes. Much of this would have serious data security types going, "Well, maybe ...," but, at the same time, it isn't bad enough as to indicate that American military policy are being misinformed in what is, after all, a specialized topic. A possibly interesting bit of arcana for the well-stocked data security library. copyright Robert M. Slade, 1994 BKCMRLCR.RVW 940622 ====================== DECUS Canada Communications, Desktop, Education and Security group newsletters Editor and/or reviewer,, Rob Slade at 1:153/733 Author "Robert Slade's Guide to Computer Viruses" (Sept. '94) Springer-Verlag ------------------------------ Date: 06 Sep 1994 12:47:08 GMT From: JeanBernard_Condat@EMAIL.FRANCENET.FR(JeanBernard Condat) Subject: File 3--First French book on Internet (Book Review) New Book in Franch Language: INTERNET Internet is now available from Editions JCI, Inc. (2700 Joliette #201, Montreal, Quebec, H1W 3G9, Canada) The *Internet* book goes beyond all business school case studies and descriptions of Internet tools, teaching French readers how to effectively use the Internet to boost sales and cut costs. Through real world examples and expert advice, you'll learn how to use the Internet to build European/international market share, track down business leads, communicate with colleagues, search online databases, provide cost- effective customer support and access time-critical information. You'll also explore the many business opportunities now available on the Internet and get tips on shopping for the best deal on Internet access and cybel-mail space. Just as importantly you'll learn about the culture of the Internet, find out what type of advertising is acceptable and can generate a positive response, and which forms are verboten and can provoke community hostility (the famous 'nethiquette'). The *Internet* also contain detailed descriptions of the author's first- hand and experienced experience in doing business on the Internet. Co- author Jean-Bernard Condat is a veteran information science writer and publisher of electronic newsletter that tracks trends and developments in electronic newspaper and magazine publishing. Co-author Nicolas Pioch is the conceptor of WebLouvre--Paris, the first consulted WWW in Europe ( Here's the basic information: Jean-Bernard Condat & Nicolas Pioch, "Internet", J.C.I. Inc., Oct. 1994, 224 pages, 195 FF (CAN$29.95), ISBN 2-921599-06-6. Table des Matieres: 1. Preface; 2. Premieres notions; 3. Documentation Internet; 4. Le courrier electronique; 5. Smileys (emoticons); 6. telnet; 7. Formats de fichiers; 8. FTP; 9. Archie; 10. Prospero; 11. Usenet/newsgroups; 12. Netiquette; 13. WAIS; 14. Gopher; 15. WWW; 16. cryptographie; 17. Adresses utiles; 18. MacTCP/PPP; Index. Note that you can receive more information on this publication by ordering it direct from: - Diffulivres, Canada: +1 514 738 2911, fax: +1 514 738 8512; - Distique, France: +33 37 34 84 84, fax: +33 37 30 78 65; - Context SA, Belgium: +32 41 40 19 82, fax: +32 41 490 19 82; - Micro-Distribution, Switzerland: +41 227843482, fax +41 227840945. Don't hesitate to contact us for more information on Internet... in France. Jean-Bernard Condat, 47 rue des Rosiers, 93404 St-Ouen Cedex, France Tel: +33147874083, Fax: +33149450129, Alphapage: +3336605050 code 0030006 Email: JeanBernard_Condat@Email.FranceNet.FR *or* ------------------------------ Date: 7 Sep 1994 20:40:52 -0700 From: normh@CRL.COM(Norman J Harman) Subject: File 4--Clipper T-shirts Information and opposition to the Clipper proposal is strong on the Internet. But it is far too unknown to the 'outside' community. Everyone concerned by this issue should inform all the people they know of its implications. One way to increase awareness and show your opinion is to wear it:). I would like to offer an anti Clipper/Skipjack T-shirt. They would be white with black printing and cost approximately $5.00 plus $2.90 shipping to US locations. That is the cost to produce one shirt. I am trying to spread awareness not make money. I need to know if people are interested in this idea and what should the shirts say? Two quick ideas are: "Skip Skipjack" or "Just Say No to Clipper" Please send comments, suggestions, and questions to If more than a few people are interested I will go ahead and have the shirts made and post how to get one. A worthy cause is better if it benefits another good cause so the shirts will be silk-screened by Zerolith, part of a non-profit organization that employs, shelters, and assists homeless youth. If you would like to talk with Zerolith or donate money directly here is how to contact them. Zerolith 3075 21st Street San Francisco, CA 94110-2626 415.641.1014 voice 415.641.1474 fax -- Norman J. Harman Jr. o o Smiley Systems \__/ San Francisco, CA ------------------------------ Date: Tue, 13 Sep 1994 11:19:22 (CDT) From: CuD Moderators Subject: File 5--Five "Hackers" Indicted for Credit Card/Computer Fraud (AP WIRE - Thurs, Sept. 8, 1994) NEW ORLEANS (AP) -- "Dr. Demonicus," "Renegade" and four other hackers used computers to steal credit card numbers and used them to buy $210,000 in gold coins and high-tech hardware, federal prosecutors said Wednesday (Sept 8, '94). The nine-count indictment unsealed Wednesday charged five men from Louisana and one from New York with conspiracy, computer fraud, access device fraud and wire fraud, U.S. Attorney Eddie Jordan Jr. said. Some fo their hacker nicknames were included. They were identified as Dwayne "Dr. Demonicus" Comeger, 22; Brian Ursin, 21; John Christopher "Renegade" Montegut, 24; Timothy "Revelation" Thompson, 21; James McGee, 25; and Raymone "Wiseguy" Savage, 25, of Richmond Hills, N.Y. ------------------------------ From: email list server Date: Mon, 12 Sep 1994 09:29:49 -0700 Subject: File 6--Wiretap Bill Update Wiretap Bill Update The Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) and Voters Telecomm Watch (VTW) are urging concerned individuals and organizations to help stop the FBI Wiretap Bill. Congress is now back in session and your support is critical. The attached alert from VTW provides contact info for the relevant Congressional representatives. EPIC is a project of the Fund for Constitutional Government and Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility. For additional information, send e-mail to . ========================================================= Subject--ACTION--Fight US bills--SB 2375 & HR 4922 (Shabbir J. Safdar) Date--11 Sep 1994 23:44:50 -0400 ********************************************************** DISTRIBUTE WIDELY (though no later than October 1, 1994) ********************************************************** [If you've only got 2 minutes, skip down to the "What You Can Do" section.] [Washington insiders say the phone calls and faxes (especially to Rep Jack Brooks) are starting to attract significant attention, and many people prophesize that the bill won't even have time to pass this session. Thanks for your efforts!] The FBI's Wiretap bills (also known as the DT - Digital Telephony bills) mandate that *all* communications carriers must provide wiretap-ready equipment so that the FBI can more easily implement their court-ordered wiretaps more easily. The costs of re-engineering all communications equipment will be borne by the government, industry and consumers. The bill is vague and the standards defining "wiretap ready" do not exist. Furthermore, the FBI has yet to make a case which demonstrates that they have been unable to implement a wiretap. There are fewer than 1,000 court ordered surveillances per year. Even if all of them are wiretaps, and even if all of them require the changes mandated by this legisation, are we as a nation prepared to build eavesdropping features into the phones of 250 million people, in order to justify these wiretaps? None of these wiretaps has been demonstrated to be unimplementable, nor has it been proven that the cases could not be made with other methods of electronic surveillance. The Voters Telecomm Watch (VTW) does not believe the FBI has made a compelling case to justify that all Americans give up their privacy. Furthermore, the VTW does not believe the case has been made to justify spending 500 million Federal dollars over the next 4 years to re-engineer equipment to compromise privacy, interfere with telecommunications privacy, and fulfill an unproven government need. WHAT YOU CAN DO =============== You can help stop this legislation before it is too late! Phone/Fax/Write to each of the people below. It should take about two minutes a piece. . Rep. Jack Brooks (his Judiciary Committee must approve the bill before it can be voted upon by the full House) DC Phone: (202) 225-6565, TX Phone: (409) 839-2508 DC Fax: (202) 225-1584 Also try Judiciary Comm. fax at (202) 225-3951 US Mail: RHOB 2449, Washington DC 20515 . Senator Patrick Leahy (the Senate sponsor of the bill) DC Phone: (202) 224-4242, VT Phone: (802) 863-2525 DC Fax: (202) 224-3595 US Mail: SR 433, Washington DC 20510 email: . Rep. Don Edwards (the House sponsor of the bill) DC Phone: (202) 225-3072, CA Phone: (408) 345-1711 DC Fax: (202) 225-9460 US Mail: 2307 RHOB, Washington DC 20515 . Your two Senators . Your Representative Tell them you are opposed to the FBI's Wiretap legislation. Feel free to use the sample communique below: SAMPLE COMMUNIQUE ================= Dear __________, The recent Digital Telephony bills (HR 4922 & SB 2375) disturb me greatly. The FBI has not yet made their case to the public that we need to build wiretap functionality into the telephones of 250 million people to justify wiretaps which have not yet been proven to be difficult to implement. The bills would clearly compromise the privacy of all Americans with no counterbalancing benefit to either law enforcement or the public. The FBI has not demonstrated the need, and the cost is uncalculated, but is known to be at least 500 million tax dollars. Furthermore, the standards are undefined, as are the bodies that would enact these standards. For these reasons, I am opposed to the Digital Telephony bills (HR 4922 & SB 2375). Sincerely, _______________________ If you get a response from your legislator, drop us a note at We track legislator positions on privacy-related issues such as this one. For more information about the Digital Telephony bills, check the Voters Telecomm Watch gopher site ( or contact Steven Cherry, VTW Press Contact at (718) 596-2851 or VTW posts a Digital Telephony FAQ monthly to several Usenet newsgroups including and Look for it or contact us at for a copy. ------------------------------ Date: Tue, 16 Aug 1994 01:06:35 +0200 From: email list server Subject: File 7--Women's Work and Informatics - Call for Contributions Women's Work and Informatics Call for Contributions Please forward this call - Please forward this call - Please forward this call "Women's Work and Informatics" (Frauenarbeit und Informatik) is the name of a Special Interest Group founded eight years ago in the German Society for Informatics (Gesellschaft fuer Informatik). Today our group has about 500 members and is a forum for female computer professionals to exchange experi ences in the discipline and in the various work situations. Our general aim is to increase the influence of women on the design and application of information technology. 12 local and thematic working groups are concerned with topics like women's research, promotion of women, motivation and encouragement of young women, the installation of an experts network, etc. In addition we are member of the national council of women's organisations to emphasize the interests of female technicians in the political environ ment. The next issue of our biannual journal "Frauenarbeit und Informatik" will focus on international perspectives and we hope to get your contributions from all over the world!!! Possible Contents In the following we summarize some possible aspects of the issue. Please keep in mind that we are collecting for a journal - so we are interested in articles as well as in brief information boxes, statistics, comments, etc. And of course the following points must not cover the national or professional situation as a whole; informations about special branches, situations, problems and solutions are also important, details appearing trivial or obvious to you might be new for a german readership! 1) The "One-Minute-Contribution": An international issue demands an international cover and here we need your help: Please send us the title "Women's Work and Informatics" in your native tongue and writing!! 2) Figure data: - General employment rate of women in your country? - Women's proportion in technical studies? - Women's proportion in the field of EDP professions? - How does this field look like (job titles, the demanded education/training, etc.)?... 3) Women's Advancement: - at university in the field of computer science - in industrial or govermental EDP-area, in your company? - Possibilities of part time work? of child care? of reengagement and further training?... 4) Amalgamations of women in computing: Do you join or know a professional organization, a network in your country? How is it organized, are there regular or irregular publications, what are the main aims and acitivities?... (Adresses and short description welcome for the planned index!) 5) Gender specific aspects of the influence of IT on the labour market? 6) Women's Research in the computing field (possibilities, experiences, results...)? 7) Lust but not least: Feel free to describe whatever is important for you. Formal conditions: Articles: should not exeed 1.500 words. Language: English or German. References: Alphabetical order at the end of the article. Artwork: Sorry - but we don't have colour print If the artwork not your own, please clear up the copyright. Deadline: September 30, 1994 Please send your contribution to the woman contacting you or to one of the following addresses: Roswitha Behnke Mayskamp 8 D-45357 Essen Germany Veronika Oechtering Jenaer Str. 39 D-28215 Bremen Germany Doris Koehler Wittmunder Str. 15 D-28219 Bremen Germany ------------------------------ Date: Fri, 9 Sep 1994 22:26:17 -0700 From: Jim Warren Subject: File 8--GovAccess.048: SF ElEx free candidate info & net hosts/GNPs SAN FRANCISCO [ELECTRONIC] EXAMINER OFFERS CANDIDATES FREE WEB EXPOSURE Date--07 Sep 94 23:57 GMT From--GULKER@AppleLink.Apple.COM (S F Examiner, Chris Gulker,APD) Distribute widely, please As a service to the community, The Electric Examiner is offering free Internet publishing to candidates for office who will appear on Bay Area ballots. Internet users with access to the World Wide Web via Mosaic, Lynx or other browser software can access these files as noted below While it is anticipated that candidates will mainly offer text files like position statements, speeches and schedules, The Examiner's World Wide Web server also supports photos, graphics and short clips of audio and video. Candidates can e-mail files to for inclusion on the server. Each candidate will be granted an equal heading and space up to the limits reserved for this project. Candidates who do not have e-mail access can send files on 3.5-inch diskette in either DOS/Windows or Macintosh format to Chris Gulker Candidates Internet Project San Francisco Examiner 110 Fifth Street San Francisco, CA 94103 Candidates offerings will be published at Uniform Resource Locator (URL): The Uniform Resource Locator of The Electric Examiner is: File formats: Text must be in plain ASCII format - this option is offered by most word processors. Photos and graphics should be in Compuserve GIF format and should be sized to no more than 4 inches in the longest dimension at 72 dots per inch. Audio files should be in 'AU' format, video can be in either MPG or Quicktime format - these should be brief clips. The Electric Examiner is the World Wide Web service of The San Francisco Examiner. === Thanks to both Phil Agre and (Brad Schrick) for fastly-forwarding this hot-stuff. --jim &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& INTERNET HOSTS: HOST-COUNTS AND EXPENDITURES/GROSS-NATIONAL-PRODUCT [ smaller number is better ] From: Tony Rutkowski via Wed Sep 7 1994 GNP/GDP Compared to Internet Hosts in July 1994 by Eric Arnum* Top-Level Country July 1994 GNP/Host Domain Name Code Internet Hosts GNP/GDP Total Ratio ------------------------------------------------------------------ Iceland is 3,268 $4,200,000,000 1.29 Finland fi 49,598 $80,600,000,000 1.63 Norway no 38,759 $72,900,000,000 1.88 Australia au 127,514 $280,800,000,000 2.20 USA var 2,044,791 $5,700,000,000,000 2.79 New Zealand nz 14,830 $46,200,000,000 3.12 Sweden se 53,294 $202,500,000,000 3.80 Canada ca 127,516 $521,500,000,000 4.09 Netherlands nl 59,729 $249,600,000,000 4.18 Czech Republic cz 5,639 $25,600,000,000 4.54 Switzerland ch 47,401 $238,050,000,000 5.02 U.K. uk 155,706 $915,500,000,000 5.88 South Africa za 15,595 $96,000,000,000 6.16 World Median ww 3,212,000 $19,850,690,000,000 6.18 Israel il 8,464 $56,400,000,000 6.66 Denmark dk 12,107 $91,100,000,000 7.52 Austria at 20,130 $164,100,000,000 8.15 Chile cl 3,703 $30,500,000,000 8.24 Germany de 149,193 $1,300,000,000,000 8.71 Slovak Republic sk 868 $9,300,000,000 10.71 Singapore sg 4,014 $43,200,000,000 10.76 Costa Rica cr 544 $5,900,000,000 10.85 Hungary hu 5,390 $60,100,000,000 11.15 Portugal pt 4,518 $50,700,000,000 11.22 Ireland ie 3,308 $39,200,000,000 11.85 R.o.W. Median (not USA) 1,180,387 $14,150,690,000,000 11.99 Belgium be 12,107 $171,800,000,000 14.19 France fr 71,899 $1,033,700,000,000 14.38 Taiwan tw 10,314 $150,800,000,000 14.62 Luxembourg lu 420 $7,830,000,000 18.64 Poland pl 7,392 $162,700,000,000 22.01 South Korea kr 12,109 $273,000,000,000 22.55 Spain es 21,147 $487,500,000,000 23.05 Liechtenstein li 27 $630,000,000 23.33 Greece gr 2,958 $77,600,000,000 26.23 Kuwait kw 297 $8,750,000,000 29.46 Croatia hr 838 $26,300,000,000 31.38 Japan jp 72,409 $2,370,000,000,000 32.73 Mexico mx 5,164 $172,400,000,000 33.38 Malaysia my 1,322 $44,900,000,000 33.96 Slovenia si 574 $21,000,000,000 36.59 Ecuador ec 256 $11,500,000,000 44.92 Italy it 23,616 $1,090,000,000,000 46.16 Brazil br 5,896 $358,000,000,000 60.72 Nicaragua ni 23 $1,600,000,000 69.57 Turkey tr 1,204 $91,780,000,000 76.23 Thailand th 1,197 $92,000,000,000 76.86 Uruguay uy 101 $9,100,000,000 90.10 Venezuela ve 399 $52,300,000,000 131.08 Romania ro 453 $71,900,000,000 158.72 Cyprus cy 38 $6,100,000,000 160.53 Panama pa 24 $5,000,000,000 208.33 Tunisia tn 46 $10,900,000,000 236.96 Macau mo 12 $3,100,000,000 258.33 Fiji fj 5 $1,300,000,000 260.00 Colombia co 144 $45,000,000,000 312.50 Argentina ar 248 $101,200,000,000 408.06 Bulgaia bg 79 $36,400,000,000 460.76 Peru pe 42 $25,150,000,000 598.81 Philippines ph 65 $47,000,000,000 723.08 Egypt eg 52 $39,200,000,000 753.85 Ukraine ua 339 $339,200,000,000 1,000.59 India in 316 $328,000,000,000 1,037.97 China cn 325 $452,000,000,000 1,390.77 Indonesia id 54 $116,200,000,000 2,151.85 Russia ru 322 $800,000,000,000 2,484.47 Algeria dz 7 $54,000,000,000 7,714.29 Moldova md 2 $16,900,000,000 8,450.00 Iran ir 4 $90,000,000,000 22,500.00 Saudi Arabia sa 1 $104,000,000,000 104,000.00 Yugoslavia yu 1 $159,000,000,000 159,000.00 Czechoslovakia cs 1,869 $0 0.00 Soviet Union su 3,145 $0 0.00 Educational edu 856,234 Commercial com 774,735 Government gov 169,248 Military mil 130,176 Organization org 66,459 Networks net 30,993 US Int'l us 16,556 International int 315 Puerto Rico pr 75 Antarctica aq 4 Hong Kong hk 9,141 n/a Estonia ee 659 n/a Latvia lv 180 n/a Lithuania lt 53 n/a n/a GNP figures not available Sources: Internet hosts: Mark Lottor, Network Wizards, GNP figures: Groliers Encyclopedia, Ratios: EMMS. *by permission to Internet Society ------------------------------ Date: Thu, 13 Aug 1994 22:51:01 CDT From: CuD Moderators Subject: File 9--Cu Digest Header Information (last changed 11 Sep '94) Cu-Digest is a weekly electronic journal/newsletter. 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