Xref: helios.physics.utoronto.ca sci.med.physics:2457 sci.answers:1476 news.answers:27580

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Xref: helios.physics.utoronto.ca sci.med.physics:2457 sci.answers:1476 news.answers:27580 Path: admin-one.radbio.mcw.edu!user From: jmoulder@its.mcw.edu (John Moulder) Newsgroups: sci.med.physics,sci.answers,news.answers Subject: Powerlines & Cancer FAQs 1/6: Intro Supersedes: Followup-To: sci.med.physics Date: Mon, 15 Aug 1994 16:22:05 -0600 Organization: Medical College of Wisconsin Lines: 212 Approved: new-answers-request@MIT.edu Distribution: world Expires: 12 Sep 1994 00:00:00 GMT Message-ID: Reply-To: jmoulder@its.mcw.edu (John Moulder) NNTP-Posting-Host: admin-one.radbio.mcw.edu Summary: Introduction to a series of Q&As on the connection between powerlines, electrical occupations and cancer: table of contents, ways to access the FAQ, recent changes, acknowledgments, copyright. Keywords: powerlines, magnetic fields, cancer, EMF, non-ionizing radiation, FAQ Archive-name: powerlines-cancer-FAQ/part1 Last-modified: 1994/8/15 Version: 2.6a Maintainer: jmoulder@its.mcw.edu Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on Power-Frequency Fields and Cancer -- Introduction ** TABLE OF CONTENTS ** * Part2 * Questions and Answers 1) Why is there a concern about powerlines and cancer? 2) What is the difference between the electromagnetic (EM) energy associated with power lines and other forms of EM energy such as microwaves or x-rays? 3) Why do different types of EM sources produce different biological effects? 4) What is difference between EM radiation and EM fields? 5) Do power lines produce EM radiation? 6) How do ionizing EM sources cause biological effects? 7) How do RF, MW, visible light, and IR light sources cause biological effects? 8) How do the power-frequency EM fields cause biological effects? 9) Do non-ionizing EM sources cause non-thermal as well as thermal effects? 10) What sort of power-frequency fields are common in residences and workplaces? 11) Can power-frequency fields in homes and workplaces be reduced? 12) What is known about the relationship between powerline corridors and cancer rates? 13) How big is the "cancer risk" associated with living next to a powerline? 14) How close do you have to be to a power line to be considered exposed to power-frequency magnetic fields? 15) What is known about the relationship between "electrical occupations" and cancer rates? * Part3 * Questions and Answers (continued) 16) Do laboratory studies indicate that power-frequency fields can cause cancer? 16A) Are power-frequency fields genotoxic? 16B) Are power-frequency magnetic fields cancer promoters? 16C) Do power-frequency magnetic fields enhance the effects of other genotoxic agents? 17) Do laboratory studies indicate that power-frequency fields have any biological effects that might be relevant to cancer? 17A) How do laboratory studies of the effects of power-frequency fields on cell growth relate to the question of cancer risk? 17B) How do laboratory studies of the effects of power-frequency fields on immune function relate to the question of cancer risk? 17C) How do laboratory studies of the effects of power-frequency fields on the pineal gland and melatonin relate to the question of cancer risk? 18) Do power-frequency fields show any reproducible biological effects in laboratory studies? 18A) Do power-frequency fields of the intensity encountered in occupational and residential settings show reproducible biological effects? 18B) Are there known mechanisms by which power-frequency fields of the intensity encountered in occupational and residential settings could cause biological effects? 19) What about the "new studies" showing a link between power lines and cancer? 19A) What about the new "Swedish" study showing a link between power lines and cancer? 19B) What about the new "Swedish" study showing a link between occupational exposure to power-frequency fields and cancer? 19C) What about the new studies showing a link between electrical occupation and breast cancer? 20) What criteria do scientists use to evaluate all the confusing and contradictory laboratory and epidemiological studies of power-frequency magnetic fields and cancer? 20A) Criterion One: How strong is the association between exposure to power-frequency fields and the risk of cancer? 20B) Criterion Two: How consistent are the studies of associations between exposure to power-frequency fields and the risk of cancer? 20C) Criterion Three: Is there a dose-response relationship between exposure to power-frequency fields and the risk of cancer? 20D) Criterion Four: Is there laboratory evidence for an association between exposure to power-frequency fields and the risk of cancer? 20E) Criterion Five: Are there plausible biological mechanisms that suggest an association between exposure to power-frequency fields and the risk of cancer? * Part4 * Questions and Answers (continued) 21) If exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields does not explain the residential and occupations studies which show increased cancer incidence, what other factors could? 21A) Could problems with dose assessment affect the validity of the epidemiological studies of power lines and cancer? 21B) Are there other cancer risk factors that could be causing a false association between exposure to power-frequency fields and cancer? 21C) Could the epidemiological studies of power lines and cancer be biased by the methods used to select control groups? 21D) Could analysis of the epidemiological studies of power lines and cancer be skewed by publication bias? 22) What is the strongest evidence for a connection between power- frequency fields and cancer? 23) What is the strongest evidence against a connection between power- frequency fields and cancer? 24) What studies are needed to resolve the cancer-EMF issue? 25) Is there any evidence that power-frequency fields cause any human health hazards? 26) What are some good overview articles? 27) Are there exposure guidelines for power-frequency fields? 28) What effect do powerlines have on property values? 29) What equipment do you need to measure power-frequency magnetic fields? 30) How are power-frequency magnetic fields measured? 31) Do the issues discussed in this FAQ sheet apply to EM fields other than power-frequency fields? * Part5 * Annotated Bibliography A) Recent Reviews of the Biological and Health Effects of Power- Frequency Fields B) Reviews of the Epidemiology of Exposure to Power-Frequency Fields C) Epidemiology of Residential Exposure to Power-Frequency Fields D) Epidemiology of Occupational Exposure to Power-Frequency Fields E) Human Studies Related to Power-Frequency Exposure and Cancer F) Biophysics and Dosimetry of Power-Frequency Fields * Part6 * Annotated Bibliography (continued) G) Laboratory Studies of Power-Frequency Fields and Cancer H) Laboratory Studies Indirectly Related to Power-Frequency Fields and Cancer J) Laboratory Studies of Power-Frequency Fields and Reproductive Toxicity K) Reviews of Laboratory Studies of Power-Frequency Fields L) Miscellaneous Studies M) Regulations and Standards for Ionizing and Non-ionizing EM Sources. ** SOURCES ** * Note: This FAQ sheet is posted monthly to sci.med.physics, sci.answers and news.answers. The FAQ sheet is archived at many sites, but not all archives are up-to-date. In general the news.answers archive is more likely to be up-to-date than the sci.answers or sci.med.physics archives. * The primary anonymous FTP archive is: cdmas.crc.mcw.edu/pub/powerlines_and_cancer This archive contains both the posted 6-part version and a complete 1- part version. * Available by anonymous FTP or gopher from: rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-group/news.answers/powerlines-cancer-FAQ * Available on numerous gopher servers worldwide, usually in a directory like: /pub/usenet/FAQs/news.answers * Available by e-mail from: mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu -to get you the directory indicating when I last updated, send the following message: send /pub/usenet-by-group/news.answers/powerlines-cancer-FAQ -To get the current FAQ send the following messages send /pub/usenet-by-group/news.answers/powerlines-cancer-FAQ/part1 . . . send /pub/usenet-by-group/news.answers/powerlines-cancer-FAQ/part6 * Available on GEnie in the library of the Space and Science Roundtable (M460;3). The file is called EMF-FAQ.ZIP. * Available on World Wide Web at: http://archive.xrt.upenn.edu/0h/faq/powerline_faq http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/powerlines-cancer-FAQ ** Revision notes ** v2.6 (7-July-94): Reorganized introduction. Edited and shortened biophysics section, and replaced some older dosimetry references. Expanded and reorganized the lab studies section (Questions 16 through 18) to reflect the newer models of carcinogenicity (multi-step vs initiation/promotion) and to cover additional studies (G4,G14,G28,G29, H5,H12,H13). Expanded the section on bioeffects (Question 18A) and added detailed coverage of Adair's analysis of the biophysics (Question 18B). Expanded the review of new occupational studies (Question 19), added a section on breast cancer (Question 19C), and included new studies (B6,C12,D3,D4,D5,D6,D7,D16,D17,D18,D19). Expanded the introduction to the Hill criteria (Question 20). Expanded discussion of PCBs and herbicides, and added discussion of ozone to the potential confounders section (Question 21B). Added question on ELF sources other than power frequency fields (Question 31). v2.6a (15-Aug-94): Technical correction of problems with archive format. No change in content. ** Acknowledgments ** This FAQ sheet owes much to the many readers of sci.med.physics who have sent me comments and suggestions, including: kfoster@eniac.seas.upenn.edu -- EMF biophysics sections gary%ke4zv.uucp@mathcs.emory.edu -- adding a quantum approach aa2h@virginia.edu -- suggestions on thermal effects and confounders p.farrell@trl.oz.au -- SI units, suggesting the pro/con section drchambe@tekig5.pen.tek.com -- a start on the property value question gemyers@anl.gov -- how to measure fields sections spencer@radonc.duke.edu -- find and correcting numerous typos ** Notice ** This FAQ is Copyright (C) by John Moulder and the Medical College of Wisconsin, and is made available as a service to the Internet community. Permission is granted to copy and redistribute this document electronically as long as it is unmodified. Notification of such redistribution would be appreciated. This FAQ may not be sold in any medium, including electronic, CD-ROM, or database, or published in print, without the explicit, written permission of John Moulder. end: powerlines-cancer-FAQ/part1

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