Xref: helios.physics.utoronto.ca sci.med.physics:2461 sci.answers:1480 news.answers:27584
From: firstname.lastname@example.org (John Moulder)
Subject: Powerlines & Cancer FAQs 5/6: Biblio 1
Date: Mon, 15 Aug 1994 16:38:45 -0600
Organization: Medical College of Wisconsin
Expires: 12 Sep 1994 00:00:00 GMT
Reply-To: email@example.com (John Moulder)
Summary: Annotated bibliography on the connection between
powerlines, electrical occupations and cancer.
Keywords: powerlines, magnetic fields, cancer, EMF, non-ionizing
radiation, FAQ, bibliography, references
Annotated Bibliography on Powerlines and Cancer (Part 1 of 2)
A) Recent Reviews of the Biological and Health Effects of Power-
A1) Electromagnetic field health effects, Connecticut Academy of Science
and Engineering, Hartford, CT, 1992.
"Absolute proof of the occurrence of adverse effects of ELF fields at
prevailing magnitudes cannot be found in the available evidence, and the
same evidence does not permit a judgment that adverse effects could not
occur... If adverse health effects from residential magnetic field
exposure exist, they are not likely to make a large contribution.²
A2) JG Davis et al: Health Effects of Low-Frequency Electric and
Magnetic Fields. Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 1992.
" ...there is no convincing evidence in the published literature to
support the contention that exposure to extremely low-frequency electric
and magnetic fields generated by sources such as household appliances,
video display terminals, and local power lines are demonstrable health
A3) JI Aunon et al: Investigations in power-frequency EMF and its risk
to health: A review of the scientific literature, Universities
Consortium on Electromagnetic Fields, 1992.
"the conclusions from this review highlights the absence of health
effects directly related to 60 Hz alternating current EMF on humans."
A4) PA Buffler et al: Health effects of exposure to powerline-frequency
electric and magnetic fields, Public Utility Commission of Texas,
"no conclusive evidence to suggest that EMF due to electric power
transmission lines poses a human health hazard."
A5) JA Dennis et al: Human Health and Exposure to Electromagnetic
Radiation (NRPB-R241), National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton,
"the bulk of the evidence points to there being no effects at levels
to which people are normally exposed".
A6) P Guenel & J Lellouch: [Synthesis of the literature on health
effects from very low frequency electric and magnetic fields], National
Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), Paris, 1993.
"laboratory studies have never shown any carcinogenic effect [but] the
epidemiological results presently available do not permit exclusion of a
role for magnetic fields in the incidence of leukemia, particularly in
children... The effect of magnetic fields on human health remains a
research problem. It will only become a public health problem if
definite effects are confirmed."
A7) J. Roucayrol: [Report on extremely low-frequency electromagnetic
fields and health]. Bull Acad Nat Med 177:1031-1040, 1993.
"There is no conclusive evidence linking EMF to reproductive and
teratogenic effects, and/or that EMF has a role in the initiation,
promotion or progression of certain cancers, even though some data
cannot exclude this possibility... reported associations between EMF and
certain pathologies like leukemia and other childhood and adult cancers
cannot be supported by current epidemiological data."
B) Reviews of the Epidemiology of Exposure to Power-Frequency Fields
B1) M Coleman & V Beral: A review of epidemiological studies of the
health effects of living near or working with electrical generation and
transmission equipment. Int J Epidem 17:1-13, 1988.
Review of both occupational and residential studies, including meta-
analysis showing a small but significant excess of leukemia in
B2) D Trichopoulos, Epidemiological studies of cancer and extremely low-
frequency electric and magnetic field exposures, In: Health effects of
low-frequency electric and magnetic fields, JG Davis et al, editors, Oak
Ridge Assoc Univ, Oak Ridge, pp. V1-V58, 1992.
Meta-analysis of occupational exposure studies indicating small but
statistically significant relative risks for leukemia and brain cancer.
B3) G.B. Hutchison: Cancer and exposure to electric power. Health
Environ Digest 6:1-4, 1992.
Meta-analysis of residential exposure studies shows a significant
excess for childhood brain cancer, but not for childhood leukemia or
lymphoma. Analysis also shows an excess of leukemia and brain cancer in
electrical occupations, but no significant excess of lymphoma or overall
B4) R Doll et al, Electromagnetic Fields and the Risk of Cancer, NRPB,
Includes a meta-analysis of the childhood cancer data. For leukemia,
the analysis shows a significant elevation when wirecodes are used to
assess exposure, but not when distances or measured fields are used.
For brain cancer, the analysis shows a significant elevation when
wirecodes or distance are used to assess exposure, but not when measured
fields are used. For all childhood cancer the analysis shows a
significant elevation when wirecodes or measurements are used to assess
exposure, but not when distance is used.
B5) A Ahlbom et al: Electromagnetic fields and childhood cancer. Lancet
Pooled analysis of the Scandinavian childhood cancer studies indicates
that if calculated historic power-line fields are used as a measure of
exposure, a small but statistically significant increase is seen in the
incidence of leukemia, but no statistically significant increase is seen
in the incidence of CNS cancer, lymphoma, or overall cancer.
B6) DA Savitz et al: Update on methodological issues in the
epidemiology of electromagnetic fields and cancer. Epidem Rev 15:558-
Review of the occupational and residential exposure studies, and a
consideration of methodological issues, particularly control selection
and exposure assessment issues. Discussion of some flaws in the
argument that historical increases in electrical consumption should have
caused increase in the overall incidence of cancer if there were a true
C) Epidemiology of Residential Exposure to Power-Frequency Fields
C1) N Wertheimer & E Leeper: Electrical wiring configurations and
childhood cancer. Am J Epidem 109:273-284, 1979.
Case-control study of childhood leukemia and brain cancer using type
of powerlines (wirecodes) as an index of exposure. A significant excess
of leukemia and brain cancer were reported.
C2) N Wertheimer & E Leeper: Adult cancer related to electrical wires
near the home. Int J Epidem 11:345-355, 1982.
Case-control study of adult cancer. Significant excess reported for
total cancer and brain cancer, but not for leukemia.
C3) JP Fulton et al: Electrical wiring configurations and childhood
leukemia in Rhode Island. Am J Epidem 111:292-296, 1980.
Case-control study using wire-dose as an index of exposure. No excess
of child leukemia found.
C4) ME McDowall: Mortality of persons resident in the vicinity of
electrical transmission facilities. Br J Cancer 53:271-279, 1986.
Standardized mortality ratio study of persons in the UK living within
50 m (150 ft) of a substation or 30 m (100 ft) from a transmission line
vs national data base. No increase in overall cancer, leukemia, or
female breast cancer. No dose-response relationship between proximity
to wires and cancer incidence.
C5) L Tomenius: 50-Hz electromagnetic environment and the incidence of
childhood tumors in Stockholm County. BEM 7:191-207, 1986.
Case-control study of childhood cancer using proximity to electrical
equipment as indices of exposure. Proximity to 200 kV lines was
associated with significant excess of total cancer, but proximity to
other types of electrical equipment carried no significant excess risk.
No significant excess of leukemia or brain cancer for any index of
C6) DA Savitz et al: Case-control study of childhood cancer and exposure
to 60-Hz magnetic fields. Am J Epidem 128:21-38, 1988.
Case-control study of childhood leukemia and brain cancer in Denver,
using measurements and wirecodes as indices of exposure. Possibly
significant excess of leukemia for high-current-configuration wirecodes,
but no excess incidence for measured fields. Significant excess of
brain cancer for high-current-configuration wirecodes, but no excess
incidence for measured fields.
C7) RK Severson et al: Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia and residential
exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields. Am J Epidem 128:10-20,
Case-control study of childhood leukemia in Washington state, using
measurements and wirecodes as indices of exposure. No excess leukemia
for wirecode or measured fields.
C8) MP Coleman et al: Leukemia and residence near electricity
transmission equipment: a case-control study. Br J Cancer 60:793-798,
Case-control study of childhood and adult leukemia, using proximity to
powerlines and transformers as an exposure index. No significant excess
of leukemia was found.
C9) A Myers et al: Childhood cancer and overhead powerlines: a case-
control study. Br J Cancer 62:1008-1014, 1990.
Case-control study of childhood and adult leukemia, using proximity to
powerlines as an exposure index. No significant excess of leukemia,
solid tumors or all cancer was found.
C10) SJ London et al: Exposure to residential electric and magnetic
fields and risk of childhood leukemia. Am J Epidem 134:923-937, 1991.
Case-control study of childhood leukemia in Los Angeles, using
measurements and wirecodes as indices of exposure. Significant excess
of leukemia for high current configuration wirecodes, but no excess risk
for measured fields.
C11) JHAM Youngson et al: A case/control study of adult haematological
malignancies in relation to overhead powerlines. Br J Cancer 63:977-985,
Case-control study of adult leukemia and lymphoma using proximity to
powerlines and estimated fields as measures of exposure. No significant
excess of cancer found.
C12) JE Vena et al: Use of electric blankets and risk of postmenopausal
breast cancer. Amer J Epidemiol 134:180-185, 1991.
Case-control study of the relationship between electric blanket use
and breast cancer using data from the New York state cancer registry; no
excess risk of breast cancer was found.
C13) M Feychting & A Ahlbom: [Cancer and magnetic fields in persons
living close to high voltage power lines in Sweden]. Läkartidningen
Case-control study of everyone who lived within 1000 feet of high-
voltage powerlines; contains material on adult exposure not in the 1993
publication. No increased leukemia or brain cancer was found for adults
when exposure was based on measured fields, distance from power lines or
retrospective field calculations.
C14) JM Peters et al: Exposure to residential electric and magnetic
fields and risk of childhood leukemia. Rad Res 133:131-132, 1993.
Discussion of the implications of finding a correlation of cancer with
wire-codes, but not with measured fields. There could be a true
association masked by a methodological bias in the measurement
technique. There could be a true association, but average and/or spot
fields might not be the correct exposure metric. Lastly, there might be
selection bias in the control group, or a confounder.
C15) PJ Verkasalo et al: Risk of cancer in Finnish children living close
to power lines. BMJ 307:895-899, 1993.
Cohort study of cancer in children in Finland living within 500 m of
high-voltage lines. Calculated retrospective fields used to define
exposure. No statistically significant increase in overall cancer
incidence was found. A significant increase in brain cancer in boys was
due entirely to one exposed boy who developed three brain tumors. No
significant increases were found for brain tumors in girls or for
leukemia, lymphomas or "other" tumors in either sex.
C16) JH Olsen et al: Residence near high voltage facilities and risk of
cancer in children. BMJ 307:891-895, 1993.
Case-control study of childhood cancer in Denmark. Exposure was
assessed on the basis of calculated fields. No overall increase in
cancer was found when 2.5 mG (0.25 microT) was used define exposure.
After the data were analyzed, it was found that if 4 mG (0.40 microT)
was used as the cut-off point, there was a statistically significant
increase in overall cancer. No statistically significant increases in
leukemia, lymphoma or brain cancer were found.
C17) GH Schreiber et al: Cancer mortality and residence near electricity
transmission equipment: A retrospective cohort study. Int J Epidem 22:9-
Study of people living in an urban area in the Netherlands. People
were considered exposed in they lived within 100 m of transmission
equipment. Fields in the exposed group were 1-11 mG (0.1-1.1 microT).
An insignificant decrease in total cancer was found in the exposed group
compared to the general Dutch population. No leukemia or brain cancer
was seen in the exposed group.
C18) M Feychting & A Ahlbom: Magnetic fields and cancer in children
residing near Swedish high-voltage Power Lines. Am J Epidem 7:467-481,
Case-control study of children who lived within 300 m of high-voltage
powerlines. Exposure assessed by measurements, calculated retrospective
assessments, and distance from lines. No overall increase in cancer was
found for any measure of exposure. An increase in leukemia (but not
brain or other cancers) was found in children in one-family homes for
fields calculated to have been 2 mG or above at the time of cancer
diagnosis, and for residence within 50 m of the power line. No increase
in cancer was found when measured fields were used to estimate exposure.
C19) TL Jones et al: Selection bias from differential residential
mobility as an explanation for associations of wirecodes with childhood
cancer. J Clin Epidem 46:545-548; 1993.
The type of "high current configuration" distribution lines associated
with cancer in the Wertheimer [C1], Savitz [C6] and London [C10] studies
were more common in residential areas that were older, poorer, and which
contained more rental properties. This could lead to a false
association of high current configurations with disease.
D) Epidemiology of Occupational Exposure to Power-Frequency Fields
D1) S Milham: Mortality from leukemia in workers exposed to electrical
and magnetic fields (letter). NEJM 307:249, 1982.
Proportional mortality study of electrical occupations showing a
significant excess incidence of leukemia.
D2) WE Wright et al: Leukaemia in workers exposed to electrical and
magnetic fields (letter). Lancet 8308 (Vol II):1160-1161, 1982.
Proportional incidence study of electrical occupations showing a
significant excess of acute, but not chronic leukemia.
D3) S Bastuji-Garin et al: Acute leukaemia in workers exposed to
electromagnetic fields. Eur J Cancer 26:1119-1120, 1990.
Case-control study of leukemia in occupations with exposure to power-
frequency fields. Among occupations with exposure to power-frequency
fields, welding showed a nonsignificant increase in the incidence of
acute leukemia, and non-welding jobs showed a significant increase.
Significant increases in acute leukemia incidence were also shown for
exposure to benzene and herbicides.
D4) T Tynes & A Anderson: Electromagnetic fields and male breast
cancer. Lancet 336:1596, 1990.
Norwegian electrical workers were compared to census data, and a
significantly elevated incidence of male breast cancer was found.
D5) PA Demers et al: Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields
and breast cancer in men. Amer J Epidemiol 134:340-347, 1991.
Case-control study of occupations with potential exposure to power-
frequency fields (self-reported). A statistically significant excess
incidence of male breast cancer was found. The elevated incidence was
highest among electricians, telephone linemen and electric power
workers, those exposed young, and those exposed many years prior to
D6) GM Matanoski et al: Electromagnetic field exposure and male breast
cancer (letter). Lancet 337:737, 1991.
Retrospective cohort study of male telephone company workers in New
York, showing a nonsignificant excess incidence of breast cancer.
D7) DP Loomis: Cancer of breast among mean in electrical occupations
(letter). Lancet 339:1482-1483, 1992.
Proportional mortality study found a nonsignificant excess incidence
of breast cancer. The greatest excess was for telephone company
D8) S Richardson et al: Occupational risk factors for acute leukaemia: A
case-control study. Int J Epidem 21:1063-1073, 1992.
Case-control study of acute leukemia across occupations. An increase
in leukemia was found for all electrical occupations, but the increase
was not statistically significant. Significant excesses of leukemia
were associated with benzene, exhaust gasses and pesticides.
D9) JD Bowman et al: Electric and Magnetic Field Exposure, Chemical
Exposure, and Leukemia Risk in "Electrical" Occupations, EPRI, Palo
Proportional incidence study of leukemia in electrical versus other
occupations. For all electrical occupations there was a small, but
statistically significant association of leukemia with electrical
occupations. There was no relationship between the level of exposure
D10) T Tynes et al: Incidence of cancer in Norwegian workers potentially
exposed to electromagnetic fields. Am J Epidem 136:81-88, 1992.
Cohort study of electrical occupations that showed a statistically
significant excess of leukemia but not of brain cancer.
D11) GM Matanoski et al: Leukemia in telephone linemen. Am J Epidem
Case-control of telephone company workers, which showed no
statistically significant increase in leukemia in workers exposed to
D12) B Floderus et al: Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields
in relation to leukemia and brain tumors: A case-control study in
Sweden. Cancer Causes Control 4:463-476, 1993.
Case-control study of leukemia and brain tumors of men in all
occupations. Exposure calculations were based on the job held longest
during the 10-year period prior to diagnosis. A statistically
significant increase was found for leukemia, but not for brain cancer.
D13) JD Sahl et al: Cohort and nested case-control studies of
hematopoietic cancers and brain cancer among electric utility workers.
Epidemiology 4:104-114, 1993.
Both a cohort and a case-control study of utility workers. No
significant increase was found for total cancer, leukemia, brain cancer,
D14) P Guenel et al: Incidence of cancer in persons with occupational
exposure to electromagnetic fields in Denmark. Br J Indust Med 50:758-
Case-control study based on all cancer in actively employed Danes. No
significant increases were seen for breast cancer, malignant lymphomas
or brain tumors. Leukemia was elevated among men in the highest
exposure category; women in similar exposure categories showed no
increase in any type of cancer.
D15) G Theriault et al: Cancer risks associated with occupational
exposure to magnetic fields among utility workers in Ontario and Quebec,
Canada and France: 1970-1989. Amer J Epidem 139:550-572, 1994.
Case-control study of Canadian and French utility workers.
Significantly increased incidence of acute leukemia, but no clear dose-
response trend. No association with magnetic fields was observed for any
of the other 29 cancer types studies including leukemia as a whole,
total cancer, skin melanoma, male breast cancer and prostate cancer.
D16) T Tynes et al: Leukemia and brain tumors in Norwegian railway
workers, a nested case-control study. Amer J Epidemiol 139:645-653,
Comparison of workers on electrical (16.67 Hz) and non-electrical
railroads. Case-control analysis showed no significant excess of
leukemia or brain cancer, and no significant trend for either magnetic
or electrical field exposure. Fields averaged 19.7 microT (197 mG) and
0.8 kV/m. Cumulative exposures were as high as 3000 microT-years (30 G-
yrs) and 25 kV/m-yrs.
D17) PF Rosenbaum et al: Occupational exposures associated with male
breast cancer. Amer J Epidemiol 139:30-36, 1994.
Case-control study of male breast cancer from the New York Tumor
registry. Elevated breast cancer incidence associated with occupational
exposure to heat, but not with occupational exposure to power-frequency
D18) DP Loomis et al: Breast cancer mortality among female electrical
workers in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 86:921-925, 1994.
Proportional mortality incidence (death certificate) study of breast
cancer in female electrical workers. An significantly elevated
incidence of breast cancer was found in occupations with presumed
exposure to power-frequency fields (³male-dominated² occupations), but
not in occupations with "potential exposure (largely ³female-dominated²
occupations). The elevation was significant, even when adjusted for
age, race and social class. The authors note that the increased risk of
breast cancer in male-dominated electrical occupations may only indicate
women working in male-dominated jobs have a reproductive history which
increases their risk of breast cancer.
D19) D Trichopoulos: Are electric or magnetic fields affecting
mortality from breast cancer in women? J Natl Cancer Inst 86:885-886,
Editorial accompanying Loomis et al [D18 article. Points out various
issues raised by the study and why the study is not definitive on the
E) Human Studies Related to Power-Frequency Exposure and Cancer
E1) AB Hill: The environment and disease: Association or causation? Proc
Royal Soc Med 58:295-300, 1965.
Concise statement of the methods use to assess causation in
E2) M Bauchinger et al: Analysis of structural chromosome changes and
SCE after occupational long-term exposure to electric and magnetic
fields from 380 kV-systems. Rad Env Biophys 19:235-238, 1981.
Lymphocytes from occupationally exposed 50 Hz switchyard workers
showed no increase in the frequencies of chromosome aberrations.
E3) W Den Otter: Tumor cells do not arise frequently. Cancer Immunol
Immunother 19:159-162, 1985.
A hypothesis which greatly influenced thinking in tumor immunology in
the 70¹s was that tumor cells frequently and that the majority of these
potential tumors were killed by immune surveillance mechanisms. Newer
studies lead to the conclusion that an efficient natural immunity that
could kill many tumor cells is lacking, that few tumors arise when
normal immune surveillance and/or natural resistance are absent.
E4) I Nordenson et al: Chromosomal effects in lymphocytes of 400 kV-
substation workers. Rad Env Biophys 27:39-47, 1988.
Lymphocytes from occupationally exposed 50 Hz switchyard workers
showed an increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations.
E5) DA Savitz & L Feingold: Association of childhood leukemia with
residential traffic density. Scan J Work Environ Health 15:360-363,
Analysis of the authors powerline study [C6] using traffic density as
the exposure. Significant excess risk of leukemia and total cancer
associated with high traffic density.
E6) I Penn: Why do immunosuppressed patients develop cancer? Crit Rev
Oncogen 1:27-52, 1989.
Review of the relationship between cancer development and immune
E7) GR Krueger: Abnormal variation of the immune system as related to
cancer. Cancer Growth Prog 4:139-161, 1989.
Review of the relationship between cancer development and immune
E8) JD Jackson: Are the stray 60-Hz electromagnetic fields associated
with the distribution and use of electric power a significant cause of
cancer? Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 89:3508-3510, 1992.
Argument that lack of correlation between electric power use and
leukemia rates over time argues against a causal relationship.
E9) T Sinks et al: Mortality among workers exposed to polychlorinated
biphenyls. Amer J Epidemiol 136:389-398, 1992.
This is a standardized mortality rate of workers exposed to PCBs.
The workers had no overall increase in cancer, but significant increases
were found for skin cancer and heart disease. Brain cancer rates were
elevated, but the difference was not significant, There was no excess in
cancers of the lymphatic and hematopoietic system, or of the liver. ³On
the basis of evidence from animal studies, polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs) are considered potentially carcinogenic to humans. However, the
results of studies in human populations exposed to PCBs has been
E10) JM Peters et al: Processed meats and the risk of childhood
leukemia. Cancer Causes Control 5:195-202,1994.
The relationship between certain foods and the risk of childhood
leukemia was investigated in a case-control study. The only persistent
significant associations were for children's and father's intake of hot
dogs. the children are the same as those studied in the powerline study
F) Biophysics and Dosimetry of Power-Frequency Fields
F1) J Sandweiss: On the cyclotron resonance model of ion transport. BEM
Cyclotron resonance theory inconsistent with basic physical principles
because radius of ion rotation would be about 50 m, and because
collisions would occur much too often for resonance to be achieved.
F2) RK Adair: Constraints on biological effects of weak extremely-low-
frequency electromagnetic fields, Phys Rev A 43:1039-1048, 1991.
³Because of the high electrical conductivity of tissues, the coupling
of external electric fields in air to tissues of the body is such that
the effects of the internal fields on cells is smaller than thermal
noise...² To get an effect you need a resonance mechanism, and "such
resonances are shown to be incompatible with cell characteristics...
hence, any biological effects of weak ELF fields [less than 500 mG, 50
microT] on the cellular level must be found outside of the scope of
conventional physics". Also notes that the current induced by walking
in the Earth¹s static field are greater than those induced by a 4 microT
(40 mG) 60-Hz field, and that any resonance found at 60 Hz would not
work at 50 Hz.
F3) JL Kirschvink et al: Magnetite in human tissues: A mechanism for
the biological effects of weak ELF magnetic fields. Bioelectromag Suppl
A calculation that magnetite (Fe3O4) containing bodies in cells could
response to ELF fields, and could cause changes in ion channels if the
channels were mechanically controlled by these "magnetosomes". The
model requires power-frequency field fields on the order of 600 mG (60
F4) T Dovan et al: Repeatability of measurements of residential magnetic
fields and wirecodes. BEM 14:145-159, 1993.
Repeat measurement of homes that had been included in Savitz study
[C6] found that neither measured fields nor wirecodes had changed
significantly over a five-year period.
F5) WT Kaune: Assessing human exposure to power-frequency electric and
magnetic fields. Environ Res 101 (Suppl 4):121-133, 1993.
Good review of electrical and magnetic field levels in occupational
and residential settings, and of current issues in dosimetry.
F6) WT Kaune et al: Development of a protocol for assessing time-
weighted-average exposures of young children to power-frequency magnetic
fields. Bioelectromag 15:33-51, 1994.
Mean residential exposures were 0.105 microT (1.05 mG), with a range
from 0.02 - 0.7 microT (0.2 - 7 mG). Wire codes were correlated with
24-hr personal exposure, but the wire-codes accounted for only 18% of
the variability in the measured fields. No characteristics of the
magnetic fields were found to be strongly correlated with wire-codes.
F7) JD Sahl et al: Exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields in the electric
utility work environment. Bioelectromag 15:21-32, 1994.
Average exposures ranged from less than 0.20 microT (2 mG) in clerical
staff to greater than 1.5 microT (15 mG) in electricians and substation
operators. Typical maximum daily exposures were 4 - 7 microT (40 - 70
mG), but exposures above 15 microT (150 mG) were recorded on rare
F8) RK Adair: Constraints of thermal noise on the effects of weak 60-Hz
magnetic fields acting on biological magnetite. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA
"Previous calculations of limits imposed by thermal noise on the
effects of weak 60-Hz magnetic fields on biological magnetite are
generalized and extended... The results indicate that the energies
transmitted to the magnetite elements by fields less than 5 microT (50
mG)... will be much less than thermal noise energies... However, the
arguments presented here do not preclude effects from larger 60-Hz
Copyright (C) by John Moulder