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Xref: helios.physics.utoronto.ca sci.med.physics:2461 sci.answers:1480 news.answers:27584 Path: admin-one.radbio.mcw.edu!user From: jmoulder@its.mcw.edu (John Moulder) Newsgroups: sci.med.physics,sci.answers,news.answers Subject: Powerlines & Cancer FAQs 5/6: Biblio 1 Supersedes: Followup-To: sci.med.physics Date: Mon, 15 Aug 1994 16:38:45 -0600 Organization: Medical College of Wisconsin Lines: 555 Approved: new-answers-request@MIT.edu Distribution: world Expires: 12 Sep 1994 00:00:00 GMT Message-ID: References: Reply-To: jmoulder@its.mcw.edu (John Moulder) NNTP-Posting-Host: admin-one.radbio.mcw.edu Summary: Annotated bibliography on the connection between powerlines, electrical occupations and cancer. Keywords: powerlines, magnetic fields, cancer, EMF, non-ionizing radiation, FAQ, bibliography, references Archive-name: powerlines-cancer-FAQ/part5 Last-modified: 1994/8/15 Version: 2.6a Maintainer: jmoulder@its.mcw.edu Annotated Bibliography on Powerlines and Cancer (Part 1 of 2) A) Recent Reviews of the Biological and Health Effects of Power- Frequency Fields A1) Electromagnetic field health effects, Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering, Hartford, CT, 1992. "Absolute proof of the occurrence of adverse effects of ELF fields at prevailing magnitudes cannot be found in the available evidence, and the same evidence does not permit a judgment that adverse effects could not occur... If adverse health effects from residential magnetic field exposure exist, they are not likely to make a large contribution.² A2) JG Davis et al: Health Effects of Low-Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields. Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 1992. " ...there is no convincing evidence in the published literature to support the contention that exposure to extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields generated by sources such as household appliances, video display terminals, and local power lines are demonstrable health hazards.² A3) JI Aunon et al: Investigations in power-frequency EMF and its risk to health: A review of the scientific literature, Universities Consortium on Electromagnetic Fields, 1992. "the conclusions from this review highlights the absence of health effects directly related to 60 Hz alternating current EMF on humans." A4) PA Buffler et al: Health effects of exposure to powerline-frequency electric and magnetic fields, Public Utility Commission of Texas, Austin, 1992. "no conclusive evidence to suggest that EMF due to electric power transmission lines poses a human health hazard." A5) JA Dennis et al: Human Health and Exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation (NRPB-R241), National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, 1993. "the bulk of the evidence points to there being no effects at levels to which people are normally exposed". A6) P Guenel & J Lellouch: [Synthesis of the literature on health effects from very low frequency electric and magnetic fields], National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), Paris, 1993. "laboratory studies have never shown any carcinogenic effect [but] the epidemiological results presently available do not permit exclusion of a role for magnetic fields in the incidence of leukemia, particularly in children... The effect of magnetic fields on human health remains a research problem. It will only become a public health problem if definite effects are confirmed." A7) J. Roucayrol: [Report on extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields and health]. Bull Acad Nat Med 177:1031-1040, 1993. "There is no conclusive evidence linking EMF to reproductive and teratogenic effects, and/or that EMF has a role in the initiation, promotion or progression of certain cancers, even though some data cannot exclude this possibility... reported associations between EMF and certain pathologies like leukemia and other childhood and adult cancers cannot be supported by current epidemiological data." B) Reviews of the Epidemiology of Exposure to Power-Frequency Fields B1) M Coleman & V Beral: A review of epidemiological studies of the health effects of living near or working with electrical generation and transmission equipment. Int J Epidem 17:1-13, 1988. Review of both occupational and residential studies, including meta- analysis showing a small but significant excess of leukemia in electrical occupations. B2) D Trichopoulos, Epidemiological studies of cancer and extremely low- frequency electric and magnetic field exposures, In: Health effects of low-frequency electric and magnetic fields, JG Davis et al, editors, Oak Ridge Assoc Univ, Oak Ridge, pp. V1-V58, 1992. Meta-analysis of occupational exposure studies indicating small but statistically significant relative risks for leukemia and brain cancer. B3) G.B. Hutchison: Cancer and exposure to electric power. Health Environ Digest 6:1-4, 1992. Meta-analysis of residential exposure studies shows a significant excess for childhood brain cancer, but not for childhood leukemia or lymphoma. Analysis also shows an excess of leukemia and brain cancer in electrical occupations, but no significant excess of lymphoma or overall cancer. B4) R Doll et al, Electromagnetic Fields and the Risk of Cancer, NRPB, Chilton, 1992. Includes a meta-analysis of the childhood cancer data. For leukemia, the analysis shows a significant elevation when wirecodes are used to assess exposure, but not when distances or measured fields are used. For brain cancer, the analysis shows a significant elevation when wirecodes or distance are used to assess exposure, but not when measured fields are used. For all childhood cancer the analysis shows a significant elevation when wirecodes or measurements are used to assess exposure, but not when distance is used. B5) A Ahlbom et al: Electromagnetic fields and childhood cancer. Lancet 343:1295-1296, 1993. Pooled analysis of the Scandinavian childhood cancer studies indicates that if calculated historic power-line fields are used as a measure of exposure, a small but statistically significant increase is seen in the incidence of leukemia, but no statistically significant increase is seen in the incidence of CNS cancer, lymphoma, or overall cancer. B6) DA Savitz et al: Update on methodological issues in the epidemiology of electromagnetic fields and cancer. Epidem Rev 15:558- 566, 1993. Review of the occupational and residential exposure studies, and a consideration of methodological issues, particularly control selection and exposure assessment issues. Discussion of some flaws in the argument that historical increases in electrical consumption should have caused increase in the overall incidence of cancer if there were a true causal connection. C) Epidemiology of Residential Exposure to Power-Frequency Fields C1) N Wertheimer & E Leeper: Electrical wiring configurations and childhood cancer. Am J Epidem 109:273-284, 1979. Case-control study of childhood leukemia and brain cancer using type of powerlines (wirecodes) as an index of exposure. A significant excess of leukemia and brain cancer were reported. C2) N Wertheimer & E Leeper: Adult cancer related to electrical wires near the home. Int J Epidem 11:345-355, 1982. Case-control study of adult cancer. Significant excess reported for total cancer and brain cancer, but not for leukemia. C3) JP Fulton et al: Electrical wiring configurations and childhood leukemia in Rhode Island. Am J Epidem 111:292-296, 1980. Case-control study using wire-dose as an index of exposure. No excess of child leukemia found. C4) ME McDowall: Mortality of persons resident in the vicinity of electrical transmission facilities. Br J Cancer 53:271-279, 1986. Standardized mortality ratio study of persons in the UK living within 50 m (150 ft) of a substation or 30 m (100 ft) from a transmission line vs national data base. No increase in overall cancer, leukemia, or female breast cancer. No dose-response relationship between proximity to wires and cancer incidence. C5) L Tomenius: 50-Hz electromagnetic environment and the incidence of childhood tumors in Stockholm County. BEM 7:191-207, 1986. Case-control study of childhood cancer using proximity to electrical equipment as indices of exposure. Proximity to 200 kV lines was associated with significant excess of total cancer, but proximity to other types of electrical equipment carried no significant excess risk. No significant excess of leukemia or brain cancer for any index of exposure. C6) DA Savitz et al: Case-control study of childhood cancer and exposure to 60-Hz magnetic fields. Am J Epidem 128:21-38, 1988. Case-control study of childhood leukemia and brain cancer in Denver, using measurements and wirecodes as indices of exposure. Possibly significant excess of leukemia for high-current-configuration wirecodes, but no excess incidence for measured fields. Significant excess of brain cancer for high-current-configuration wirecodes, but no excess incidence for measured fields. C7) RK Severson et al: Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia and residential exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields. Am J Epidem 128:10-20, 1988. Case-control study of childhood leukemia in Washington state, using measurements and wirecodes as indices of exposure. No excess leukemia for wirecode or measured fields. C8) MP Coleman et al: Leukemia and residence near electricity transmission equipment: a case-control study. Br J Cancer 60:793-798, 1989. Case-control study of childhood and adult leukemia, using proximity to powerlines and transformers as an exposure index. No significant excess of leukemia was found. C9) A Myers et al: Childhood cancer and overhead powerlines: a case- control study. Br J Cancer 62:1008-1014, 1990. Case-control study of childhood and adult leukemia, using proximity to powerlines as an exposure index. No significant excess of leukemia, solid tumors or all cancer was found. C10) SJ London et al: Exposure to residential electric and magnetic fields and risk of childhood leukemia. Am J Epidem 134:923-937, 1991. Case-control study of childhood leukemia in Los Angeles, using measurements and wirecodes as indices of exposure. Significant excess of leukemia for high current configuration wirecodes, but no excess risk for measured fields. C11) JHAM Youngson et al: A case/control study of adult haematological malignancies in relation to overhead powerlines. Br J Cancer 63:977-985, 1991. Case-control study of adult leukemia and lymphoma using proximity to powerlines and estimated fields as measures of exposure. No significant excess of cancer found. C12) JE Vena et al: Use of electric blankets and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Amer J Epidemiol 134:180-185, 1991. Case-control study of the relationship between electric blanket use and breast cancer using data from the New York state cancer registry; no excess risk of breast cancer was found. C13) M Feychting & A Ahlbom: [Cancer and magnetic fields in persons living close to high voltage power lines in Sweden]. Läkartidningen 89:4371-4374, 1992. Case-control study of everyone who lived within 1000 feet of high- voltage powerlines; contains material on adult exposure not in the 1993 publication. No increased leukemia or brain cancer was found for adults when exposure was based on measured fields, distance from power lines or retrospective field calculations. C14) JM Peters et al: Exposure to residential electric and magnetic fields and risk of childhood leukemia. Rad Res 133:131-132, 1993. Discussion of the implications of finding a correlation of cancer with wire-codes, but not with measured fields. There could be a true association masked by a methodological bias in the measurement technique. There could be a true association, but average and/or spot fields might not be the correct exposure metric. Lastly, there might be selection bias in the control group, or a confounder. C15) PJ Verkasalo et al: Risk of cancer in Finnish children living close to power lines. BMJ 307:895-899, 1993. Cohort study of cancer in children in Finland living within 500 m of high-voltage lines. Calculated retrospective fields used to define exposure. No statistically significant increase in overall cancer incidence was found. A significant increase in brain cancer in boys was due entirely to one exposed boy who developed three brain tumors. No significant increases were found for brain tumors in girls or for leukemia, lymphomas or "other" tumors in either sex. C16) JH Olsen et al: Residence near high voltage facilities and risk of cancer in children. BMJ 307:891-895, 1993. Case-control study of childhood cancer in Denmark. Exposure was assessed on the basis of calculated fields. No overall increase in cancer was found when 2.5 mG (0.25 microT) was used define exposure. After the data were analyzed, it was found that if 4 mG (0.40 microT) was used as the cut-off point, there was a statistically significant increase in overall cancer. No statistically significant increases in leukemia, lymphoma or brain cancer were found. C17) GH Schreiber et al: Cancer mortality and residence near electricity transmission equipment: A retrospective cohort study. Int J Epidem 22:9- 15, 1993. Study of people living in an urban area in the Netherlands. People were considered exposed in they lived within 100 m of transmission equipment. Fields in the exposed group were 1-11 mG (0.1-1.1 microT). An insignificant decrease in total cancer was found in the exposed group compared to the general Dutch population. No leukemia or brain cancer was seen in the exposed group. C18) M Feychting & A Ahlbom: Magnetic fields and cancer in children residing near Swedish high-voltage Power Lines. Am J Epidem 7:467-481, 1993. Case-control study of children who lived within 300 m of high-voltage powerlines. Exposure assessed by measurements, calculated retrospective assessments, and distance from lines. No overall increase in cancer was found for any measure of exposure. An increase in leukemia (but not brain or other cancers) was found in children in one-family homes for fields calculated to have been 2 mG or above at the time of cancer diagnosis, and for residence within 50 m of the power line. No increase in cancer was found when measured fields were used to estimate exposure. C19) TL Jones et al: Selection bias from differential residential mobility as an explanation for associations of wirecodes with childhood cancer. J Clin Epidem 46:545-548; 1993. The type of "high current configuration" distribution lines associated with cancer in the Wertheimer [C1], Savitz [C6] and London [C10] studies were more common in residential areas that were older, poorer, and which contained more rental properties. This could lead to a false association of high current configurations with disease. D) Epidemiology of Occupational Exposure to Power-Frequency Fields D1) S Milham: Mortality from leukemia in workers exposed to electrical and magnetic fields (letter). NEJM 307:249, 1982. Proportional mortality study of electrical occupations showing a significant excess incidence of leukemia. D2) WE Wright et al: Leukaemia in workers exposed to electrical and magnetic fields (letter). Lancet 8308 (Vol II):1160-1161, 1982. Proportional incidence study of electrical occupations showing a significant excess of acute, but not chronic leukemia. D3) S Bastuji-Garin et al: Acute leukaemia in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields. Eur J Cancer 26:1119-1120, 1990. Case-control study of leukemia in occupations with exposure to power- frequency fields. Among occupations with exposure to power-frequency fields, welding showed a nonsignificant increase in the incidence of acute leukemia, and non-welding jobs showed a significant increase. Significant increases in acute leukemia incidence were also shown for exposure to benzene and herbicides. D4) T Tynes & A Anderson: Electromagnetic fields and male breast cancer. Lancet 336:1596, 1990. Norwegian electrical workers were compared to census data, and a significantly elevated incidence of male breast cancer was found. D5) PA Demers et al: Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and breast cancer in men. Amer J Epidemiol 134:340-347, 1991. Case-control study of occupations with potential exposure to power- frequency fields (self-reported). A statistically significant excess incidence of male breast cancer was found. The elevated incidence was highest among electricians, telephone linemen and electric power workers, those exposed young, and those exposed many years prior to diagnosis. D6) GM Matanoski et al: Electromagnetic field exposure and male breast cancer (letter). Lancet 337:737, 1991. Retrospective cohort study of male telephone company workers in New York, showing a nonsignificant excess incidence of breast cancer. D7) DP Loomis: Cancer of breast among mean in electrical occupations (letter). Lancet 339:1482-1483, 1992. Proportional mortality study found a nonsignificant excess incidence of breast cancer. The greatest excess was for telephone company workers. D8) S Richardson et al: Occupational risk factors for acute leukaemia: A case-control study. Int J Epidem 21:1063-1073, 1992. Case-control study of acute leukemia across occupations. An increase in leukemia was found for all electrical occupations, but the increase was not statistically significant. Significant excesses of leukemia were associated with benzene, exhaust gasses and pesticides. D9) JD Bowman et al: Electric and Magnetic Field Exposure, Chemical Exposure, and Leukemia Risk in "Electrical" Occupations, EPRI, Palo Alto, 1992. Proportional incidence study of leukemia in electrical versus other occupations. For all electrical occupations there was a small, but statistically significant association of leukemia with electrical occupations. There was no relationship between the level of exposure and leukemia. D10) T Tynes et al: Incidence of cancer in Norwegian workers potentially exposed to electromagnetic fields. Am J Epidem 136:81-88, 1992. Cohort study of electrical occupations that showed a statistically significant excess of leukemia but not of brain cancer. D11) GM Matanoski et al: Leukemia in telephone linemen. Am J Epidem 137:609-619, 1993. Case-control of telephone company workers, which showed no statistically significant increase in leukemia in workers exposed to power-frequency fields. D12) B Floderus et al: Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in relation to leukemia and brain tumors: A case-control study in Sweden. Cancer Causes Control 4:463-476, 1993. Case-control study of leukemia and brain tumors of men in all occupations. Exposure calculations were based on the job held longest during the 10-year period prior to diagnosis. A statistically significant increase was found for leukemia, but not for brain cancer. D13) JD Sahl et al: Cohort and nested case-control studies of hematopoietic cancers and brain cancer among electric utility workers. Epidemiology 4:104-114, 1993. Both a cohort and a case-control study of utility workers. No significant increase was found for total cancer, leukemia, brain cancer, or lymphomas. D14) P Guenel et al: Incidence of cancer in persons with occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in Denmark. Br J Indust Med 50:758- 764, 1993. Case-control study based on all cancer in actively employed Danes. No significant increases were seen for breast cancer, malignant lymphomas or brain tumors. Leukemia was elevated among men in the highest exposure category; women in similar exposure categories showed no increase in any type of cancer. D15) G Theriault et al: Cancer risks associated with occupational exposure to magnetic fields among utility workers in Ontario and Quebec, Canada and France: 1970-1989. Amer J Epidem 139:550-572, 1994. Case-control study of Canadian and French utility workers. Significantly increased incidence of acute leukemia, but no clear dose- response trend. No association with magnetic fields was observed for any of the other 29 cancer types studies including leukemia as a whole, total cancer, skin melanoma, male breast cancer and prostate cancer. D16) T Tynes et al: Leukemia and brain tumors in Norwegian railway workers, a nested case-control study. Amer J Epidemiol 139:645-653, 1994. Comparison of workers on electrical (16.67 Hz) and non-electrical railroads. Case-control analysis showed no significant excess of leukemia or brain cancer, and no significant trend for either magnetic or electrical field exposure. Fields averaged 19.7 microT (197 mG) and 0.8 kV/m. Cumulative exposures were as high as 3000 microT-years (30 G- yrs) and 25 kV/m-yrs. D17) PF Rosenbaum et al: Occupational exposures associated with male breast cancer. Amer J Epidemiol 139:30-36, 1994. Case-control study of male breast cancer from the New York Tumor registry. Elevated breast cancer incidence associated with occupational exposure to heat, but not with occupational exposure to power-frequency fields. D18) DP Loomis et al: Breast cancer mortality among female electrical workers in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 86:921-925, 1994. Proportional mortality incidence (death certificate) study of breast cancer in female electrical workers. An significantly elevated incidence of breast cancer was found in occupations with presumed exposure to power-frequency fields (³male-dominated² occupations), but not in occupations with "potential exposure (largely ³female-dominated² occupations). The elevation was significant, even when adjusted for age, race and social class. The authors note that the increased risk of breast cancer in male-dominated electrical occupations may only indicate women working in male-dominated jobs have a reproductive history which increases their risk of breast cancer. D19) D Trichopoulos: Are electric or magnetic fields affecting mortality from breast cancer in women? J Natl Cancer Inst 86:885-886, 1994. Editorial accompanying Loomis et al [D18 article. Points out various issues raised by the study and why the study is not definitive on the issue. E) Human Studies Related to Power-Frequency Exposure and Cancer E1) AB Hill: The environment and disease: Association or causation? Proc Royal Soc Med 58:295-300, 1965. Concise statement of the methods use to assess causation in epidemiological studies. E2) M Bauchinger et al: Analysis of structural chromosome changes and SCE after occupational long-term exposure to electric and magnetic fields from 380 kV-systems. Rad Env Biophys 19:235-238, 1981. Lymphocytes from occupationally exposed 50 Hz switchyard workers showed no increase in the frequencies of chromosome aberrations. E3) W Den Otter: Tumor cells do not arise frequently. Cancer Immunol Immunother 19:159-162, 1985. A hypothesis which greatly influenced thinking in tumor immunology in the 70¹s was that tumor cells frequently and that the majority of these potential tumors were killed by immune surveillance mechanisms. Newer studies lead to the conclusion that an efficient natural immunity that could kill many tumor cells is lacking, that few tumors arise when normal immune surveillance and/or natural resistance are absent. E4) I Nordenson et al: Chromosomal effects in lymphocytes of 400 kV- substation workers. Rad Env Biophys 27:39-47, 1988. Lymphocytes from occupationally exposed 50 Hz switchyard workers showed an increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations. E5) DA Savitz & L Feingold: Association of childhood leukemia with residential traffic density. Scan J Work Environ Health 15:360-363, 1989. Analysis of the authors powerline study [C6] using traffic density as the exposure. Significant excess risk of leukemia and total cancer associated with high traffic density. E6) I Penn: Why do immunosuppressed patients develop cancer? Crit Rev Oncogen 1:27-52, 1989. Review of the relationship between cancer development and immune suppression E7) GR Krueger: Abnormal variation of the immune system as related to cancer. Cancer Growth Prog 4:139-161, 1989. Review of the relationship between cancer development and immune suppression. E8) JD Jackson: Are the stray 60-Hz electromagnetic fields associated with the distribution and use of electric power a significant cause of cancer? Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 89:3508-3510, 1992. Argument that lack of correlation between electric power use and leukemia rates over time argues against a causal relationship. E9) T Sinks et al: Mortality among workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls. Amer J Epidemiol 136:389-398, 1992. This is a standardized mortality rate of workers exposed to PCBs. The workers had no overall increase in cancer, but significant increases were found for skin cancer and heart disease. Brain cancer rates were elevated, but the difference was not significant, There was no excess in cancers of the lymphatic and hematopoietic system, or of the liver. ³On the basis of evidence from animal studies, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are considered potentially carcinogenic to humans. However, the results of studies in human populations exposed to PCBs has been inconsistent". E10) JM Peters et al: Processed meats and the risk of childhood leukemia. Cancer Causes Control 5:195-202,1994. The relationship between certain foods and the risk of childhood leukemia was investigated in a case-control study. The only persistent significant associations were for children's and father's intake of hot dogs. the children are the same as those studied in the powerline study [C10]. F) Biophysics and Dosimetry of Power-Frequency Fields F1) J Sandweiss: On the cyclotron resonance model of ion transport. BEM 11:203-205, 1990. Cyclotron resonance theory inconsistent with basic physical principles because radius of ion rotation would be about 50 m, and because collisions would occur much too often for resonance to be achieved. F2) RK Adair: Constraints on biological effects of weak extremely-low- frequency electromagnetic fields, Phys Rev A 43:1039-1048, 1991. ³Because of the high electrical conductivity of tissues, the coupling of external electric fields in air to tissues of the body is such that the effects of the internal fields on cells is smaller than thermal noise...² To get an effect you need a resonance mechanism, and "such resonances are shown to be incompatible with cell characteristics... hence, any biological effects of weak ELF fields [less than 500 mG, 50 microT] on the cellular level must be found outside of the scope of conventional physics". Also notes that the current induced by walking in the Earth¹s static field are greater than those induced by a 4 microT (40 mG) 60-Hz field, and that any resonance found at 60 Hz would not work at 50 Hz. F3) JL Kirschvink et al: Magnetite in human tissues: A mechanism for the biological effects of weak ELF magnetic fields. Bioelectromag Suppl 1:101-113, 1992. A calculation that magnetite (Fe3O4) containing bodies in cells could response to ELF fields, and could cause changes in ion channels if the channels were mechanically controlled by these "magnetosomes". The model requires power-frequency field fields on the order of 600 mG (60 microT). F4) T Dovan et al: Repeatability of measurements of residential magnetic fields and wirecodes. BEM 14:145-159, 1993. Repeat measurement of homes that had been included in Savitz study [C6] found that neither measured fields nor wirecodes had changed significantly over a five-year period. F5) WT Kaune: Assessing human exposure to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields. Environ Res 101 (Suppl 4):121-133, 1993. Good review of electrical and magnetic field levels in occupational and residential settings, and of current issues in dosimetry. F6) WT Kaune et al: Development of a protocol for assessing time- weighted-average exposures of young children to power-frequency magnetic fields. Bioelectromag 15:33-51, 1994. Mean residential exposures were 0.105 microT (1.05 mG), with a range from 0.02 - 0.7 microT (0.2 - 7 mG). Wire codes were correlated with 24-hr personal exposure, but the wire-codes accounted for only 18% of the variability in the measured fields. No characteristics of the magnetic fields were found to be strongly correlated with wire-codes. F7) JD Sahl et al: Exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields in the electric utility work environment. Bioelectromag 15:21-32, 1994. Average exposures ranged from less than 0.20 microT (2 mG) in clerical staff to greater than 1.5 microT (15 mG) in electricians and substation operators. Typical maximum daily exposures were 4 - 7 microT (40 - 70 mG), but exposures above 15 microT (150 mG) were recorded on rare occasions. F8) RK Adair: Constraints of thermal noise on the effects of weak 60-Hz magnetic fields acting on biological magnetite. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 91:2925-2929, 1994. "Previous calculations of limits imposed by thermal noise on the effects of weak 60-Hz magnetic fields on biological magnetite are generalized and extended... The results indicate that the energies transmitted to the magnetite elements by fields less than 5 microT (50 mG)... will be much less than thermal noise energies... However, the arguments presented here do not preclude effects from larger 60-Hz fields" Copyright (C) by John Moulder end: powerlines-cancer-FAQ/part5

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