By: Simon Ewins To: Johnny Mckinney Re: Check It Out... JM+gt; This is a more kinder way o

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By: Simon Ewins To: Johnny Mckinney Re: Check It Out... JM> This is a more kinder way of the NT saying JM> that homosexuality is not right. And if it is genetic, and if your god created such genetic characteristics when it created mankind then how will you rationalize your bigotry? The following is excerpted from an essay by Liz Saunders: "There are certain biophysical aspects of us, as humans, which are under strict biological control and no amount of socialization can change them. For example, a person who has been frightened will have an adrenaline surge that prepares the body for a fight or flight response. Although our culturalization/socialization teaches us acceptable methods of dealing with this biological phenomena, the initial reaction that leads to the learned response is nonetheless biological. Another similar example is that of a lactating woman who physically reacts to the sound of her own baby's cry by producing oxytocin, which leads to a "letting down" of milk in preparation for feeding. This will only happen when her own child cries and not at the sound of any other child. When it comes to gender identification and sexual behaviour our hormones play a large part in our lives from conception. In the early stages of life, all foetus' are gonadally female. Once the hormones begin to develop, based on our chromosomal sex, male foetus' begin to be differentiated. Dr. Richard Green studied a society with a hormonal anomaly in the Dominican Republic. Some males are missing one masculinizing hormone prior to birth, so are raised female. At puberty, these children become "masculinized" by their hormones and apparently, make the transition to male (Green 1987:43-4) thereby overcoming their early socialization through their biology. Dr. Green suggests that their brains were in fact 'organized' male before birth so that the transition is easy (ibid). One hormone, testosterone, is found in both sexes, and is the catalyst of aggression, physical prowess and libido. Although women's bodies do produce differing levels of testosterone "varying with the phase of the menstrual cycle" (Hoyenga 1979:139), men's bodies regularly produce more. Numerous studies on animals have shown that injecting either sex with testosterone will increase its aggression levels. Over the years male and female athletes have used testosterone and other steroids to improve their physical performance and stamina and gain an aggressive "winning edge". With prolonged testosterone use, the female athletes also become very masculinized in appearance. Although human females do not experience an annual "season" or estrus as do other mammals, we do still experience hormonal cycles on a monthly basis which affect our behaviour, as evidenced by recent studies of premenstrual syndrome. "Aggression in women has also been related to the premenstrual syndrome, a time when estrogen, progesterone and testosterone levels are rapidly falling" (ibid:139). For sub-primate animals, neither males nor females can control their behavioural responses to the female estrus cycle. During certain parts of the cycle "females lose interest in sex ... and... males lose interest in them" (ibid:126) Alternatively, when a female is "in heat", males can't ignore her. Although we have the ability to reason and therefore "control" our biology, or at least our reaction to it, which animals do not, this does not negate the biology. There are a few conditions where the biological building blocks provided for an individual are abnormal such as Kleinfelter's syndrome and extra "Y" chromosomes for males, or Turner's syndrome and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) for females. Males suffering from Klinefelter's syndrome "have both the male (XY) and the female (XX) chromosome pattern...[and]... are usually referred to as pseudohermaphrodites" (ibid:33). They have physical abnormalities (sexual and non-sexual characteristics); electroencephalographs frequently show "aberrations, indicative of some disorder of brain cell functioning"; and social/emotional problems (ibid). The latter may be related to gender identity, as some of the physical abnormalities are the development of female secondary sexual characteristics, and lack of adult development of male secondary sex characteristics. Although, Klinefelter's males show lower levels of testosterone than the general male population, they have an abnormally high incidence of incarceration, either in penal or psychiatric institutions (ibid:35). It is impossible to say definitively whether the social and emotion difficulties experienced by Klinefelter's males are a direct biological/psychological response to cultural stimulus or cultural reaction to cultural stimulus, but, if the Klinefelter's syndrome was not present, with its biologically determined abnormalities, then in a great number of instances, the resulting confusion and even incarceration would probably not occur. Men with extra Y chromosomes (XYY or XYYY) tend to be the most aggressive group. "The XYY male,... has been characterized as impulsive and as having a low tolerance for frustration or anxiety (Nielsen and Christensen, 1974)." (ibid:36) It is believed that some of the most dangerous criminals are XYY or XYYY. Many surveys have been done trying to prove that the extra Y chromosome is the "criminal" chromosome. Nielsen and Christensen (1974) concluded that it was, Jacobs (1971) found "there was no significant difference found between the incidence of males with an abnormality of the sex chromosomes in particular with an XYY complement in these establishments [prisons and psychiatric hospitals].. and the incidence of such males among the newborn" (ibid:37). Therefore, the evidence is inconclusive, but intriguing. Another biological aberration is Turner's syndrome. Turner's syndrome females have only one X chromosome instead of two. They too suffer from physical abnormalities (short stature, infantile sexual development, including infertility in most cases). In a 1972 study Money and Ehrhardt "found that Turner's girls were less athletic and fought less in childhood, but had a greater interest in jewelry, perfume and hair styling. Theilgaard (1972) also found that Turner's women dressed so as to exaggerate their gender identity." (ibid:30) Further, Turner's women tend to score lower on "tests of spatial ability" (Liss 1983:28, Hoyenga 1979:30) than their "normal" female contemporaries and can become easily confused regarding the location of objects and themselves in relation to their environment. Much recent study has gone into the biological causes of homosexuality. Richard Pillard believes there is a definite hereditary aspect to homosexuality and that he is uniquely qualified to search for it as he, his brother, his sister and probably his father are gay, and he has a bi-sexual daughter. (Burr 1993:60) Early experimentation with artificially created "homosexual" rats demonstrated that after treatment with "electrolytic lesions of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, a nucleus close to the stalk of the pituitary gland and also in close proximity to those centers that regulate gonadotropin secretion, and thereby sex hormone production...male mating behaviour prevails [where previously female mating behaviour had been present]. (D”rner, 1976, pp. 139-140)" (Parsons 1980:110). In recent studies Dick Swaab of the Netherlands Institute for Brain Research, reported in 1990 that "the suprachiasmatic nucleus [in the hypothalamus] was nearly twice as large in homosexual men as it was in heterosexual men" (Burr 1993:52). These tests follow on the heels of tests by Roger Gorski on the hypothalamus of rats which showed that these same cells were "five times larger in volume in the male rat than in the female" (ibid) Further tests were carried out by Simon Levay of the Salk Institute who states "the discovery that a nucleus differs in size between heterosexual and homosexual men illustrates that sexual orientation in humans is amenable to study at the biological level." (ibid:55) There is also a suggestion that male homosexuals are "unfinished" males, inasmuch as there may have been missing hormones or insufficient quantities of certain hormones so that the female foetus does not make a complete transition to male. The analogous argument for lesbians is that there was an overabundance of certain male hormones, leading to a certain masculinization (such as in CAH)." I hope that this helps you to, perhaps learn to, react through understanding and knowledge rather than through misinformation and bigoted opinions put forward by those who fear that which they do not understand.

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