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Xref: helios.physics.utoronto.ca rec.martial-arts:76324 rec.answers:7408 news.answers:29406 Path: senator-bedfellow.mit.edu!faqserv From: pals@ipact.com (Randy Pals) Newsgroups: rec.martial-arts,rec.answers,news.answers Subject: rec.martial-arts FAQ part 2 of 2 Supersedes: Followup-To: rec.martial-arts Date: 19 Sep 1994 03:41:48 GMT Organization: IPACT, Valparaiso IN Lines: 1859 Approved: news-answers-request@MIT.EDU Expires: 31 Oct 1994 03:40:54 GMT Message-ID: References: Reply-To: pals@ipact.com NNTP-Posting-Host: bloom-picayune.mit.edu Summary: Descriptions of the various martial arts X-Last-Updated: 1994/08/13 Originator: faqserv@bloom-picayune.MIT.EDU Archive-name: martial-arts/faq/part2 Last-modified: 06 August 1994 Posting-Frequency: monthly in *.answers, every two weeks in rec.martial-arts rec.martial-arts FAQ - Part 2 of 2 ================================== =============================================================================== 16) What are the different Arts, Schools and Styles? This is a question with many, many answers---some could say that there are as many styles as there are martial artists. So, we'd like to introduce some Schools and Styles that will give you a basic familiarity with the world of martial arts. The Arts are listed alphabetically. Important note: This information is true to the best of the knowledge of those who wrote the descriptions of the various arts. If your style has only a small write up or none at all and you have enough information on it to make a good FAQ entry, write it up in the form shown below and send it to pals@ipact.com. If you have a question about a particular style or its writeup, one option is to look in the next section for who contributed to the art's writeup, and send e-mail to them. Otherwise, comment to pals@ipact.com. *** Aikido Intro: Aikido emphasizes evasion and circular/spiral redirection of an attacker's aggressive force into throws, pins, and immobilizations as a primary strategy rather than punches and kicks. Origin: Japan. History: Aikido was founded in 1942 by Morihei Ueshiba (1883-1969). Prior to this time, Ueshiba called his art "aikibudo" or "aikinomichi". In developing aikido, Ueshiba was heavily influenced by Daito Ryu Aikijujitsu, several styles of Japanese fencing (kenjutsu), spearfighting (yarijutsu), and by the so- called "new religion": omotokyo. Largely because of his deep interest in omotokyo, Ueshiba came to see his aikido as rooted less in techniques for achieving physical domination over others than in attempting to cultivate a "spirit of loving protection for all things." The extent to which Ueshiba's religious and philosophical convictions influenced the direction of technical developments and changes within the corpus of aikido techniques is not known, but many aikido practitioners believe that perfect mastery of aikido would allow one to defend against an attacker without causing serious or permanent injury. Descriptions: The primary strategic foundations of aikido are: (1) moving into a position off the line of attack; (2) seizing control of the attacker's balance by means of leverage and timing; (3) applying a throw, pin, or other sort of immobilization (such as a wrist/arm lock). Strikes are not altogether absent from the strategic arsenal of the aikidoist, but their use is primarily (though not, perhaps, exclusively) as a means of distraction -- a strike (called "atemi") is delivered in order to provoke a reaction from the aggressor, thereby creating a window of opportunity, facilitating the application of a throw, pin, or other immobilization. Many aikido schools train (in varying degrees) with weapons. The most commonly used weapons in aikido are the jo (a staff between 4 or 5 feet in length), the bokken (a wooden sword), and the tanto (a knife, usually made of wood, for safety). These weapons are used not only to teach defenses against armed attacks, but also to illustrate principles of aikido movement, distancing, and timing. Training: A competitive variant of aikido (Tomiki aikido) holds structured competitions where opponents attempt to score points by stabbing with a foam-rubber knife, or by executing aikido techniques in response to attacks with the knife. Most variants of aikido, however, hold no competitions, matches, or sparring. Instead, techniques are practiced in cooperation with a partner who steadily increases the speed, power, and variety of attacks in accordance with the abilities of the participants. Participants take turns being attacker and defender, usually performing pre-arranged attacks and defenses at the lower levels, gradually working up to full-speed freestyle attacks and defenses. Sub-Styles: There are several major variants of aikido. The root variant is the "aikikai", founded by Morihei Ueshiba, and now headed by the founder's son, Kisshomaru Ueshiba. Several organizations in the United States are affiliated with the aikikai, including the United States Aikido Federation, the Aikido Association of America, and Aikido Schools of Ueshiba. Other major variants include: * the "ki society", founded by Koichi Tohei, * yoshinkan aikido, founded by Gozo Shioda, * the kokikai organization, headed by Shuji Maruyama, * "Tomiki aikido" named after its founder, Kenji Tomiki. *** Capoeira Intro: This is a very acrobatic, very energetic Brazilian martial art. Origin: Brazil History: In the 1500's, black slaves from Africa were used in Brazil to build the empire of the sugar cane. These slaves lacked a form of self-defense, and in a way quite parallel to Karate, they developed a martial-art with the things they had in hand, namely, sugar cane knives and 3/4 staffs. Being slaves, they had to disguise the study of the art, and that is how the dance came into it. Their feet were manacled for most of the time, so the art uses a lot of standing on the hands feet up, and some moves are directed to fighting mounted enemies. In the early 1800's Capoeira was outlawed in Brazil, especially in its "home state" of Bahia, where gangs utilized it as their personal fighting style against police. Capoeira was born in the "senzalas", the places where the slaves were kept, and developed in the "quilombos", the places where they used to run to when they fled from their enslavers. Description: It consists of a stylized dance, practiced in a circle called the "roda", with sound background provided by percussion instruments, like the "agogo", the "atabaqui", etc. Training: After a through warm-up, standing exercises are done, with emphasis on the "ginga", the footwork characteristic of the art, and on the basic kicks: "bencao", a front-stomping kick, "martelo", a roundhouse kick, "chapa", a side-kick, "meia-lua", a low turning kick, "armada", a high turning kick, "queixada", an outside-inside crescent kick. Then walking sequences are done, with the introduction of sommersaults, backflips and headstands, in couples and individual. Some more technical training follows, with couples beginning a basic and slow "jogo", and then the whole class forms and goes for "roda" game for at least 30 minutes. A normal standard class goes on for about 2 hours. Sub-Styles: Regional: Capoeira in a more artistic, open form, giving more way to athletic prowess and training. Angola: a more closed, harder style. Iuna: a totally athletic and artistic form of the art, where the couple inside the "roda" play together, as opposed to one against the other. *** Coung Nhu (pronounced "Kung New") Intro: An eclectic, fairly new martial art. Origin: Vietnam History: Founded in 1965 by Ngo Dong, the first US school opened in Gainesville FL in 1971. Master Dong currently resides in Florida; there are Cuong Nhu schools in various places throughout the US and the world. For more information or the location of a school near you, the Cuong Nhu Oriental Martial Arts Association can be reached at (904) 378-3466. Description: Cuong Nhu is an integrated martial art blending hard aspects (Cuong in Vietnamese) from Shotokan Karate, Wing Chun Kung Fu, and American Boxing, with influences from the soft (Nhu in Vietnamese) arts of Judo, Aikido, and Tai Chi, in addition to Vovinam, a Vietnamese martial art using both hard and soft techniques. In keeping with its inclusive nature, Cuong Nhu instruction extends beyond the traditionally martial to public speaking and philosophy. Training: [More info needed] Sub-Styles: None(?) *** Escrima - see "Kali/Escrima/Arnis" *** HapKiDo Intro: This Korean art is sometimes confused with Aikido, since the Korean and Japanese translation of the names is the same. Origin: Korea History: Hapkido history is the subject of some controversy. Some sources say that the founder of Hapkido, Choi, Yong Sul was a houseboy/servant (some even say "the adopted son") of Japanese Daito Ryu Aikijujutsu GrandMaster Takeda, Sokaku. In Japan, Choi used the Japanese name Yoshida, Tatsujutsu since all immigrants to Japan took Japanese names at that time. Choi's Japanese name has also been given as Asao, Yoshida by some sources. According to this view, Choi studied under Takeda in Japan from 1913, when he was aged 9, until Takeda died in 1943. However, Daito Ryu records do not reflect this, so hard confirmation has not been available. Some claim that Choi's Daito Ryu training was limited to attending seminars. Ueshiba, Morihei, the founder of Aikido, was also a student of Takeda (this is not disputed). Hapkido and Aikido both have significant similarities to Daito Ryu Aikijujutsu, so it would seem that Hapkido's link to it is real, regardless of how and where Choi was trained. Choi returned to Korea after Takeda's death and began studying Korean arts and teaching Yu Sool or Yawara (other names for jujutsu), eventually calling his kwan ("school") the Hapki Kwan. Ji, Han Jae, began studying under Choi and eventually started his own school, where he taught what he called Hapkido, after the grandmaster's school. Along the way, Hapkido adopted various techniques from Tang Soo Do, Tae Kyon, and other Korean kwans (schools). Korean sources may tend to emphasize the Korean arts lineage of Hapkido over the Aikijujutsu lineage, with some even omitting the Aikijujutsu connection. However, as noted above, the connection can be seen in the techniques. Ji now calls his system Sin Moo Hapkido. He currently lives and teaches in California, as does another former Choi student, Myung, Kwang Sik, who is GrandMaster of the World Hapkido Federation. Some other Choi Hapkido students are still living. Chang, Chun Il currently resides in NY, and Im, Hyon Soo who lives and teaches in Korea. Both of these men were promoted to 9th dan by Choi. One of the first Hapkido masters to bring the art to the western culture was Han, Bong Soo. In the 1970's and 80's Hapkido was taught as the style of choice to elite South Korean armed forces units. Description: Hapkido combines joint locks, pressure points, throws, kicks, and strikes for practical self-defense. More soft than hard and more internal than external, but elements of each are included. Emphasizes circular motion, non-resistive movements, and control of the opponent. Although Hapkido contains both outfighting and infighting techniques, the goal in most situations is to get inside for a close-in strike, lock, or throw. When striking, deriving power from hip rotation is strongly emphasized. Training: Varies with organization and instructor. As a general rule, beginners concentrate on basic strikes and kicks, along with a few joint locks and throws. Some of the striking and kicking practice is form-like, that is, with no partner, however, most is done with a partner who is holding heavy pads that the student strikes and kicks full power. Advanced students add a few more strikes and kicks as well as many more throws, locks, and pressure points. There is also some weapons training for advanced students - primarily belt, kubatan, cane, and short staff. Some schools do forms, some do not. Some do sparring and some do not, although at the advanced levels, most schools do at least some sparring. Many Hapkido techniques are unsuitable for use in sparring, as their use would result in injury, even when protective gear is used. Thus, sparring typically uses only a limited subset of techinques. There is generally an emphasis on physical conditioning and excercise, including "ki" exercises. Sub-Styles: [more info needed] *** Hwa Rang Do Intro: Translated, Hwa Rang Do means "the way of flowering manhood". Origin: Korea History: Hwa Rang Do history is sometimes traced back to around 540 A.D. when King Chinhung came to power in Silla, a small kingdom on the southern tip of the Korean peninsula. He created the Hwa Rang warrior, and had them taught martial arts by Buddhist priests. Some sources claim that the art was then handed down (taking refuge in Buddhist temples for a long period of time) to modern times. However, the connections between the martial arts practiced by the Hwa Rang warriors and what is now called Hwa Rang Do are tenuous at best. Modern Hwa Rang Do seems more likely to be a combination of several other Korean arts, Hapkido prominent among them. Lee, Joo Bang and his brother Joo Sang began teaching Hwa Rang Do in the 1960s and are the most senior Masters of the art. It has been reported by other Korean martial artists that the Lee brothers studied Hapkido under Choi, Yong Sul for a time prior to that. Description: Hwa Rang Do is a fairly complete art encompassing throws, joint locks, strikes, and kicks. Its description would closely parallel Hapkido's. Training: [more info needed] Sub-styles: None *** Iaido Intro: The Art of drawing the sword for combat. Origin: Japan History: This art is very old, and has strong philosophical and historical ties to Kenjutsu. It was practiced by Japanese warriors for centuries. Description: The object is to draw the sword perfectly, striking as it is drawn, so that the opponent has no chance to defend against the strike. Training: Usually practiced in solo form (kata), but also has partner forms (kumetachi). Sub-Styles: Muso Shinden Ryu, Muso Jikishin Ryu, and others. *** Judo Intro: Judo is a sport and a way to get in great shape, but is also very useful for self-defense. Origin: Japan History: Judo is derived from Jujutsu (see Jujutsu). It was created by Professor Jigoro Kano who was born in Japan in 1860 and who died in 1938 after a lifetime of promoting Judo. Mastering several styles of jujutsu in his youth he began to develop his own system based on modern sports principles. In 1882 he founded the Kodokan Judo Institute in Tokyo where he began teaching and which still is the international authority for Judo. The name Judo was chosen because it means the "gentle way". Kano emphasised the larger educational value of training in attack and defense so that it could be a path or way of life that all people could participate in and benefit from. He eliminated some of the traditional jujutsu techniques and changed training methods so that most of the moves could be done with full force to create a decisive victory without injury. The popularity of Judo increased dramatically after a famous contest hosted by the Tokyo police in 1886 where the Judo team defeated the most well-known jujutsu school of the time. It then became a part of the Japanese physical education system and began its spread around the world. In 1964 men's Judo competition became a part of the Olympics, the only eastern martial art that is an official medal sport. In 1992 Judo competition for women was added to the Olympics. Description: Judo is practiced on mats and consists primarily of throws (nage-waza), along with katame-waza (grappling), which includes osaekomi-waza (pins), shime-waza (chokes), and kansetsu-waza (armbars). Additional techniques, including atemi-waza (striking) and various joint locks are found in the judo katas. Judo is generally compared to wrestling but it retains its unique combat forms. As a daughter to Jujutsu these techniques are also often taught in Judo classes. Because the founder was involved in education (President of Tokyo University) Judo training emphasizes mental, moral and character development as much as physical training. Most instructors stress the principles of Judo such as the principle of yielding to overcome greater strength or size, as well as the scientific principles of leverage, balance, efficiency, momentum and control. Judo would be a good choice for most children because it is safe and fun. Training: Judo training has many forms for different interests. Some students train for competition by sparring and entering the many tournaments that are available. Other students study the traditional art and forms (kata) of Judo. Other students train for self-defense, and yet other students play Judo for fun. Black belts are expected to learn all of these aspects of Judo. Sub-Styles: Because Judo originated in modern times it is organized like other major sports with one international governing body, the International Judo Federation (IJF), and one technical authority (Kodokan). There are several small splinter groups (such as the Zen Judo Assoc.) who stress judo as a "do" or path, rather than a sport. Unlike other martial arts, Judo competition rules, training methods, and rank systems are relatively uniform throughout the world. *** Jujutsu Intro: Old, practical, fighting art. A parent to Judo, Aikido, and Hapkido. Origin: Japan History: The begining of Ju-jutsu can be found in the turbulent period of Japanese history between the 8th and 16th Century. During this time, there was almost constant civil war in Japan and the classical weaponed systems were developed and constantly refined on the battle field. Close fighting techniques were developed as part of these systems to be use in conjunction with weapons against armoured, armed apponents. It was from these techniques that Ju-jutsu arose. The first publicly recognised Ju-jutsu ryu was formed by Takenouchie Hisamori in 1532 and consisted of techniques of sword, jo-stick and dagger as well as unarmed techniques. In 1603, Tokugawa Ieyasu brought peace to Japan by forming the Tokugawa military government. This marked the beginning of the Edo period of Japanese history (1603-1868), during which waring ceased to be a dominant feature of Japanese life. In the beginning of this period there was a general shift from weaponed forms of fighting to weaponless styles. These weaponless styles were developed from the grappling techniques of the weaponed styles and were collectively known as ju-jutsu. During the height of the Edo period, there were more than 700 systems of jujutsu. The end of the Edo was marked by the Meiji Restoration, an abortive civil war that moved power from the Shogun back to the Emperor. A large proportion of the Samurai class supported the Shogun during the war. Consequently, when power was restored to the Emperor, many things related to the Samurai fell into disrepute. An Imperial edict was decreed, declaring it a criminal offence to practice the old style combative martial arts. During the period of the Imperial edict, Ju-jutsu was almost lost. However, some masters continued to practice their art "under-ground", or moved to other countries, allowing the style to continue. By the mid twenty century, the ban on ju-jutsu in Japan had lifted, allowing the free practicing of the art. Description: The style encompasses throws, locks, and striking techniques, with a strong emphasis on throws, locks, and defensive techniques. It is also characterized by in-fighting and close work. It is a circular, hard/soft, external style. Training: Practical with a heavy emphasis on sparring and mock combat. Sub-Styles: There are many, each associated with a different "school" (Ryu). Here is a partial list: Daito Ryu, Danzan Ryu, Shidare Yanagi Ryu, Hokuto Ryu, Hontai Yoshin Ryu, Sosuishi Ryu, Kito Ryu, Kyushin Ryu. A more modern addition to this list is "Gracie Jujutsu", so named because of its development by the Gracie family of Brazil. Gracie has a heavy emphasis on groundfighting. *** Kajukembo Intro: An eclectic martial art that is a blend of Karate, Judo, Kempo, and Boxing, from which arts it takes its name. History: Kajukembo was synthesized in the Palomas settlements of Hawaii during the years 1949-1952. Five practitioners of their respective martial arts developed Kajukembo to complement each others styles to allow effective fighting at all ranges and speeds. The man credited with the founding of Kajukembo is Siju Adriano D. Emperado who practiced kempo and escrima. It was decided that kempo would be the scafolding around which Kajukembo was built. The arts drawn upon to found Kajukembo are Tang soo do, judo, ju-jitsu, kempo, and chu'an fa gung fu (Chinese boxing); hence the name Ka-ju-kem-bo (Tang soo do was shortened as a form of karate, even though that is technically incorrect). To test the effectiveness of their origional techniques the five founders would get into fights around the Palomas settlements (the worst slum in Hawaii at the time). If the technique succeeded consistently in streetfighting it was kept as part of the system. From these field test came Kajukembo's Quins (known as the Palomas sets (forms or kata)), Natural laws (self-defense), Tricks (close-quarters fighting), and grab arts (escapes). Description: Kajukembo concentrates on being an effective art at all ranges of fighting, kicking -> Punching -> Trapping -> Grappling. While many schools of karate and Korean martial arts concentrate on kata, Kajukembo stresses the self-defence movements over the relatively fewer forms in the art. The reasoning behind this is that a practitioner must be capable of defending himself in streetfighting situations before turning inward to perfect the 'art' of Kajukembo. At higher levels there is meditative and chi training, but the author cannot comment further at his level of experience. Kajukembo stresses the following-up of techniques based on an opponents reactions and not stopping with just one hit. The reasoning is that while one should strive to end a fight with the fewest techniques nessesary, it is important to know how an opponent will respond to attacks, and how best to take advantage of his reactions. A major ethical point behind my instruction was, "If he starts the fight, you decide when the fight is over." Training: The training is physically intense and very demanding. Exercise is a part of the class structure to insure that practitioners will be physically capable of defending themselves outside of the dojo. The warm-up and callistenics typically last 1/3 of the class period. Emphasis is placed on bag work (kick, punching, elbows, and knees) as well as sparring and grappling (contact with control). After a certain amount of time training, students begin to throw real punches at each other and their partner is expected to react appropriately or face the consequences. Learning to absorb and soften an impact is also a major facet of training. Quins (kata) are performed to fine-tune a person's movements while working with partners for self defense teaches a student how to manipulate an opponent and follow up on his reactions. *** Kali/Escrima/Arnis Intro: Kali, Escrima, and Arnis are all terms for the native fighting arts of the Philippines, specifically the arts that use weapons. Arnis is a Northern Term, Escrima more Central, and Kali is from the South. In this view, the terms just refer to indigenous weapons fighting systems. Arnis would be the term used in Northern Luzon, Escrima from Manila through the central islands, and Kali on Mindanao. People who use this definition tend to say that the words don't matter - every village, and often every master, has a distinct style, and that's what the important thing is - "do you study Illustrisimo, Caballero, or Cabales style?" Not "do you study escrima or kali?" Origin: The Phillipines History: Kali is an older art than Escrima or Arnis, and more comprehensive. Escrima and Arnis were developed as streamlined, simplified ways to teach people to fight the Spanish invaders. Hence, Kali is more of a "warrior's art" while Escrima and Arnis are "soldier's arts". Kali is usually considered to have 12 areas of combat, with Escrima containing 8 or 9 of them, and Arnis 4 to 6. Description: The "full" coverage alluded to above usually contains the following: 1 Single Stick (or long blade) 2 Double long weapon 3 Long & Short (sword & dagger, e.g.) 4 Single dagger 5 Double Dagger 6 Palm Stick/Double-end Dagger 7 Empty Hands (punching, kicking, grappling) 8 Spear/Staff, long weapons (two-handed) 9 Flexible weapons (whip, sarong, etc.) 10 Throwing weapons 11 Projectile weapons (bows, blowguns) 12 Healing arts A further distinction that some people make is to say that Kali is, at its heart, a blade art, while Escrima and Arnis are designed to work with sticks. This is a matter of some contention among practitioners of the various styles and schools. A distinctive feature of all of these Filipino arts is their use of geometry. In strikes/defenses and movement, lines and angles are very important. In addition, the independent use of the hands, or hands and feet, to do two different things at the same time, is a high-level skill sought after a fair amount of experience. Training: Filipino styles normally classify attacks not by their weapon, or their delivery style, but by the direction of their energy - for example, a strike to the head is usually analyzed in terms of "a high lateral strike." A punch to the gut is treated much the same as a straight knife thrust to that region would be. Students learn how to deal with the energy of the attack, and then apply that knowledge to the slight variations that come with different lengths and types of weapons. Filipino arts place great emphasis on footwork, mobility, and body positioning. The same concepts (of angles of attack, deflections, traps, passes, etc.) are applied to similar situations at different ranges, making the understanding of ranges and how to bridge them very important. The Filipinos make extensive use of geometric shapes, superimposing them on a combat situation, and movement patterns, to teach fighters to use their position and their movement to best advantage. Some styles emphasize line-cutting (a la Wing Chun), while some are very circular (like Aikido). Some like to stay at long range, some will move inside as soon as possible. These differences are hotly debated, as are most things, but they all work differently for different people. Most Filipino arts, but Kali in particular, stress the importance of disarming an opponent in combat. This is not usually done gently, but by destroying an attacking weapon (break the hand, and the stick will fall.) Sub-Styles: None (?) *** Karate Intro: Somewhat generic term used for Japanese and Okinawan fighting arts. Origin: Okinawa History: Karate is a term that either means "Chinese hand" or "Empty hand" depending on which Japanese or Chinese characters you use to write it. The Okinawan Karates could be said to have started in the 1600s when Chinese practitioners of various Kung Fu styles mixed and trained with local adherents of an art called "te" (meaning "hand") which was a very rough, very simple fighting style similar to Western boxing. These arts generally developed into close- range, hard, external styles. In the late 19th century Gichin Funikoshi trained under several of the great Okinawan Karate masters (Itosu, Azato) as well as working with Jigoro Kano (see Judo) and Japanese Kendo masters (see Kendo). Influenced by these elements, he created a new style of Karate. This he introduced into Japan in the first decade of the 20th century and thus to the world. The Japanese Karates (or what most people refer to when they say "karate") are of this branch. Description: Okinawan Karate styles tend to be hard and external. In defense they tend to be circular, and in offense linear. Okinawan karate styles tend to place more emphasis on rigorous physical conditioning than the Japanese styles. Japanese styles tend to have longer, more stylistic movements and to be higher commitment. They also tend to be linear in movement, offense, and defense. Both tend to be high commitment, and tend to emphasize kicks and punches, and a strong offense as a good defense. Training: This differs widely but most of the Karate styles emphasize a fairly equal measure of basic technique training (repitition of a particular technique), sparring, and forms. Forms, or kata, as they are called, are stylized patterns of attacks and defenses done in sequence for training purposes. Sub-Styles: (Okinawan): Uechi-Ryu, Goju-Ryu, Shorin-Ryu, Isshin-Ryu (Japanese): Shotokan, Shito-Ryu, Wado-Ryu Here is a more complete list (complements of Howard High) in which Okinawan and Japanese styles are mixed: Chinto-Ryu, Chito-Ryu, Doshinkan, Gohaku-Kai, Goju-Ryu (Kanzen), Goju-Ryu (Okinawan), Goju-Ryu (Meibukan), Gosoku-Ryu, Isshin-Ryu, Kenseido, Koei-Kan, Kosho-Ryu Kenpo, Kyokushinkai, Kyu Shin Ryu, Motobu-Ryu, Okinawan Kempo, Okinawa Te, Ryokukai, Ryuken, Ryukyu Kempo, Sanzyu-Ryu , Seido, Seidokan, Seishin-Ryu, Shindo Jinen-Ryu, Shinjimasu, Shinko-Ryu, Shito-Ryu (Itosu-Kai), Shito-Ryu (Seishinkai), Shito-Ryu (Kofukan), Shito-Ryu (Kuniba Ha) , Shito-Ryu (Motobu Ha), Shorin-Ryu (Kobayashi), Shorin-Ryu (Matsubayashi), Shorin-Ryu (Shobayashi), Shorin-Ryu (Matsumura), Shorinji Kempo, Shorinji-Ryu, Shoshin-Ryu, Shotokai, Shotokan, Shotoshinkai, Shudokai, Shuri-Ryu, Shuri-Te, Uechi-Ryu , Wado-Kai, Wado-Ryu, Washin-Ryu, Yoseikan, Yoshukai, Yuishinkan. Sub-Style Descriptions: Wado-Ryu was founded by Hironori Ohtsuka around the 1920s. Ohtsuka studied Jujutsu for many years before becoming a student of Gichin Funikoshi. Considered by some to be Funikoshi's most brilliant student, Ohtsuka combined the movements of Jujutsu with the striking techniques of Okinawan Karate. After the death of Ohtsuka in the early 1980s, the style split into two factions: Wado Kai, headed by Ohtsuka's senior students; and Wado Ryu, headed by Ohtsuka's son, Jiro. Both factions continue to preserve most of the basic elements of the style. Uechi-ryu Karate, although it has become one of the main Okinawan martial arts and absorbed many of the traditional Okinawan karate training methods and approaches, is historically, and to some extent technically quite separate. The "Uechi" of Uechi-ryu commemorates Uechi Kanbun, an Okinawan who went to Fuzhou, the capital city of Fujian province in China in 1897 to avoid being drafted into the Japanese army. There he studied under master Zhou Zihe for ten years, finally opening his own school, one of the few non-Chinese who ventured to do so at the time. The man responisble for bringing Uechi-ryu to the US is George Mattson. Uechi-ryu, unlike the other forms of Okinawan and Japanese karate mentioned in the FAQ, is only a few decades removed from its Chinese origins. Although it has absorbed quite a bit of Okinawan influence and evolved closer to such styles as Okinawan Goju-ryu over those decades, it still retains its original Chinese flavor, both in its technique and in the culture of the dojo. It is a "half-hard, half-soft" style very similar to such southern Chinese styles as Fukienese Crane (as still practiced in the Chinese communities of Malaysia), Taiwanese Golden Eagle, and even Wing Chun. Conditioning the body for both attack and defense is a common characteristic of both Okinawan karate and southern Shaolin "street" styles, and as such is an important part of Uechi training. There is a strong internal component to the practice, including focused breathing and tensioning exercises similar to Chinese Qigong. Uechi, following its Chinese Crane heritage, emphasizes circular blocks, low snap kicks, infighting (coordinating footwork with grabs, locks, throws, and sweeps), and short, rapid hand traps and attacks (not unlike Wing Chun). *** Kendo Intro: This is a popular sport in Japanese communities. Origin: Japan History: Kendo is the sport and competitive form of Kenjutsu. Kendo has been practiced for a long time in one form or another. Description: The practitioners wear protective armor and use simulated swords (split bamboo called "shinai") to "spar" against one another. Strike areas are limited as are moves. It is a very formal art. It is linear, hard, and external. Training: Training mostly consists of two-person drills, basics, and some kata that have been retained from kenjutsu between individuals. Sub-Styles: none (?) *** Kenjutsu Intro: The combative use of a sword. Origin: Japan History: The origins of this art are lost in the midst of history. It probably has its origins in 12th century or 11th century Japan. It is famous in myth and story from people like Miyamoto Mushashi in the 15th century. There are 4 root systems, Cujo-ryu, Nen-ryu, Kage-ryu and Shinto Ryu. These probably all have roots prior to the beginning of the 16th century. In the 16th century, there was an explosion of styles, with many being formed between then and the present. Modern kenjutsu schools trace from either the monk Jion (Nen ryu or Cujo ryu) or from Iiosai, the founder of the Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto Ryu. Description: This is a hard, weapon style using the Japanese sword. It involves powerful, high commitment strikes to selected targets in order to kill the opponent. There is a strong side of spiritual and philosophical study, similar in a way to that of Aikido. Training: There is a large amount of two-person work, mostly with wooden swords (bokken). Some schools use the fukuru shinai, an ancestor of todays weapon (Shinkage ryu, Nen-ryu). Sparring is a developed student activity. Sub-Styles: Kage, Shinkage, Yagyu Shinkage Cujo, Itto-ryu, Nen-ryu, Katroi-shinto Ryu, Kashima shin-ryu, Niten-ichi-ryu, Jigen-ryu. Shinkage was a royal school - for the Shogun. *** Kenpo (American) Intro: This art is also called Kenpo Karate. In this list it is thus distinguished from Kempo (see Kempo). Origin: Hawaii History: American Kenpo is an eclectic art developed by Hawaiian Ed Parker in the 60s. The art combines the Kara-Ho Kenpo which Parker learned from William Chow with influences from Chinese, Japanese, Hawaiian, and Western Martial sources. Description: American Kenpo blends circular motions and evasive movements with linear kicks and punches. The art is oriented toward street-wise self defense. Training: A big emphasis on basics, sparring, and kata. It is similar to most Karate styles in its training mechanisms. Sub-Styles: None. *** Kempo (Ryukyu Kempo, Kempo Karate) Intro: Ryukyu Kempo (which roughly translates into Okinawan kung-fu, or Chinese boxing science) is the original style of martial arts learned and taught by Gichin Funakoshi on the island of Okinawa (1). It stresses the existence of body points within your opponent that can be struck or grappled for more effective fighting. Origin: Okinawa Islands (Ryukyu island chain). History: Practioners of Ryukyu Kempo believe that karate-do is a popular subform of Kempo, established within this century by Gichin Funakoshi. People with original copies of Gunakoshi's first edition book _Ryukyu Kempo_ state that he is clearly is grappling and touching an opponent. Later editions and current karate books only show a practioner with a retracted punch, where the original shows actively grappling an enemy. It is felt that Funakoshi was the last of the purists, wanting all to learn the art. In subseqent years, the Okinawans, who have a culture and history of their own, became disenchanted with the Japanese, and were less inclined to teach them the "secret techniques" of self defence. When American military men occupied Japan after WWII, they became enamored of the martial-arts. It is theorized that the Japanese and Okinawans were reluctant to teach the secrets of their national art to the occupiers, and so taught a "watered down" version of karate-do usually reserved for children. Contemporary Kempo practioners practice "pressure point fighting" or Kyushu-jitsu and grappling, called Tuite. It is an exact art of striking small targets on the body, such as nerve centers, and grappling body points in manners similar to Jujitsu or Aikido(2). Modern teachers of this are George Dillman of Reading, PA, Taiku Oyata of Independence, Missouri, and Rick Clark of Terre Haute, Indiana. Dillman was a student of Oyata years and years ago, but it doesn't appear that they get along now. Training: The practioners of kempo believe that kata do not represent origin or direction of attacks but positional techniques for the defender. Concentration is made on physical perfection of kata and the Bunkai, or explanation of the movements. Tournaments of kata and kumite (sparriing) are encouraged as learning experiences, but not overly stressed. Also taught is Kobudo, which is defined as weapons fighting using ordinary hand tools. Five principles to be observed in Oyata's school: 1. Proper distance. 2. Eye contact. 3. Minimum pain inflication on your opponent. 4. Legally safe. 5. Morally defensible.(3) There are a couple of physical differences in Kempo and many other styles. One is a three-quarter punch, rather than a full twist. Second is a fist whereby the thumb stops at the first finger, rather than the first two fingers. Third is the sword hand, which has the little finger placed as parallel as possible to the third finger and the thumb straight and on the inside rather than bent.(2) References: (1) _Karate-Do: My Way of Life_ by Gichin Funakoshi (2) _Kyusho Jitsu: The Dillman Method of Pressure Point Fighting_ by George A. Dillman with Chris Thomas. (3) _Ryukyu Kempo: History and Basics_ by J. D. Logue (Oyata student). Sub-Styles: Kempo Karate is the family style of Grandmaster James Mitose. First taught to non-family members in Hawaii during the 1940s and 1950s. Mitose called his family style Kosho Ryu Kempo ("Old Pine Tree School Fist Law"). One of Mitose's students, William Chow, mixed in elements of his fathers Chinese style to produce his own style, called Kara-Ho Kenpo Karate. *** Kobudo Intro: "Kobudo" literally means "ancient martial ways". In the karate world, it generally refers to those traditional Okinawan weapons whose history and practice has been linked to that of karate. Origin: Okinawa Description: Most Okinawan styles have at least some kobudo/kobujutsu curriculum. In addition, there are at least two major Okinawan organizations whose primary focus is these weapons arts: the Ryukyu Kobudo Hozon Shinko-kai and the Okinawa Kobudo Renmei. In the US there is 'Okinawa Kobudo Association, USA'; the shihan in the US is in Citrus Heights, CA. There may be other US Kobudo organizations. The most common kobudo weapons (and the ones most often taught by Okinawan karate systems) are: bo - staff, usually a rokushakubo or "six foot staff", although 4, 9, and 12 foot staffs are also used. sai - three-tined iron clubs, usually carried as a set of 3. nunchaku - two short tapered wooden clubs, connected at the narrow ends by a short rope or chain (a flail, as well as other uses). kama - a sickle, used singly or in pairs; tuifa/tonfa - a club with a hand-length perpendicular handle, the ancestor to the police PR-24; usually used in pairs. Less common weapons are: koa - a hoe. eku - a boat oar. tekko - essentially brass knuckles. shuchu - a small kubotan-like thing about 5" long. san-setsu-kon - the 3-section staff. surujin/suruchen - a weighted chain with a spike or blade on one end - similar to the Chinese chain whip or the Japanese manrikigusari; tinbe - actually, this is two weapons...the tinbe itself, which is a small shield traditionally made of the shell of a sea tortoise, and the rochin, which is a short spear with a cutting blade - the weapon actually resembles a Zulu spear more than anything else. kusarikama - a kama on the end of a rope or chain. nunti - a short spear. and a few other oddball implements of mayhem including spears and the occasional pilfered Japanese sword ;-). *** Krav Maga Intro: The Israeli official Martial Art Origin: Israel History: The Krav Maga was developed in Israel in the early forties when the underground liberation organizations were fighting for the independence of the State of Israel. At that time, it was illegal to possess weapons. The inventor and developer of the Krav Maga was a champion heavy weight boxer, a judo champion, and an expert in jiu-jutsu. In addition, he was as a trapeze acrobat and a well known dancer. The knowledge he thus obtained, contributed to the development of the Israeli martial art of self defense. There is no hidden meaning behind the name Krav Maga, and literarily means "contact fight / battle". The Krav Maga was put into practice originally by the fighters of the liberation organizations that often went to battle armed with knives or sticks and with the knowledge of Krav Maga, and they were very successful. After the establishment of the State of Israel, Krav Maga was adopted as the official martial art taught in the defense forces, and especially in the elite police and army units. Over the years, the Krav Maga has turned into an integrated part of training in many disciplines such as educational institutes. Description: The Krav Maga is not an ecletic martial art system, rather, it was developed with the perception that the classic martial arts were lacking various elements. The defense needs in the eras that the classic martial arts were developed were different than those of today. New unique techniques for defense against pistols, guns and hand grenades were considered needed, and therefore developed. Training: Since the Krav Maga by definition is for self defense, it does not have any constitution and judicial rules and therefore there are no contests and exhibitions. The training is for practical usage in the every day reality. There is a colored belt system with a Black Belt typically granted after 8 to 10 years of practice. Spiritual and philosophical aspects are studied only at the Black Belt level. Sub-Styles: None. *** Kung Fu / Wu Shu Intro: This is an almost impossible category. This label is attached to almost any martial art that comes from China. It is the generic name for literally hundreds of individual Chinese fighting arts. In reality we should have an entry for each individual Kung Fu style we are interested in, but this would fill entire volumes. However, we will do our best. Origin: China History: This is extremely controversial. Most of what appears here is a summary of what has been learned from Sifu Benny Meng. There are vague references of a King in China some thousands of years ago who trained his men in techniques of hand-to-hand combat to use in fighting against invading barbarians. The first real references of an organized system of martial arts came from a man named General Chin Na. He taught a form of combat to his soldiers which most people believe developed into what is modern day Chin-Na. The first written record we have of Chinese martial arts is from a Taoist acupuncturist from the 5th century. He describes combat designed along the lines of an animal's movements and style. Legend has it that a Bhuddist monk named Bohdiharma, also called Ta Mo, came across the Tibetan Mountains to China. The Emperor of China at the time was much impressed with the man, and gave him a temple located in Honan - the famed Sui Lim Monastery (Shaolin Monastery). Ta Mo found that the monks there, while searching for spiritual enlightenment, had neglected their physical bodies. He taught them some exercises and drills that they adapted into fighting forms. This became the famous Shaolin Kung Fu system. "Kung Fu" means "skill and effort". It is used to describe anything that a person nees to spend time training in and becoming skillful in. (A chef can have good "kung fu".) The Chinese term that translates into "military art" is "Wu Shu". As all martial arts, Wushu in its early stages of development was practiced primarily for self-defense and for aquiring basic needs. As time progressed, innumerable people tempered and processed Wushu in different ways. By China's Ming and Qing dynasties (1368-1911), Wushu had formed its basic patterns. Intense military conflicts served as catalysts for the development of Wushu. During China's Xia, Shang, and Zhou periods (2000BC to 771BC), Wushu matured and formed complete systems of offense and defense, with the emergence of bronze weapons in quantity. During the period of Warring States (770BC to 221BC), the heads of states and government advocated Wushu in their armies and kept Wushu masters for their own puposes. Military Wushu developed more systematically during the Tang and Song dynaties (618 to 1279) and exhibitions of Wushu arts were held in the armies as morale boosters and military exercises. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the general development of Wushu was at its height. Military Wushu became more practical and meticulous and was systematically classified and summarized . General Qi Jiguang of the Ming Dynasty delved into Wushu study and wrote "A New Essay on Wushu Arts", which became an important book in China's military literature. The latter half of the 20th century has seen a great upswing in the interest of Kung Fu world wide. The introduction of Kung Fu to the Western world has seen to it that its development and popularity will continue to grow. Description: Styles of Kung Fu encompass both soft and hard, internal and external techniques. They include grappling, striking, nerve-attack and much weapons training. The Shao-Lin styles encompass both Northern and Southern styles, and therefore are the basis of the following outline. I Shaolin Wushu styles A. External Styles (Hard, Physical) 1. Northern a. Northern Shaolin b. Chang Chuan (Long Fist) c. Praying Mantis d. Eagle Claw e. Monkey f. Drunken, et al 2. Southern a. Southern Shaolin b. Wing Chun c. Five Animal System (Dragon, Snake, Tiger, Leopard, Crane) d. Tiger and Crane Systems, et al B. Internal Styles (Soft, Mental/Spiritual) 1. Tai Chi Chuan 2. Others (Pa Kua, Xingyi, et al) Training: II Shaolin Wushu Methods A. Hard or External Styles 1. Stresses training and strengthening of the joints, bones, and muscles 2. Requires rigorous body conditioning 3. Consists of positioning and movement of the limbs and body, correct technique, muscular strength, speed, etc. B. Soft or Internal Styles 1. Stresses development of internal organs where "Chi" is produced 2. Allows one to develop mental capability to call upon this "Chi" 3. Concerned with breathing, poise, and tone of the core body structures C. Long or Northern Styles 1. Stresses Flexibility, quickness, agility, and balance similar to the attributes of a trained and well-conditioned gymnast 2. Uses many kicks along with hand techniques 3. Legs specialize in long-range tactics D. Short or Southern 1. Stresses close-range tactics, power, and stability 2. Uses mostly hand techniques Kung Fu almost always seems to incorporate forms and routines. They emphasize solo practice as well as group practice. (They even have forms for two or more people). They train in multiple types of weapons. There is also a great emphasis on sparring in the harder styles, and sensitivity training in the soft styles. Sub-Styles: see above *** Kyudo Intro: Japanese target archery practiced as a martial art. Origin: Japan. History: Kyudo, the Way of the Bow, is the oldest of Japan's traditional martial arts. The bow has been used in Japan since prehistoric times. From the fourth to the ninth century, close contacts between China and Japan had a great influence on Japanese archery, especially the Confucian belief that through a person's archery their true characters could be determined. Over hundreds of years archery was influenced by the Shinto and Zen Buddhist religions along with the pressing practical requirements of warriors. Court nobles concentrated on ceremonial archery while the warrior class emphasized kyujutsu, the martial technique of using the bow in actual warfare. With the introduction of firearms the bow as a weapon was neglected and almost died out all together until Honda Toshizane, a kyudo instructor at Tokyo Imperial University, combined elements of the warrior style and the court ceremonial style into a hybrid style which ultimately became known as the Honda Ryu (Honda martial school). This style found great favor with the general public and he is generally credited with saving Japanese Archery from oblivion. With the American occupation banning all martial art instruction, Kyudo, as opposed to kyujutsu, became widely practiced and the Zen Nihon Kyudo Federation (All Japan Kyudo Federation) was established in 1953, publishing the standard kyudo textbook called the Kyohon, and overseeing Kyudo development both in Japan and internationally up to the present time. There now exists a European Kyudo Federation which has annual seminars and promotion tests and in 1993 the first such seminar and promotion test was held in America in San Jose, California. Description: Kyudo is a highly meditative martial art whose ultimate goals are Shin (Truth i.e. the ultimate reality), Zen (Goodness) and Bi (Beauty). When asked the question "What is Truth?" a master archer would pick up a bow and arrow and shoot it, without saying a word, allowing the level of mastery of the bow to serve as the gauge of the archer's progress along the "way" thereby showing the archer's knowledge of reality i.e. "Truth" itself. By such diligent practice Confucian theory teaches that the archer will become morally good (Zen), and this sincerity of personality will excite the aesthetic sense of anyone watching at an intuitive, emotional level giving the performance a beauty derived not only from the technical skill of the archer but also from the archer's emotional maturity and spiritual sincerity. Training: Students typically begin by practicing visualization: performing the shooting motions with no equipment and then perhaps using the gomuyumi (rubber bow), a short stick with a length of rubber tube attached, to acquire the feel of real bow resistance. The first actual shots are fired into a straw bundle, called a makiwara, from a short distance of about three feet. The student then progresses to target shooting at a fixed regulation distance of 28 meters. All students, no matter which instructor or school, will shoot the same design of Japanese bow which is little changed from the twelfth century. Traditionally made of hardwoods laminated front and back with bamboo the Japanese bow is one of the longest in the world, usually over seven feet in length. It is a natural double recurve bow with the arrow nocked one third of the way from the bottom and the bow actually rotating in the hand at release approx. 270 degrees. The unique design of the bow requires that the bow actually be torqued or twisted in full draw to make the arrow fly straight. Sub-styles: Technically, styles can be divided into two broad categories, shamen uchiokoshi and shomen uchiokoshi, the modern shomen uchiokoshi style having been developed by Honda Toshizane. Shamen archers predraw the bow at an angle to the body and fix their grip on the bow before raising it. Shomen archers raise the bow straight over the head and fix their final grip on the bow in a predraw above the head. There were dozens of traditional schools before World War II and many of them survive today provoking endless debate as to the superiority of one over the other. In fact, some traditional schools still do not use the word kyudo preferring the word kyujutsu instead to describe their teachings. Some styles heavily emphasize the spiritual aspect of shooting and some proponents of Zen Archery view kyudo as a way to further their own spiritual development in Zen Buddhism. *** Lua Intro: Royal Hawaiian martial art Origin: Hawaii History: In the 1800s the royal Hawaiian family decreed that the art would be restricted to members of the royal Hawaiian family (In fact, it is still illegal to practice the art in the state of Hawaii). Since the 1980s, the veil of secrecy to non-Hawaiians has started to lift with the open teaching of the art in Southern California by Alohe Kolomona Kaihewalu. Description: Hawaiian form of combat which resembles Jujutsu in some of its moves. The primary emphasis of the art is joint dislocation. Training: [more info needed] Sub-Styles: [more info needed] *** Muay Thai Intro: This is a very hard, external, close-in style. Origin: Thailand History: It is regarded as the national sport in Thailand. [more info needed] Description: Thai Boxing involves boxing techniques, hard kicking, and knee and elbow strikes. Known for the high level of physical conditioning developed by its practitioners. Training: The training involves rigorous physical training, similar to that practiced by Western boxers. It includes running, shadow-boxing, and heavy bag work. Much emphasis is also placed on various drills with the so-called "Thai pads". These pads weigh five to ten pounds, and cover the wearers forearms. In use, the trainer wears the pads, and may hold them to receive kicks, punchs, and knee and elbow strikes, and may also use them to punch at the trainee. This training is vaguely similar to the way boxing trainers use focus mitts. The characteristic Muay Thai round kick is delivered with the shin, therefore, shin conditioning is also done. Little or no free-sparring is done in training, due to the devastating nature of the techniques employed. Thai boxers may box, hands only, with ordinary boxing gloves. Another training drill is for two fighters to clinch, and practice a form of stand-up grappling, the goal of which is to try to land a knee strike. However, full-contact kicks, knees, and elbows are typically not used in training. Sub-Styles: [more info needed] *** Ninjutsu Intro: Another controversial style. Today's Ninjustu is derived from the traditional ninja fighting arts of Japan. This style involves a broad base of training designed to prepare the stylist for all possible situations. History: Ninjutsu's history is clouded by the events of the 19th century in Japan. The Japanese government of that time purged a lot of the records and history of the martial arts. It seems that Ninjas were clans of assassins and mercenaries who used stealth, assassination, disguises, and other tricks to do their work. They became feared and slightly mythologized because they were quite good at what they did. They were assassins for hire, and held in contempt yet feared by the warrior caste. The actual art revolved not so much around combat but rather stealth and movement, and use of tools and environment to enhance one's position. Ninjutsu originated in Japan about a thousand years ago. The oldest ninjutsu school still taught today is the Togakure ryu ninpo, which was founded by Nishina Daisuke (later Togakure Daisuke) around 1180. There were around 70 different ryu of ninjutsu. Today there are only a handful of ninjutsu ryu left. Nine of the remaining ryu are encompased in Soke Dr. Masaaki Hatsumi's Bujinkan Ninpo Taijutsu System. These ryu are Togakure ryu, Gyokko ryu, Kukishinden ryu, Gyokushin ryu, Koto ryu, Takagi yoshin ryu, Shinden fudo ryu, Gikan ryu and Kumogakure ryu. One other, the Hontai Takagi Yoshin ryu, is taught in Soke Shoto Tanemura's (a cousin of Hatsumi sensei) Genbukan Ninjutsu. It would be wise to be very careful about people claiming to be Ninja masters personally taught by the Ninja Grandmaster in Japan. He or she is VERY likely to be a fraud- teaching Karate in a black uniform. Description: It is a generally soft Art, incorporating armed and unarmed combat, althought there are a number of "hard" techinques. Philosophical aspects as well as general exercise are both important. Both linear and circular techniques are used, and there are both internal and external aspects to the art. The main principles in combat are distance and control. The Ninjutsu martial artist strives to evade attacks in such a way that he places himself in an advantageous position from which a simple use of leverage or movement of his body weight can take down or control his opponent. A Ninjutsu practitioner is taught to use his entire body for every movement/technique he makes, to provide the most power and leverage. From the beginning of training, Ninjutsu practitioners are taught to approach every fight as if he/she were facing multiple opponents, and to vary techniques to fit them to different situations and directions of attack. Weapons techniques normally taught in Ninjutsu include KenJutsu (sword techniques), BoJutsu (long staff techniques) and HanBoJutsu, (short staff techniques). Historically, Ninjutsu also attempted to incorporate aspects of every possible situation and needed knowledge of fighting, by means of different arts inside the Art. For example, there are subdivisions for spying, infiltration, poisoning, and cryptography. However, these are not typically incorporated in modern training. Training: Very eclectic, very general, very broad. Seems to emphasize having an answer for every situation and flexibility of response. There are no tournaments or competitions in Ninjutsu. Sub-Styles: Bujinkan Ninpo Taijutsu, Genbukan Ninjutsu. *** Savate Intro: A native French kicking style. Origin: France History: It was developed in the last century, and its origins and relationships, if any, to other Martial Arts are unclear. There are stories about French sailors picking up techniques in Eastern ports, bringing them home and integrating them with local foot fighting and fencing techniques. Description: It primarily encompasses kicking techniques somewhat similar to Tae Kwon Do or Karate. It includes punching techiques from Western Boxing and stick fighting techniques based on French rapier fighting. It is very stylized and more extended than most Eastern kicking arts. Training: [more info needed] Sub-Styles: [more info needed] *** Shuai-Chiao Intro: The oldest Chinese bare-handed fighting style. Shuai-Chiao is a comprehensive fighting style which incorporates the principles of T'ai Chi Ch'uan. Origin: China History: Shuia-Chiao emerged around 2,000 years ago. It was originally taught only to the military elite. Starting in the Ch'in Dynasty, Shuai-Chiao was demonstrated in tournaments for the Imperial court. During the Ching Dynasty, China maintained a camp of 300 full time fighters who trained for competition with China's allies. Today, Shuai-Chiao is still taught primarily to the military and police in China and Taiwan. Shuai-Chiao is a Northern Chinese martial art that was not well known in the south until the 1930's. Shuai-Chiao was introduced to the United States in 1978 by Dr. Chi-Hsiu Daniel Weng. Dr. Weng started martial arts training at age 11, beginning with judo. After achieving second degree black belt in judo, he began study of Shuai-Chiao from Grandmaster Ch'ang Tung-Sheng. Dr. Weng spent 20 years studying Shuai-Chiao with Grandmaster Chang, including 10 years as Shuai-Chiao instructor at the Taiwan Central Police College. Dr. Weng is an 8th degree black belt in Shuai-Chiao, and is president of the U.S. Shuai-Chiao Association. There has been a large growth of interest and participation in Shuai-Chiao during the past several years. Major Chinese martial arts tournaments now include Shuai-Chiao divisions. Shuai-Chiao fighters have also competed successfully in San Shou (full contact fighting) competition. The five-man U.S. full contact team sent to the 2nd World Wushu Championships included three Shuai-Chiao fighters. Description: Shuai-Chiao integrates striking, kicking, throwing, tripping, grappling, joint locking, and escaping methods. Shuai-Chiao fighting principles are based on T'ai Chi Ch'uan, but techniques are applied with more force. There are 30 theoretical principles of Shuai-Chiao; the six major principles are: absorbing, mixing, squatting, hopping, turning, and encircling. Shuai-Chiao fighting strategy emphasizes maintaining balance and controlling the opponent. Tactics emphasize throwing the opponent while maintain a joint lock, then following with a vital point strike. There are 36 major throws in the system, with 3600 combinations. Shuai-Chiao is notable for joint attacks and hard throws. Shuai-Chiao has a belt ranking system. The succession of belts is: white, green, green-blue, blue 1, blue 2, blue 3, black. There are ten degrees of black belt. The 10th degree is reserved for the founder of the lineage, the late Grandmaster Ch'ang Tung-Sheng. There are currently no holders of 9th degree black belt. Competition is similar to actual combat, except that strikes and kicks are allowed only in conjunction with a throw. Also, joint attacks are discouraged. Match is three falls. Point is awarded upon completion of the throw with control maintained over opponent. There is no pinning nor submission holds in Shuai-Chiao competition; in actual combat the throw would be followed by a finishing strike. Victory in tournament competition is required for advancement to blue belt and above. Training: There are a dozen stationary training stances to train strength and flexibility. Twenty moving forms train the position and footwork used in approaching, joint locking and throwing. Wushu high kicking excercises train leg strength and flexibility. The kicks most often used in Shuai-Chiao fighting are low kicks and sweeps. Unique to Shuai-Chiao is "belt cracking", which uses the uses the uniform belt in excercises that train strength and proper position. Throws are practised in excercises with a partner, then in sparring. Sparring is practised at all levels, as soon as the student has mastered breakfalls. A typical class consists of stretching excercises, Wushu kicking, forms practise, throwing and breakfalls, and sparring. Sub-Styles: Shuai-Chiao styles are categorized by region. The four major regional styles are Mongolian, Peking, T'ientsin, and Pao-ting. The USSA teaches the Pao-ting style. For more information, contact: United States Shuai-Chiao Association, P.O. Box 1221 Cupertino, CA 95015 U.S.A. *** Silat Intro: Pentjak Silat is the Indonesian set of Martial Arts, all with diferent styles and schools. Origin: Indonesia History: The generic name `Silat' is used throughout much of Southeast Asia, as in Malaysia (Bersilat), to mean the local version of this Martial Art. [more info needed] Description: They all seem to integrate weapons into their training, and mostly are indigenous, although some styles integrated Japanese and Chinese techniques and principles. Training: [more info needed] Sub-Styles: Kali/Escrima/Arnis (see separate FAQ entry), Panantukan, Sikaran, Panandiakman, Dumog, Kali Silat, some forms of Pencak Silat. *** Tae-Kwon-Do Intro: One of the most popular sports and martial arts in the world. Origin: Korea History: The five original Korean Kwans ("schools") were: Chung Do Kwan, Moo Duk Kwan (the art of Tang Soo Do), Yun Moo Kwan, Chang Moo Kwan, and Chi Do Kwan. These were founded in 1945 and 1946. Three more Kwans were founded in the early 1950's - Ji Do Kwan, Song Moo Kwan, and Oh Do Kwan. After fifty years of occupation by Japan (which ended in 1945) and after the division of the nation and the Korean War, Korean nationalism spurred the creation of a national art in 1955, combining the styles of the numerous kwans active within the country (with the exception of Moo Duk Kwan, which remained separate - therefore Tang Soo Do is still a separate art from TKD today). Gen. Hong Hi Choi was primarily responsible for the creation of this new national art, which was named Tae Kwon Do to link it with Tae-Kyon (a native art). Earlier unification efforts had been called Kong Soo Do, Tae Soo Do, etc. Many masters had learned Japanese arts during the occupation, or had learned Chinese arts in Manchuria. Only a few had been lucky enough to be trained by the few native martial artists who remained active when the Japanese banned all martial arts in Korea. Choi himself had taken Tae-Kyon (a Korean art) as a child, but had earned his 2nd dan in Shotokan Karate while a student in Japan. Description: Primarily a kicking art. There is often a greater emphasis on the sport aspect of the Art. Tae-Kwon-Do stylists tend to fight at an extended range, and keep opponents away with their feet. It is a hard/soft, external, fairly linear style. It is known for being very powerful. Training: Training tends to emphasize sparring, but has forms, and basics are important as well. There is a lot of competition work in many dojongs. The World Taekwondo Federation is the governing body recognized by the International Olympic Committee, and as a result WTF schools usually emphasize Olympic-style full contact sparring. The WTF is represented in the U.S. by the U.S. Taekwondo Union (USTU). The International Taekwondo Federation is an older organization founded by Hong Hi Choi and based out of Canada. It tends to emphasize a combination of self-defense and sparring, and uses forms slightly older than those used by the WTF. The American Taekwondo Association is a smaller organization similar in some ways to the ITF. It is somewhat more insular than the ITF and WTF, and is somewhat unique in that it has copyrighted the forms of its organization so that they cannot be used in competition by non-members. There are numerous other federations and organizations, many claiming to be national (AAU TKD has perhaps the best claim here) or international (although few are), but these three have the most members. All of these federations, however, use similar techniques (kicks, strikes, blocks, movement, etc.), as indeed does Tang Soo Do (another Korean art, founded by the Moo Duk Kwan, that remained independent during the unification/foundation of Tae Kwon Do). Sub-Styles: None(?) *** Tai Chi Chuan Intro: This popular art is said to be excellent for one's health, and promotes calmness and stress reduction. Origin: China History: The history of Tai Chi Chuan dates back to the 14th century when Chang San Fung, a Taoist monk, witnessed a fight between a crane and a snake. He noticed how the soft circular movements of the snake overcame the hard movements of the bird and he devised a system of self-defense based on that principle. The evolution of the art has followed the styles of many masters with a variety of forms. At one time these forms were guarded secrets among certain families in China. The secrets of Tai Chi were revealed when Ying Kit Tung opened schools in Peking during the first half of this century. Description: It is characterized by slow, graceful movements. Although many people practice Tai Chi for its health or spiritual benefits, its movements and training can be used for self-defense. Training: The training is primarily in two forms: FORMS, long slow patterns of individual movements, and in partnered exercises that develop balance, ki and focus (e.g. "push hands"). Old System Training: It should also be noted that in some parts of the world students are still being taught by the old and very ch'i kung system of: o (stage one) teaching the skills of double-leg stance, taking from 1-2 years; then o (stage two) the skills of single-leg stance, taking from 6-18 months; o then the drive, and so on - to thus comprehensively provide the substantial and essentially static or stance-based (zhan zhuang) heart of the familiar and flowing Sequence. In this old training detailed work on the choreographic side of the Form might not start for 2 or more years after the first `horse stance' lesson, rather than being introduced from the beginning as most students in Australia and America would know. Sub-Styles: Tai Chi has evolved into many styles: Yang, Chen, Old Chen, Big Wu, Little Wu, Sun and innumerable other sub-styles although separating T'ai Chi styles by family names only, is to obscure important elements in clarifying styles of T'ai Chi Ch'uan. Elements such as: o PIVOTS o WORKING HEIGHT o CH'I KUNG (built into the actual Form) o ATHLETIC-FIGHTING-HEALTH-RELAXATION variations; and so on (apart from the familiar designations of `small and large circle', `constant-speed compared with fast-slow', etc) - also provides us with other ways of distinguishing Styles, even those using the same generic title. For example all styles in the world can be divided into three quite separate groups, in terms of the way they teach students to pivot. The major groups by far are those schools that teach students to activate the pivot through hip swivellling - in common with most other martial and athletic schools. There is a smaller group that guides the students to start pivotting from the shoulders, rather than from the hips. The only other way to initiate a pivot, is through the spine, a much less common approach. Each system has key advantages and disadvantages, and it is quite evident that under one Style name students are often being taught (usually) hip, or by contrast, shoulder pivots, which makes for entirely different training and effects. *** Wing Chun Intro: One of the most popular forms of Kung Fu. Origin: China History: Wing Chun was an obscure and little known art until the mid twentieth century. While multiple histories of the art do exist (some with only minor discrepancies), the generally accepted version is thus: The style traces its roots back over 250 years ago to the Southern Shaolin Temple. At that time, the temple a was sanctuary to the Chinese revolution that was trying to overthrow the ruling Manchu. A classical martial arts system was taught in the temple which took 15-20 years to produce an efficient fighter. Realizing they needed to produce efficent fighters at a faster pace, five of China's grandmasters met to discuss the merits of each of the various forms of kung fu. They chose the most efficient techniques, theories and principles from the various styles and proceeded to develop a training program that produced an efficent fighter in 5-7 years. Before the program was put into practice, the Southern temple was raided and destroyed. A lone nun, Ng Mui, was the only survivor who knew the full system. She wandered the countryside, finally taking in a young orphan girl and training her in the system. She named the girl Yimm Wing Chun (which has been translated to mean Beautiful Springtime, or Hope for the Future), and the two women set out refining the system. The system was passed down through the years, and eventually became known as Wing Chun, in honor of the founder. The veil of secrecy around the art was finally broken in the early 1950's when Grandmaster Yip Man began teaching publicly in Hong Kong, and his students began gaining noteriety for besting many systems and experienced opponents in streetfights and "friendly" competitions. The art enjoyed even more popularity when one of its students, Bruce Lee, began to enjoy world wide fame. Description: Most important is the concept of not using force against force, which allows a weak fighter to overcome stronger opponents. Generally, a Wing Chun practitioner will seek to use his opponent's own force against him. A great deal of training is put in to this area, and is done with the cultivation of a concept called Contact Reflexes (see "Training"). Also of importance are the use of several targeting ideas in Wing Chun. The Mother Line is an imaginary pole running vertically through the center of your body. From the Mother Line emanates the Center Line, which is a vertical 3D grid that divides the body in to a right half and a left half. Most of the vital points of the body are along the Center Line, and it is this area that the Wing Chun student learns to protect as well as work off of in his own offensive techniques. Also emanating from the Mother Line is the Central Line. The Central Line is seen as the shortest path between you and your opponent, which is generally where most of the exchange is going to take place. Because of this linear concept, most of the techniques seek to occupy one of the two lines and take on a linear nature. This leads to the expression of another very important concept in Wing Chun: "Economy of Motion". The analogy of a mobile tank with a turret (that of course shoots straight out of the cannon) is often used to describe the linear concept. Only two weapons are taught in the system, the Dragon Pole and the Butterfly swords. These are generally taught only once the student has a firm foundation in the system. Training: The way the art produces efficent and adaptble fighters in a relatively short time is by sticking to several core principles and constantly drilling them in to the student, as well as taking a very generic approach to techniques. Instead of training a response to a specific technique, the student practices guarding various zones about the body and dealing genericly with whatever happens to be in that zone. This allows for a minimum of technique for a maximum of application, and for the use of automatic or "subconcious" responses. Much training time is spent cultivating "Contact Reflexes". The idea is that at the moment you contact or "touch" your opponent, your body automaticaly reads the direction, force, and often intent of the part of the opponent's body you are contacting with and automatically (subconciously) deals with it accordingly. This again lends itself to the generic concept of zoning. Contact Reflexes and the concept of not using force against force are taught and cultivated through unique two man sensitivity drills called Chi Sao. The concepts of guarding and working off of these lines and zones are learned throught the practice of the three forms Wing Chun students learn, and which contain the techniques of the system: Shil Lum Tao, Chum Kil, and Bil Jee. Another unique aspect of the system is the use of the Mook Jong, or wooden dummy, a wood log on a frame that has three "arms" and a "leg" to simulate various possible positions of an opponent's limbs. A wooden dummy form is taught to the student, that consists of 108 movements and is meant to introduce the student to various applications of the system. It also serves to help the student perfect his own skills. Weapons training drills off the same generic ideas and concepts as the open hand system (including the use of Contact Reflexes). Many of the weapon movements are built off of or mimic the open hand moves (which is the reverse process of Kali/Escrima/Arnis, where weapon movements come first and open hand movements mimic these). Sub-Styles: Currently, there exist several known substyles of Wing Chun. Separate from Yip Man are the various other lineages that descended from one of Yip Man's teachers, Chan Wah Shun. These stem from the 11 or so other disciples that Chan Wah Shun had before Yip Man. Pan Nam Wing Chun (currently discussed here and in the martial arts magazines) is currently up for debate, with some saying a totally separate lineage, and others saying he's from Chan Wah Shun's lineage. Red Boat Wing Chun is a form dating back from when the art resided on the infamous Red Boat Opera Troup boat. Little is known about the history of this art or its validity. At the time of Yip Man's death in 1972, his lineage splintered in to many sub-styles and lineages. Politics played into this splintering a great deal, and provided much news in the martial arts community throughout the 70's and 80's. By the time the late 80's/early 90's rolled around, there were several main families in Yip Man's lineage. To differentiate each lineage's unique style of the art, various spellings or wordings of the art were copyrighted and trademarked (phonetically, Wing Chun can be spelled either as Wing Chun, Wing Tsun, Ving Tsun, or Ving Chun). These main families and spellings are: Wing Tsun -- Copyrighted and Trademarked by Grandmaster Leung Ting. Used to describe the system he learned as Grandmaster Yip Man's last direct student before his death. Governing body is the International Wing Tsun Martial Arts Association, and the American Wing Tsun Organization in the U.S. Traditional Wing Chun -- Copyrighted and Trademarked by Grandmaster William Cheung. Used to describe a very different version of Wing Chun he learned while living with Yip Man in the 1950's. Includes different history of lineage as well. Governing body is the World Wing Chun Kung Fu Association. Ving Tsun - Used by other students of Yip Man, such as Moy Yat. This spelling was considered the main one used by Grandmaster Yip Man as well. It is also used by many of the other students, and was adopted for use in one of the main Wing Chun associations in Hong Kong -- The Ving Tsun Athletic Organization. Wing Chun - General spelling used by just about all practitioners of the art. A World Wide listing of Wing Chun Kwoons (schools) is maintained by Marty Goldberg (gungfu@csd4.csd.uwm.edu) and posted periodically to rec.martial-arts. A mailing list (open to all students of Wing Chun) is also maintained by Marty and Rob Gillespe at majordomo@efn.org =============================================================================== 17) The people that made this list possible: Al Bowers - bowers@skipper.dfrf.nasa.gov (Iaido,Kenjutsu,Kendo) Alex Jackl - alexj@ll.mit.edu (Shotokan, Aikido, Shao-Lin Long Fist) Eric Sotnak - esot@troi.cc.rochester.edu (Aikido) Dakin Burdick - burdick@copper.ucs.indiana.edu (Tae Kwon Do, Hapkido) Ray Terry - rterry@hpkel02.cup.hp.com (Tae Kwon Do, Hapkido) Randy Pals - pals@ipact.com (Hapkido) Andy Maddox - andym@smtpgwy.unitedis.com (Kali/Escrima/Arnis) Howard S. High - GODZILLA@kuhub.cc.ukans.edu (Traditional Karate) Izar Tarandach - izar@cs.huji.ac.il (Capoeria/Karate/Ninjutsu) Michael Robinson - robinson@cogsci.berkeley.edu (Tai Chi Chuan) Peter Hahn - hahn@anubis.network.com (Muay Thai) Richard Parry - parry_r@kosmos.wcc.govt.nz (Kyokushinkai Karate) Todd Ellner - todd@reed.edu (Silat) Bill Norcott - bill@bimby.posix.tandem.com (Shuai-Chiao) Darren Wilkinson - wilkinson@hippo.herston.uq.oz.au (Jujutsu) Joachim Hoss - jh@k.maus.de (Ninjutsu) Al Wilson - awilson@drunivac.drew.edu (Ryukyu Kempo) Steve Gombosi - sog@craycos.com (Kobudo) John Simutis - simutis@ingres.com (Kobudo) Simon Ryan/Peter Wakeham - sryan@cssc-melb.tansu.com.au (Tai Chi Chuan) Michael D'Auben - 72517.1031@compuserve.com (Judo) Peter Biddle - peterbi@microsoft.com (Coung Nhu) Nick Doan - nickd@meaddata.com (Kung Fu/Wu Shu) Avron Boretz - aab2@cornell.edu (Uechi-Ryu Karate) Peter Jason Ward - ironmarshal+@CMU.EDU (Kajukembo) E.Clay Buchanan - e.buchanani1@genie.geis.com (Kyudo) Neil Ohlenkamp - JudoSensei@aol.com (Judo) Marty Goldberg - gungfu@csd4.csd.uwm.edu (Wing Chun) -- Randy Pals | "Master, do we seek victory in contention?" IPACT, Inc. | "Seek rather not to contend, for without contention (pals@ipact.com) | there can be neither victory nor defeat."

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