Computer underground Digest Sun Dec 13, 1992 Volume 4 : Issue 65 ISSN 1066-652X Editors: J

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Computer underground Digest Sun Dec 13, 1992 Volume 4 : Issue 65 ISSN 1066-652X Editors: Jim Thomas and Gordon Meyer (TK0JUT2@NIU.BITNET) Archivist: Brendan Kehoe Shadow-Archivists: Dan Carosone / Paul Southworth Ralph Sims / Jyrki Kuoppala Copy Editor: Etaion Shrdlu, Junior CONTENTS, #4.65 (Dec 13, 1992) File 1--DOJ Authorizes Keystroke Monitoring File 2--Teen "Computer Whiz" Strikes Store File 3--Enviro. Tech. Policy File 4--DELPHI Announces Full Access to the Internet File 5--Virus Destroyed Report on Drug Lord File 6--COM DAILY ON F.C.C. TRANSITION File 7--Virus Conference (ACMBUL) Call for Papers File 8--GRAY AREAS -- 'Zine Review File 9--Bibliography on codes and ciphers File 10--Comments on the Nov. 2600 Disruption in D.C. Cu-Digest is a weekly electronic journal/newsletter. Subscriptions are available at no cost from tk0jut2@mvs.cso.niu.edu. The editors may be contacted by voice (815-753-6430), fax (815-753-6302) or U.S. mail at: Jim Thomas, Department of Sociology, NIU, DeKalb, IL 60115. Issues of CuD can also be found in the Usenet comp.society.cu-digest news group; on CompuServe in DL0 and DL4 of the IBMBBS SIG, DL1 of LAWSIG, and DL0 and DL12 of TELECOM; on Genie in the PF*NPC RT libraries; from America Online in the PC Telecom forum under "computing newsletters;" on the PC-EXEC BBS at (414) 789-4210; in Europe from the ComNet in Luxembourg BBS (++352) 466893; and using anonymous FTP on the Internet from ftp.eff.org (192.88.144.4) in /pub/cud, red.css.itd.umich.edu (141.211.182.91) in /cud, halcyon.com (192.135.191.2) in /pub/mirror/cud, and ftp.ee.mu.oz.au (128.250.77.2) in /pub/text/CuD. European readers can access the ftp site at: nic.funet.fi pub/doc/cud. Back issues also may be obtained from the mail server at mailserv@batpad.lgb.ca.us. COMPUTER UNDERGROUND DIGEST is an open forum dedicated to sharing information among computerists and to the presentation and debate of diverse views. CuD material may be reprinted for non-profit as long as the source is cited. Some authors do copyright their material, and they should be contacted for reprint permission. It is assumed that non-personal mail to the moderators may be reprinted unless otherwise specified. Readers are encouraged to submit reasoned articles relating to computer culture and communication. Articles are preferred to short responses. Please avoid quoting previous posts unless absolutely necessary. DISCLAIMER: The views represented herein do not necessarily represent the views of the moderators. Digest contributors assume all responsibility for ensuring that articles submitted do not violate copyright protections. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Mon, 7 Dec 1992 22:48:06 +0000 From: Dave Banisar Subject: File 1--DOJ Authorizes Keystroke Monitoring CA-92:19 CERT Advisory December 7, 1992 Keystroke Logging Banner The CERT Coordination Center has received information from the United States Department of Justice, General Litigation and Legal Advice Section, Criminal Division, regarding keystroke monitoring by computer systems administrators, as a method of protecting computer systems from unauthorized access. The information that follows is based on the Justice Department's advice to all federal agencies. CERT strongly suggests adding a notice banner such as the one included below to all systems. Sites not covered by U.S. law should consult their legal counsel. +++++++++++++++++++ The legality of such monitoring is governed by 18 U.S.C. section 2510 et seq. That statute was last amended in 1986, years before the words "virus" and "worm" became part of our everyday vocabulary. Therefore, not surprisingly, the statute does not directly address the propriety of keystroke monitoring by system administrators. Attorneys for the Department have engaged in a review of the statute and its legislative history. We believe that such keystroke monitoring of intruders may be defensible under the statute. However, the statute does not expressly authorize such monitoring. Moreover, no court has yet had an opportunity to rule on this issue. If the courts were to decide that such monitoring is improper, it would potentially give rise to both criminal and civil liability for system administrators. Therefore, absent clear guidance from the courts, we believe it is advisable for system administrators who will be engaged in such monitoring to give notice to those who would be subject to monitoring that, by using the system, they are expressly consenting to such monitoring. Since it is important that unauthorized intruders be given notice, some form of banner notice at the time of signing on to the system is required. Simply providing written notice in advance to only authorized users will not be sufficient to place outside hackers on notice. An agency's banner should give clear and unequivocal notice to intruders that by signing onto the system they are expressly consenting to such monitoring. The banner should also indicate to authorized users that they may be monitored during the effort to monitor the intruder (e.g., if a hacker is downloading a user's file, keystroke monitoring will intercept both the hacker's download command and the authorized user's file). We also understand that system administrators may in some cases monitor authorized users in the course of routine system maintenance. If this is the case, the banner should indicate this fact. An example of an appropriate banner might be as follows: This system is for the use of authorized users only. Individuals using this computer system without authority, or in excess of their authority, are subject to having all of their activities on this system monitored and recorded by system personnel. In the course of monitoring individuals improperly using this system, or in the course of system maintenance, the activities of authorized users may also be monitored. Anyone using this system expressly consents to such monitoring and is advised that if such monitoring reveals possible evidence of criminal activity, system personnel may provide the evidence of such monitoring to law enforcement officials. ++++++++++++++++++++ Each site using this suggested banner should tailor it to their precise needs. Any questions should be directed to your organization's legal counsel. ++++++++++++++++++++ The CERT Coordination Center wishes to thank Robert S. Mueller, III, Scott Charney and Marty Stansell-Gamm from the United States Department of Justice for their help in preparing this Advisory. If you believe that your system has been compromised, contact the CERT Coordination Center or your representative in FIRST (Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams). Internet E-mail: cert@cert.org Telephone: 412-268-7090 (24-hour hotline) CERT personnel answer 7:30 a.m.-6:00 p.m. EST(GMT-5)/EDT(GMT-4), on call for emergencies during other hours. CERT Coordination Center Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 ------------------------------ Date: Thu, 26 Nov 92 10:57:18 CST From: ICEMAN@CCU.UMANITOBA.CA Subject: File 2--Teen "Computer Whiz" Strikes Store From--Winnipeg Free Press (Winnipeg,Manitoba,Canada) on Nov 26,1992: STAFF THREATENED, FILES RUINED AS TEEN COMPUTER WHIZ STRIKES By George Nikides Staff Reporter A teen hacker uncovered a hole in a downtown software shop's computer system and went on a rampage, destroying every file and threatening employees. "It's an ego thing. 'Boy look what i've accomplished,' " said Sgt. Dennis Loupin of the Winnipeg police fraud unit. "He's very, very intelligent. He's got a tremendous future in the computer world." An 18 year-old, who can't be named because he's charged under the Young Offender's Act, faces fraud charges. Police say a hacker discovered a "hole" - an opening that allows a user to circumvent a computer system's passwords - in the bulletin board program at Adventure Software Ltd., a Hargrave Street software shop. The computer whiz unlocked the program several times, at one point destroying every file. Bulletin Board The hacking is believed to have been carried out with an IBM-style computer from a home. Adventure Software offers a computer bulletin board where customers can communicate, read about news products, or leave messages from their home systems. The system has about 400 users, police say. An Adventure Software employee, who asked not to be identified, said threatening messages were left in the system, some suggesting that selling software was immoral. Some messages attacked a store employee. The system was out of operation at one point for 3 1/2 weeks, he said. But the employee said police are overstating the hacker's skills. "It doesn't take a genius to hear about a 'hole' in the program," said the man. The system was infiltrated four to six times, he said. "It's not crippling. It's just extremely annoying, " the employee said. By breaking into the system the computer bandit found home phone numbers and addresses, he said. Police say they are also investigating the teen in connection with break-ins at other systems across North America. Mischief "He's now going to have to face the consequences of something he thought was just a challenge but it's more than that - it's a crime, " said Loupin. A Victor Street teenager was arrested Tuesday night and charged with using a computer service to commit mischief, an offence that carries a maximum 10-year sentence. The teen is now 18, but police say he was 17 when the alleged crimes occured. ------------------------------ Date: Fri, 4 Dec 1992 14:33:31 EDT From: Rick Crawford Subject: File 3--Enviro. Tech. Policy Saw this on the net and found much of it relevant to various efforts to develop an explicit national technology policy (vs. a default, pork-barrel-driven policy vacuum). -rick ++++++++++ From--tgray@igc.apc.org (Tom Gray) Newsgroups--sci.environment Subject----Renewables Critical, Says WRI Date--2 Nov 92 15:49:00 GMT RENEWABLE ENERGY 'ENVIRONMENTALLY CRITICAL', SAYS NEW WRI REPORT Renewable energy technologies are part of a list of "environmentally critical" technologies that the federal government should support, according to a new report from the World Resources Institute, a Washington, DC, policy organization. The report, entitled Backs to the Future: U.S. Government Policy Toward Environmentally Critical Technology, was authored by George Heatton and Robert Repetto, and is billed by the Institute as "the first attempt in this country to define and identify areas of technological advance that would markedly reduce the environmental burdens of economic progress." The authors focus on government policy because it strongly influences the development of new technologies, "from research dollars and procurement decisions to infrastructure design and standard-setting," an Institute news release added. "Among the most promising environmental R&D areas," it said, " . . . are methods of non-fossil fuel energy production and use ... and hydrogen and other storage methods. Many such technologies, now in early stages of development, would yield large social returns from technical advances ... " Backs to the Future's recommendations, the release said, include the creating of a national research and development (R&D) institute, altering the missions of the national laboratories, and changing criteria for funding environmental R&D. Copies of Backs to the Future can be obtained for $9.95 plus $3 shipping and handling from WRI Publications, PO Box 4852, Hampden Station, Baltimore, MD 21211, USA, phone (800) 822-0504. ------------------------------ Date: 09 Dec 1992 00:13:55 -0500 (EST) From: "WALT HOWE, DELPHI INTERNET SIG MANAGER" Subject: File 4--DELPHI Announces Full Access to the Internet FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: DELPHI Online Service Announces Full Access to the Internet Cambridge MA, December 9, 1992 -- DELPHI, an international online service, today announced full access to the Internet including real-time electronic mail, file transfers with "FTP," and remote log-ins to other Internet hosts using "Telnet." With this announcement, DELPHI becomes the only leading consumer online service to offer such a wide variety of Internet features. Russell Williams, DELPHI's general manager, explains the significance of this announcement. "Prior to now, anyone interested in accessing the Internet had a very limited number of options. In most cases you had to be connected directly through your company or school. DELPHI is now an important low-cost access option available to home computer users. Anyone can connect to DELPHI with a local call from over 600 cities and towns throughout the US and in many other countries." The Internet is considered the world's largest computer network. It is comprised of thousands of companies, colleges, schools, government agencies, and other organizations. There are currently an estimated 4 million users. "This incredible collection of resources will mean better and more specialized services for all users" adds Mr. Williams. "For example, users can take electronic courses conducted by leading universities, access databases and reports from government agencies, and get product information and support directly from companies. There are also mailing lists and discussion groups for almost every special interest imaginable. Electronic mail can be used to send private messages to anyone on the Internet and even many commercial networks like Compuserve and MCI Mail." DELPHI's connection to the Internet works both ways: In addition to offering access out to other networks, DELPHI provides value-added services to people already on the Internet. Any user of the Internet can access DELPHI to use services such as Grolier's Academic American Encyclopedia, the Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Reuters and UPI newswires, stock quotes, computer support, travel reservations, special interest groups, real-time conferencing, downloadable programs, and multi-player games. All these services can be reached through the Internet simply by joining DELPHI and then telnetting to the address "delphi.com" via the commercial Internet. In order to help new users with questions related to the Internet, DELPHI has an area online to provide support. The Internet Special Interest Group (SIG) includes an active message forum where members and staff can exchange useful information. Comprehensive guide books, downloadable software, and information files are also available. DELPHI has two membership plans: the 10/4 Plan is $10 per month and includes the first 4 hours of use; additional use is $4 per hour. The 20/20 Advantage Plan is $20 per month, includes 20 hours of use, and is only $1.80 per hour for additional time. The Internet service option is an extra $3 per month and includes a generous transfer allocation of 10 megabytes (the equivalent of about 3,000 type-written pages). Access during business hours via Sprintnet or Tymnet carries a surcharge. Through a special trial membership offer, anyone interested in learning more about DELPHI and the Internet can receive 5 hours of access for free. To join, dial by modem, 1-800-365-4636 (current Internet users should telnet to "delphi.com" instead). After connecting, press return once or twice. At the Username prompt, enter JOINDELPHI and at the password prompt, type INTERNETSIG. DELPHI Member Service Representatives can also be reached by voice at 1-800-695-4005. DELPHI is a service of General Videotex Corporation, a leading developer of interactive and online services based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. For more information, call either of the above numbers or send email to Walt Howe, Internet SIG manager at walthowe@delphi.com. ------------------------------ Date: 05 Dec 92 15:51:46 EST From: Gordon Meyer <72307.1502@COMPUSERVE.COM> Subject: File 5--Virus Destroyed Report on Drug Lord Virus Destroyed Report on Drug Lord Say Colombian Officials Colombian politicians allege a mysterious computer virus this week wiped out conclusions of a Senate investigation into the jailbreak of cocaine king Pablo Escobar just hours before the data was due to be presented. Reports from various committee members call the virus the "ghost of La Catedral," a reference to the prison from which Escobar and nine of his lieutenants escaped on July 22 during a bungled military operation to transfer them to another prison. "The committee's conclusions, reached after more than two months of investigation, supposedly held top military officials, ministers and former ministers responsible for the escape." REPRINTED FROM STREPORT #8.46 WITH PERMISSION ------------------------------ Date: Tue, 8 Dec 1992 12:27:28 CST From: LOVE%TEMPLEVM@PSUVM.PSU.EDU Subject: File 6--COM DAILY ON F.C.C. TRANSITION >From Discussion of Government Document Issues * Communications Daily article on Clinton transition appointment for Federal Communications Commission (F.C.C.) The following article, written by Art Brodsky (202/872-9202, x252), is reprinted from the December 7, 1992 issue of Communications Daily, with permission. Communications Daily is published by Warren Publishing, Inc., 2115 Ward Court, N.W. Washington, DC 20037. `Far End of Spectrum' PLESSER TRANSITION APPOINTMENT DRAWS FIRE Public interest groups friday criticized naming of Washington attorney Ronald Plesser to head up communications issues for Clinton transition effort (CD Dec4, p1). Groups said Plesser, partner in Washington office of Baltimore law firm Piper & Marbury, represents clients that characterize Washington special interests. As might be expected, Plesser's appointment was defended by Clinton confidants. Plesser will head one of 2 groups in science and technology transition section led by ex-astronaut Sally Ride. Other group in Ride's section will evaluate hard science agencies such as NASA and National Science Foundation. Those transition groups were established to assess policies and agencies, not to make appointment recommendations. Personnel matters for permanent jobs are to be handled by ex-S.C. Gov. Richard Riley (CD Nov 20 p1). Clinton confidants praised Plesser's designation. "He's the right guy," we were told. "He'll take a snapshot of the agency," covering budget needs, personnel and similar matters. Transition team "will look to Ron for insights. He's the guy." Referring to much speculation in press about what Clinton has in mind and who his appointments might be, source said: "I wonder what on earth motivates some of this stuff...most of which is wildly inaccurate." Most criticism of Plesser centers on his advocacy on behalf of Direct Marketing Assn. (DMA) and Information Industry Assn. (IIA), particularly for advocating private sector control of databases constructed by public agencies. Taxpayer Assets Project Dir. James Love said Plesser "himself is the architect of the basic privatization policies that came about in the Reagan Administration." Plesser, he said, is "most ferocious opponent of librarians, citizen groups and the research community, who want to broaden public access to government, taxpayer-supported information systems. He's the devil himself when it comes to government information policy." Similarly, Marc Rotenberg, dir. of Washington office of Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR), said that "while there is personal regard for Ron Plesser, there is not happiness about this decision." Rotenberg said that Plesser's clients have great deal at stake at FCC, including decisions on 800 number portability and automatic number identification (ANI) that affect direct marketers, as well as on video dial tone and access to networks. Plesser represents "a far end of the spectrum in the policy debates," Rotenberg said. He said CPSR's main concerns are in areas of privacy protection, public access to govt. information, communications infrastructure. In each of those areas, "Ron has been from our viewpoint on the opposite side of the issue." Rotenberg said that if transition effort is merely to be brief fact-finding exercise, Clinton team could have sought out "someone with less bias," perhaps in academic community. Jeff Chester, co-dir. of Center for Media Education, said his group is "very concerned" about Plesser because "of the special interest lobbying baggage he carries with him." Chester said his group believes that Plesser's appointment "places an extra burden, a double duty on the Clinton Administration, to find people for the FCC and other telecommunications policy positions who don't come with any kind of lobbying baggage and reflect the kind of public interest concerns the Commission definitely needs." Transition team still having difficulty deciding how to apply its proposed tough ethics requirements for Presidential appointees (CD Nov 5 p1). There's still been no decision as "to how deep the 5-year restriction will be applied," we're told. That means, according to sources, restrictions--when they finally come out--may not go below Cabinet level. As for FCC appointees and top staffers (such as bureau chiefs) brought in, it hasn't been decided whether attempt will be made to extend period they couldn't practice or lobby agency to 5 years from one year. Proposal has been roundly criticized by Democrats who are know to be, or expect to be, in line for top jobs in Clinton Administration. ------------------------------ Date: Thu, 10 Dec 92 17:28:07 EST From: sara@GATOR.USE.COM(Sara Gordon) Subject: File 7--Virus Conference (ACMBUL) Call for Papers C A L L F O R P A P E R S ACMBUL's 1st INTERNATIONAL COMPUTER VIRUS PROBLEMS AND ALTERNATIVES CONFERENCE April, 1993 - Varna, Bulgaria The purpose of the 1993 International Computer Virus Conference is to provide a forum for anti-virus product developers, researchers and academicians to exchange information among themselves, the students, the public and the industry. ICVC'93 will consist of open forums, distinguished keynote speakers, and the presentation of high-quality accepted papers. A high degree of interaction and discussion among Conference participants is expected, as a workshop-like setting is promoted. Because ICVC'93 is a not-for-profit activity funded primarily by registration fees, all participants are expected to have their organizations bear the costs of their expenses and registration. Accommodations will be available at reduced rates for conference participants. WHO SHOULD ATTEND The conference is intended for computer security researchers, managers, advisors, EDP auditors, network administrators, and help desk personnel from government and industry, as well as other information technology professionals interested in computer security. CONFERENCE THEME This Conference, devoted to advances in virus prevention, will encompass developments in both theory and practice. Papers are invited in the areas shown and may be theoretical, conceptual, tutorial or descriptive in nature. Submitted papers will be refereed, and those presented at the Conference will be included in the proceedings. Possible topics of submissions include, but are not restricted to: o Virus Detection o Virus Trends and Forecast o Virus Removal o Virus Prevention Policies o Recovering from Viruses o Incident Reporting o Viruses on various platforms o Emergency Response (Windows, Unix, LANs, WANs, etc.) o Viruses and the Law o Virus Genealogy o Education & Training o The "Virusology" as scientific o Costs of virus protection discipline o Communications and viruses o Psychological aspects of computer viruses THE REFEREEING PROCESS All papers and panel proposals received by the submission deadline and which meet submission requirements will be considered for presentation at the Conference. All papers presented at ICVC'93 will be included in the Conference proceedings, copies of which will be provided to Conference attendees. All papers presented, will also be included in proceedings to be published by the ACMBUL. INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS [1] Two (2) copies of the full paper, consisting of up-to 20 double-spaced, typewritten quality pages, including diagrams, must be received no later than 28 February 1993. [2] The language of the Conference is English. [3] The first page of the manuscript should include the title of the paper, full name of all authors, their complete addresses including affiliation, telephone numbers and e-mail addresses, as well as an abstract of the paper. [4] Authors willing to submit their manuscripts electronically should contact the Organizering Committee at the address below. IMPORTANT DATES o Full papers to be received in camera-ready form by the Organizing Committee by 28 February 1993. o Notification of accepted papers will be mailed to the author on or before 10 March 1993. o Conference: 5-11 April 1993, St. Konstantine Resort, Varna, Bulgaria WHOM TO CONTACT Questions or matters related to the Conference Program should be directed to the ACMBUL: ICVC'93 Attn: Mr. Nickolay Lyutov ACMBUL Office Varna University of Economics 77 Boris I Blvd, 9002 P.O.Box 3 Varna Bulgaria Telephone/Fax: +359-52-236213 ICVC93@acmbul.bg +++++ # "talk to me about computer viruses............" # fax/voice: 219-277-8599 sara@gator.use.com # data 219-273-2431 SGordon@Dockmaster.ncsc.mil # fidomail 1:227/190 vfr@netcom.com ------------------------------ Date: Sun, 13 Dec 92 20:38:01 EST From: Moderators Subject: File 8--GRAY AREAS -- 'Zine Review We've come across another new periodical, GRAY AREAS, that promises to be a useful resource for anybody interested in counter-culture or alternative lifestyles. As the name implies, GRAY AREAS intends to focus on a broad range of topics that normally fall between the cracks of conventional magazines, especially in the realm of technology, music, video, art, and other snippets of (unconventional) culture. According to the editorial statement of purpose: GRAY AREAS exists to examine the gray areas of life. We hope to unite people involved in all sorts of alternative lifestyles and deviant subcultures. We are everywhere! We feel that the government has done a great job of splitting people up so that we do not identify with other minority groups anymore. There are so many causes now that we often do not talk to others not directly involved in our chosen causes. We believe that the methods used to catch criminals are the same regardless of the crime and that much can be learned by studying how crimes in general are prosecuted and how people's morals are judged. It is our mission to educate people so they begin to care more about the world around them. Please join our efforts by subscribing, advertising your business with us and by spreading the word about what we're up to. The first issue (Fall, 1992) includes snippets of news, reviews of books, alternative magazines, music, and videos, and other nifty esoteria. Two feature-interviews captivated us. The first, with John Barlow (by editor and publisher Netta Gilboa), is incisive and ranges from The Grateful Dead to the EFF. The second, also by Gilboa, is with former "X-rated" movie queen Kay Parker. The latter is a sensitive look at the changes she has gone through in the past 20 years. The tenor of both interviews, as with much of the magazine itself, is about personal and social transformation as we, and society, move through a succession of phases as we age and change. Upcoming features include an article on Howard Stern (New York "shock-DJ"), audio sampling, law enforcement search & seizure, interviews with John Trubee about prank phone calls, Jefferson Airplane/Hot Tuna guitarist Jorma Kaukonen, porn director Candida Royalle, criminal attorney and professional musician Barry Melton (an original member of Country Joe & The Fish), and an interview with Bob Dobbs. Some of the items reviewed in issue 2 will include a tape sold to police departments on how to seize computers, and Bruce Sterling's _Speaking_ _For_ _The_ _Unspeakable_, Mystic Fire's _Cyberpunk_. The editors also plan to include an on-going series on viruses and offer anonymity to virus writers and software crackers willing to discuss their views of the issues. The type of topics--rock music, films, off-beat cultural interests--are the type that easily encourage fluff pieces and superficial treatment. But, if the first issue of GRAY AREAS is representative of what's to follow, there will be no fluff here. The 'Zine seems targeted to BBWBs (baby-boomers with brains) and appears intended to reflect changing times with commentary and analysis by those making the changes. A one-year (four issue) subscription is available for $18 (US) or $24 (foreign), and a twelve-issue sub is $50 (US) or $75 (foreign). The editors, Netta Gilboa and Alan Sheckter, can be contacted through e-mail at GRAYAREA@WELL.SF.CA.US For subscriptions, submissions, or other information, write: GRAY AREAS PO Box 808 Broomall, PA 19008-0808 ------------------------------ Date: Sun, 6 Dec 92 07:47 EST From: "Michael E. Marotta" Subject: File 9--Bibliography on codes and ciphers number 006 CLACKER'S DIGEST December 6, 1992. philosophy and applications for analytical engines +++++++++++++++++++++++++ A Cryptography Bibliography by mercury@well.sf.ca.us (Technically, cryptography is MAKING codes while cryptanalysis is BREAKING them. Both are subsumed under cryptology. A CIPHER is a regular transposition such as A=Z, B=Y, etc., while a CODE is a table of arbitrary symbols.) Kahn, David, THE CODEBREAKERS, MacMillan, 1967. The MOST complete history with specific examples. Written before public keys, RSA, etc., but still THE place to start. Marotta, Michael, THE CODE BOOK, Loompanics, 1987, Overview of history and post-1967 developments. Sinkov, Abraham, ELEMENTARY CRYPTANALYSIS: A MATHEMATICAL APPROACH, Random House, 1968. Sinkov worked for Friedman on the breaking of Purple. First rate. Gaines, Helen Fouche, CRYPTANALYSIS, Dover, 1956. A classic work. The first step to breaking codes and ciphers. Lysing, Henry, SECRET WRITING, Dover, 1974. Another reprint of another classic. Smith, Laurence Dwight, CRYPTOGRAPHY, Dover, 1955. Ditto. Konheim, Alan G., CRYPTOGRAPHY: A PRIMER, John Wiley, 1981. Textbook for mathematicians from IBM's Watson Center. Includes public keys, digital signatures. Meyer, Carl H., and Matyas Stephen M., CRYPTOGRAPHY, John Wiley, 1982. From IBM Cryptography Competency Center. For computers, includes public keys, digital signatures. Weber, Ralph E., UNITED STATES DIPLOMATIC CODES AND CIPHERS 1775-1938, Precedent, 1979. Not just a history! The appendix contains the all the keys!! Chadwick, THE DECIPHERMENT OF LINEAR B, Vintage, 1958. Worked with Michael Ventris on unraveling Minoan script. Yardley, Herbert O., THE AMERICAN BLACK CHAMBER, Ballantine 1981, Random House, 1931. Yardley broke German ciphers in WWI and then Japanese ciphers of 1920, and was fired in 1931 because "Gentlemen don't read each other's mail." (anonymous), THE DATA ENCRYPTION STANDARD, National Bureau of Standards, January 1977, NTIS NBS-FIPS PUB 46. (anonymous), DATA SECURITY AND THE DATA ENCRYPTION STANDARD, National Bureau of Standards, 1978, Pub 500-27; CODEN: XNBSAV. Rivest, Ronald L., Shamir, A., and Adleman, L., "A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public-key Cryptosystems," COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM, February, 1979. The last word. ------------------------------ Date: 13 Dec 92 14:00:21 EST From: Emmanuel Goldstein Subject: File 10--Comments on the Nov. 2600 Disruption in D.C. ((MODERATORS' NOTE: Following is a letter to the editor of the Washington Post that they chose not to print as a "Viewpoint." The author, Emmanuel Goldstein, is editor of the magazine 2600, which can be contacted at 2600 Magazine - PO Box 752 - Middle Island, NY 11953. A yearly subscription is only $21 (US)). While managing to convey some of the facts concerning the Pentagon City Mall hacker incident on November 6, "Hackers Allege Harassment at Mall" (November 13, page A1) fails to focus on the startling revelation of federal government involvement and the ominous implications of such an action. The article also does little to lessen the near hysteria that is pumped into the general public every time the word "hacker" is mentioned. Let us take a good look at what has been confirmed so far. A group of computer hackers gathered at a local mall as they do once a month. Similar meetings have been going on in other cities for years without incident. This gathering was not for the purposes of causing trouble and nobody has accused the hackers of doing anything wrong. Rather, the gathering was simply a place to meet and socialize. This is what people seem to do in food courts and it was the hackers' intention to do nothing more. When mall security personnel surrounded the group and demanded that they all submit to a search, it became very clear that something bizarre was happening. Those who resisted were threatened with arrest. Everyone's names were written down, everyone's bags gone through. One person attempted to write down the badge numbers of the people doing this. The list was snatched out of his hand and ripped to pieces. Another hacker attempted to catch the episode on film. He was apprehended and the film was ripped from his camera. School books, notepads, and personal property were seized. Much of it has still not been returned. The group was held for close to an hour and then told to stay out of the mall or be arrested. This kind of treatment is enough to shock most people, particularly when coupled with the overwhelming evidence and eyewitness accounts confirming no unusual or disruptive behavior on the part of the group. It is against everything that our society stands for to subject people to random searches and official intimidation, simply because of their interests, lifestyles, or the way they look. This occurrence alone would warrant condemnation of a blatant abuse of power. But the story doesn't end there. The harassment of the hackers by the mall police was only the most obvious element. Where the most attention should be focused at this point is on the United States Secret Service which, according to Al Johnson, head of mall security, "ramrodded" the whole thing. Other media sources, such as the industry newsletter Communications Daily, were told by Johnson that the Secret Service was all over the mall that day and that they had, in effect, ordered the harassment. Arlington police confirm that the Secret Service was at the mall that day. It is understood that the Secret Service, as a branch of the Treasury Department, investigates credit card fraud. Credit card fraud, in turn, can be accomplished through computer crime. Some computer hackers could conceivably use their talents to accomplish computer crime. Thus we arrive at the current Secret Service policy, which appears to treat everybody in the hacker world as if they were a proven counterfeiter. This feeling is grounded in misperceptions and an apprehension that borders on panic. Not helping the situation any is the everpresent generation gap - most hackers are young and most government officials are not. Apart from being disturbed by the gross generalizations that comprise their policy, it seems a tremendous waste of resources to use our Secret Service to spy on public gatherings in shopping malls. It seems certain to be a violation of our rights to allow them to disrupt these meetings and intimidate the participants, albeit indirectly. Like any other governmental agency, it is expected that the Secret Service follow the rules and not violate the constitutional rights of citizens. If such actions are not publicly condemned, we will in effect be granting a license for their continuance and expansion. The incident above sounds like something from the darkest days of the Soviet Union when human rights activists were intimidated by government agents and their subordinates. True, these are technology enthusiasts, not activists. But who they are is not the issue. We cannot permit governmental abuse of any person or group simply because they may be controversial. Why do hackers evoke such controversy? Their mere presence is an inconvenience to those who want so desperately to believe the emperor is wearing clothes. Hackers have a tendency of pointing out the obvious inadequacies of the computer systems we entrust with such a large and growing part of our lives. Many people don't want to be told how flimsily these various systems are held together and how so much personal data is readily available to so many. Because hackers manage to demonstrate how simple it is to get and manipulate this information, they are held fully responsible for the security holes themselves. But, contrary to most media perceptions, hackers have very little interest in looking at other people's personal files. Ironically, they tend to value privacy more than the rest of us because they know firsthand how vulnerable it is. Over the years, hackers have gone to the media to expose weaknesses in our credit reporting agencies, the grading system for New York City public schools, military computer systems, voice mail systems, and even commonly used pushbutton locks that give a false sense of security. Not one of these examples resulted in significant media attention and, consequently, adequate security was either delayed or not implemented at all. Conversely, whenever the government chooses to prosecute a hacker, most media attention focuses on what the hacker "could have done" had he been malicious. This reinforces the inaccurate depiction of hackers as the major threat to our privacy and completely ignores the failure of the system itself. By coming out publicly and meeting with other hackers and non-hackers in an open atmosphere, we have dispelled many of the myths and helped foster an environment conducive to learning. But the message we received at the Pentagon City Mall tells us to hide, be secretive, and not trust anybody. Perhaps that's how the Secret Service wants hackers to behave. But we are not criminals and we refuse to act as such simply because we are perceived that way by uninformed bureaucrats. Regardless of our individual outlooks on the hacker issue, we should be outraged and extremely frightened to see the Secret Service act as they did. Whether or not we believe that hackers are decent people, we must agree that they are entitled to the same constitutional freedoms the rest of us take for granted. Any less is tantamount to a very dangerous and ill-advised precedent. ------------------------------ End of Computer Underground Digest #4.65 ************************************

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