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Xref: helios.physics.utoronto.ca comp.graphics.animation:11542 comp.answers:7259 news.answers:29129 Path: etrog.citri.edu.au!angus From: angus@cgl.citri.edu.au (angus y montgomery) Newsgroups: comp.graphics.animation,comp.answers,news.answers Subject: comp.graphics.animation FAQ v1.2 (12 sep) Followup-To: comp.graphics.animation Date: 13 Sep 94 04:56:25 GMT Organization: Collaborative Information Technology Research Institute Lines: 777 Approved: news-answers-request@MIT.EDU Message-ID: NNTP-Posting-Host: godzilla.cgl.citri.edu.au Summary: This posting is what currently passes for a comp.graphics.animation FAQ. It has information on computer animation for end-users, hobbyists, career animators, and programmers. Please read this FAQ before posting to comp.graphics.animation. Keywords: Computer Animation, Resource, FAQ. Archive-name: graphics/animation-faq Last-modified: 12 sep 1994 Version: 1.2 Posting-frequency: Monthly Last-issue: comp.graphics.animation FAQ v1.1 (8 aug) This FAQ -------- This is a growing FAQ skeleton, not a complete FAQ. Contributions and suggestions are encouraged. Computer animation is a large and growing field, and people want different things from it; this FAQ tries to cover all bases, and as a result is rather thin on many of them! This FAQ skeleton will one day grow into a fully-hypertextified document (name your favorite format) available for delivery by news, FTP, email, WWW, and hand. Until then, however, it's only available here on comp.graphics.animation once a month, and by FTP on rtfm.mit.edu. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Changes ------- Hardly anything new. I've done very little, and very little has been sent my way. I'll soon post a survey so that a start can be made on an "animation packages" section. The FAQ is late again. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Sections -------- There being so much to cover, the FAQ is broken down (and may in the future be broken up :) into a number of broad sections: * Using Animation : how to find and view animation * Hobby Animation : animating on my computer * Animation Media : animation media properties and I/O * Career Animation : joining the computer animation industry * Animation Theory : how does it work? - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Contents -------- Subsections marked `#' are largely incomplete or non-existant. * Fluff * This FAQ : what we're covering Changes : what's new Sections : broad breakdown Contents : recursion alert! Related Resources : don't look here, look there * Using Animation * Animation File Formats : types, conversion, docs Animation Players : look what we've got Animation Sites : where to find it * Hobby Animation * Animation Process : what gets done Animation Software : what, where, and by who # Animation Venues : where to see/send animation # * Animation Media * Media properties : video, film Media I/O : getting it on and off your computer # * Career Animation * Animation Courses : back to school! # Profile of an Animator : an anthropological exercise # Your Union : well, just one: Local 839 IATSE * Animation Theory * Types of Animation : 2d -> physically based and beyond Interpolation : how to get from A to B # Animation References : computer, classical, industry * Miscellaneous * Animations : what's been done Acknowledgements : people who've helped - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Related Resources ----------------- or, do i really belong in comp.graphics.animation? Computer animation, like its progenitor computer graphics, abuts on a large number of fields. If everyone from all related fields posted here, the newsgroup would be swamped with irrelevance. Here are some places to which your comments, information, or questions might be better directed: Newsgroups ~~~~~~~~~~ comp.graphics : image generation, modelling comp.graphics.algorithms : algorithms for graphics comp.graphics.raytracing : bouncing light around comp.graphics.visualisation : scientific / data visualisation comp.graphics.XXX : \ comp.sys.XXX.graphics : \ comp.sys.XXX : } how do i do YYY comp.sys.XXX.hardware.video : } on/under XXX comp.os.ms-windows.* : / comp.windows.* : / comp.multimedia : sound and text and vision alt.3d : SIRDS, holograms, &c. 3d perception. rec.arts.{anim*,disney} : discussion of actual animations alt.graphics.pixutils : picture manipulation, conversion alt.binaries.pictures* : posts of pictures and anims, formats, ... rec.video.{desktop,production} : video, desktop video sci.image.processing : sophisticated image manipulation sci.virtual-worlds* : anything about VR comp.compression : compression issues (incl. JPEG, MPEG) *.test (misc.test, &c.) : test postings (some people...) Read these groups' FAQs before posting to them -- don't be flamebait. DO NOT post animations to this group -- remote access (ftp, &c) is much better, or try alt.binaries.pictures* if you must. Internet Resources ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ References to FAQs and other postings in this document look like this: faq:newsgroup:archive-name:name faq:comp.graphics:resources-listing:"Computer Graphics Resource Listing" ^newsgroup ^archive-name ^name (minus date,part,group info) All "official" FAQs are posted to news.answers, and archived for anon ftp on rtfm.mit.edu under /pub/usenet/news.answers/archive-name. References to WWW documents look like this: http://site/path/document http://www.crs4.it/~luigi/MPEG/mpegfaq.html ^site ^site path ^hypermedia-document More information about WWW (the world wide web) is available: ? References to anonymously FTP-able files look like this: ftp://site/path/document ftp://avalon.chinalake.navy.mil/pub/format_specs/iffspecs.lzh ^ftp-site ^path ^document `/pub' at the root of the path is often assumed. More information about FTP is available: ? Many FTP'able files are mirrored on other sites to reduce bandwidth; use `archie' to find a copy near you. References to mailing lists look like this: mail:address:subject:body mail:listserv@netcom.com::"subscribe animaster-l" ^who to mail to ^what to put in the message body Note that the second (subject) field is often blank, as is the third (body). General Resources ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ faq:comp.graphics:faq:"Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)" { gfx refs, groups, standards, various algs } faq:comp.graphics:resources-listing:"Computer Graphics Resource Listing" { ftp sites, rendering, 3d modellers, GUIs, visualisation, image analysis, textures } faq:comp.graphics.algorithms:?:"FAQ" { (coming soon) gfx algs in abundance } faq:comp.graphics.animation::"proto-FAQ" { (this!) animating, playing anims, anim "theory" } http://mambo.ucsc.edu { facial animation } Package-Specific Resources ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Alias Animator (Alias Research): mail:listserv@uga.cc.uga.edu::"subscribe alias-l Your_Name" Animation Master (Hash): mail:listserv@netcom.com::"subscribe animaster-l" http://ftp.netcom.com/pub/gavingav/Home.html ftp://ftp.netcom.com/pub/gavingav/Hash_Info ftp://ftp.netcom.com/pub/gavingav/ Animation Pro (Autodesk) (PC). DCTV (Digital Creations) (Amiga): mail:DCTV-request@nova.cc.purdue.edu:: Imagine (Impulse) (Amiga, PC): mail:image-request@email.sp.paramax.com:: Lightwave 3D (NewTek) (Amiga): mail:lightwave-request@bobsbox.rent.com::"subscribe lightwave-l" Playmation (Hash): see Animation Master 3D Studio (Autodesk:PC): see faq:comp.graphics.animation:?:"3DS FAQ" mail:3dstudio-request@bobsbox.rent.com:: "subscribe 3dstudio-L (Your Real Name)" objects on ftp://avalon.chinalake.navy.mil/pub/objects/3ds/ Toaster (NewTek) (Amiga): mail:toaster-request@bobsbox.rent.com:: "subscribe toaster-l your-user-name@your.site.domain" Format Resources ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ AVI (PC): ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/... { RIFF AVI format. does _not_ include compression format } DL: FLI, FLC (Autodesk) (PC): FLC article in DDJ'93. ftp://simtel20.../graphic/... ftp://avalon.chinalake.navy.mil/format_specs/Autodesk_fli_and_flc_format.txt { specification of format } GIF (PC): see faq:comp.graphics:faq IFF ANIM (Amiga): ftp://avalon.chinalake.navy.mil/pub/format_specs/iffspecs.lzh { specification of format } Moviesetter (GoldDisk) (Amiga): MPEG (lossy): faq:comp.graphics:mpeg-faq:"MPEG-FAQ: multimedia compression" also as ftp://ftp.cs.tu-berlin.de/pub/msdos/dos/graphics/mpegfa??.zip { covers specification, future, software (players, &c), hardware, incl. pointers to other information, ... } faq:alt.binaries.pictures.utilities:?:"WHERE TO GET MPEG UTILS" http://www.crs4.it/~luigi/MPEG/mpegfaq.html http://w3.eeb.ele.tue.nl/mpeg/index.html ftp://ftp.crs4.it { mpeg, and other image compression techniques } RLE (Unix): for code that reads: DL, FLI, FLC, GIF, IFF, MovieSetter, PFX, Quicktime, and RLE animation formats, see the xanim entry in "Players", below. Other players' source may also be useful for these and other formats. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --------------------- ** Using Animation ** --------------------- Animation File Formats [mark podlipec and others] ---------------------- // (naive/compressed/compacted, conversion, players) DL: AVI (PC): FLI, FLC (Autodesk) (PC): FLI support is for 320x200 images, and is a series of images and deltas. The colour map can be changed during the animation. FLC has a few additional chunks and supports larger image sizes. GIF (PC): A GIF file consists of a screen colour map and a series of images, each with an optional colour map. The images don't have to be at the origin and can be any size smaller than the screen size. This allows GIF animations to be created that only update the part of the screen that changes. IFF ANIM (Amiga): The Amiga's IFF format was designed as a universal (extensible) data format. Many different data types and chunks can be found in IFF ANIMs. Many ANIMs include sound chunks or colour cycling. There are a plethora of compression techniques (with different tradeoffs) used. Most IFF ANIMs are meant to be double-buffered, with deltas applying to frames two distant. A looping ANIM means the last two deltas produce images that are the same as the first two. The Amiga has a large number of display modes (a couple of them, EHB and HAM are unusual; HAM is the hardest to emulate.) MovieSetter (GoldDisk) (Amiga): A very flexible animation format. Animations are stored as a bunch of backgrounds, sounds and sets. Sets are smaller images that get placed on top of the background (with transparent pixels). A frame list at the end describes each frame. Each frame specifies which background to use (backgrounds can also scroll in different directions and speeds), and a list of sets to put on that background with depth information so characters can pass behind or in front of each other. Sound information is contained here as well to sync it up to the action. There is also colour cycling and specialty fades and wipes. Can come as one file or as three directories and a control file. MPEG (lossy): PFX (PageFlipper Plus F/X) (Amiga): A series of deltas with a play list at the end. Supports colour map changes, nested loops and dynamic timing. RLE (URT) (Unix): One or more runlength encoded images, viewable with an X11 viewing program. Tools for creating consistent colour maps and for many other operations are part of the toolkit. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Players ------- display v1.84 (PC) (Jih-Shin Ho): AVI, DL, FLC, GL, MPEG ftp://nctuccca.edu.tw/PC/graphics/disp (also on simtel20) MPEG players for IBM, Mac, Unix, VMS, Next: see faq:alt.binary.pictures.utilities:?:"WHERE TO GET MPEG UTILS" also http://w3.eeb.ele.tue.nl/mpeg/index.html { Atari, X11, IBM } xanim (X-Windows) (Mark Podlipec): DL, FLI, FLC, GIF, IFF, MovieSetter, PFX, Quicktime, RLE ftp://ftp.x.org/contrib/applications/xanim???.tar.Z (official ftp site) http://www.univ-rennes1.fr/ASTRO/fra/xanim.html (www page) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Animation Sites --------------- ftp://ftp.univ-rennes1.fr/Images/ASTRO/anim/ { Space anims } ftp://ftp.cnam.fr/Fractals/anim/ { Fractal anims } http://w3.eeb.ele.tue.nl/mpeg/index.html { Various } - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --------------------- ** Hobby Animation ** --------------------- Animation Process [charles king and angus] ----------------- Things don't necessarily have to happen in this order (or at all), and there's room for plenty of feedback between them, especially in computer animation, but here's the basic flow. Although it's an advantage (both for the animator and the software) to integrate as many stages as possible in the one package, and most `animation' packages do so, in practice all packages have their relative merits and work may be swapped from package to package to exploit their strengths, especially in `high end' studios. This sequence assumes that the animation has already been scripted. Model Design: input: script tool: Modeller task: making the models to be animated output: models Animation Design: input: models, script tool: Animation Package task: planning and tuning sequences of motion, action, interaction, ... output: animation script Production / Rendering: input: models, animation script tools: Renderer front-end, Renderer task: generating images from which the animation is to be constructed output: images Post-Production: input: images, script tools: Editor, Compositor, Paint, Image Processing, other SFX Packages task: modifying, compositing, sequencing the images output: final sequence of images Transfer: input: sequence of images tools: various media, media i/o hardware task: transferring the frames to the desired medium output: the product - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Animation Software ------------------ * Reviews : software reviews * Design : design an animation * Production : from design to pictures * Post-Production : from pictures to animation Reviews ~~~~~~~ Reviews of six High-End UNIX animation packages (Alias PowerAnimator, SoftImage Creative Environment, TDI Explore, ElectroGIG GIG3DGO, Vertigo, Wavefront Advanced Visualizer) are soon to be available by ftp. originally published in Computer Graphics World Oct-Nov 1993, net distribution thanks to Chris Williams. // : ftp://avalon.chinalake.navy.mil/misc/? // copyright status: PD / FD / SW / Commercial // platform: generic/home (amiga mac pc)/w'station (SGI X)/other Design ~~~~~~ // Alias Animator, Softimage, Lightwave, Wavefront, Symbolics, 3D Studio, ... Production (trivial renderer front-ends) ~~~~~~~~~~ Post-Production ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Venues ------ [see Animation Sites subsection for ftp sites] Conferences [see references section for more information on these] ~~~~~~~~~~~ SIGGRAPH (siggraph) EG w'shop (eg) CGI (cgs) Computer Animation (cgs) GI Events ~~~~~~ Imagina Prix Ars Electronica: International Competition for the Computer Arts. ~42k$US in prizes for animation. General Info '94: (Peter Schoeber) mail: ORF-Prix Ars Electronica, Europaplatz 3, A-4010 Linz, Austria. phone: +43 (732) 6900-267, fax: -270, telex: +21616 email: schoeber@jk.uni-linz.ac.net Presentation: 22 jun 94. Animation Info '94: (Christine Schpf) phone: +43 (732) 6900-218 Deadline: 28 feb 94. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --------------------- ** Animation Media ** --------------------- Media Properties ---------------- video ~~~~~ (NTSC PAL SECAM HDTV fields composite component synch RGB analog digital...) video formats ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ -format- -by- -use- -A/D- -comp...- -other- VHS JVC home analog composite 1/2" Video8/8mm Sony home analog ... 8mm Betamax Sony home analog composite 1/2" SVHS JVC prosumer analog ... 1/2" Hi-8 Sony prosumer analog ... 8mm ED Beta Sony prosumer? analog component ... M (M1)? Matsu industrial? analog ... ... U-Matic 3/4" Sony? industrial analog composite 3/4" Betacam Sony industrial? analog component 1/2" M2 Matsu broadcast? analog component ... U-Matic SP Sony? broadcast? analog ... ... Betacam SP Sony broadcast analog component ... D-3 Matsu broadcast digital composite ... DCT Ampex broadcast digital component compressed D-2 Ampex master on-air digital composite uncompressed? D-1 Sony master RGB digital component uncompressed other formats? other properties (image encoding techniques, sound quality, effective number of "lines", ...) notes: D-1 endorsed by SMPTE committee Matsu == Matsushita == Panasonic film ~~~~ (8mm super-8 16mm 32mm 72mm anamorphic stock ...) normal film grain ~2500 lpi resolution. slow film <-> higher resolution. 32mm: 0.875" x 1.3125" (2:3) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Media I/O --------- (VCRs genlocks frame-stores film-scanners) film recorders: most film recorders have at least 2000 lpi resolution, 4000 is typical. for optimum quality, your image should be a little over twice the resolution of the recording medium. screen-to-camera: a cheap (but surprisingly effective) option for images that can be displayed at full resolution on your monitor is to photograph the screen directly using a single-framing camera. film better than super-8 is likely to be overkill. any lights on your monitor should be taped over, and the whole lot should be put under a black hood (made of cardboard or anything else handy). A slow film (100 ASA or slower, the slower the better), f8 exposure, and loong exposures should eliminate any scanline artifacts. resolution / aspect ratio ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ film recorders: 2000+ lpi (4000 typical). 35mm: ~2500 lpi at .875" x 1.3125" ~= 2200 x 3300 pixels. (2:3) lpi == lines per inch. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ---------------------- ** Career Animation ** ---------------------- [see Hobby Animation section for Process, Software, Venues] Your Union ---------- The Motion Picture Screen Cartoonists and Affiliated Optical Electronic and Graphic Arts, Local 839 IATSE (California) has an ftp site with copies of their negotiated awards, news, courses, etc: ftp://ftp.netcom.com/pub/mpsc839/ (email mpsc@netcom.com for more) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ---------------------- ** Animation Theory ** ---------------------- Types of Computer Animation (guide and glossary) --------------------------- 2d ~~ Most computer animation takes place in the 3-d world, as our world is itself basically 3-d, and model interpolation becomes a problem in fewer dimensions, due to a lack of context. 2-d animation packages mostly replicate the processes of cel-based animation, where *key-frames* are used to plot the course of the animation, and the *inbetweens* (interpolating the keys) are filled in later (by an animator, not the computer). The main difference is that the images are created using pixel-based, rather than oil-based techniques. *Morphing* is probably the major 2-d animation technique in use today. Like most other computer work used for SFX in film (wire-removal, compositing, other retouching, etc), it is largely a matter of image manipulation (image processing) rather than image creation (computer graphics), although morphing _is_ an animated technique, unlike many other SFX `graphics' techniques. A good starter on morphing by Valerie Hall (1992) is ftp://marsh.cs.curtin.edu.au/graphics/bibliography/Morph/morph_intro.ps.Z, it references more detailed works for those interested, she's also written a morphing article in DDJ (1993). 3-d ~~~ Almost all "computer animation" done today is done within the *event-based* or, interchangeably, *track-based* computer animation paradigm, which is based loosely on the key-framing system used in cel-based animation. Most computer animation systems today are built around time-varying parameters, known as *tracks*, which determine the state of the animation world at any time. Tracks take the place of the variables which determine the state of a static scene: they're "animation variables". A track's value at a given time depends on the *events* ( tuples) that define the track's state, and on the interpolation technique being used [see Interpolation]. Events are conceptually similar to the key-frames of cel-based animation, but allow much more flexibility due to their finer grain (state-variable, rather than world-state). Although tracks may not be independant, they may usefully be treated as such, leading to the *hierarchical animation* technique espoused by Lasseter [see References], where the gross motion of a model is animated first, followed by animation of progressively finer detail. The number of tracks that need to be dealt with, and their often compicated interdependencies, make animating anything of reasonable complexity a big job both in terms of time and effort. Hence most of the subsequent research in computer animation. Inverse Kinematics ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ *Kinematics* is the science of movement: position, velocity, acceleration, and their rotational equivalents. *Forward kinematics*, used in the context of an articulated structure (something with joints), is determining the positions of the links given the joint angles between them -- ie starting at the "top" of the hierarchy, we work our way along it, applying the relevant transformations, until the end-positions are known -- it's easy for the programmer, and it's the way things are normally done. However, it's quite difficult for an animator who simply wants the hand of a model to be "here", or "there" -- what the animator has to do is adjust each of the joints in the structure in order to arrive at the desired position. *Inverse kinematics* reverses the situation, making things easy for the animator by allowing an end-effector to be dragged wherever desired, but hard for the programmer/computer because the problem is underconstrained (many configurations of the joints may produce the desired end-position, which one is used?) and ill-conditioned (small changes in the end-position can mean large changes in the joints). particle systems and flocking dynamics (forward/inverse dynamics) teleological (goal-directed, optimisation) behavioural (cf flocking) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Interpolation ------------- 1-d interpolation 3-d rotation interpolation euler angles and gimbal lock quaternions - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - References ---------- For general computer graphics references, check out the comp.graphics FAQ. In particular, "Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice" and "Digital Image Warping" both have relevance. Books (Industry) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Morrison, Mike, "Becoming a Computer Animator", Prentice-Hall, 1994. { covers computer animation history, technology (and how to keep up with it), techniques. with tutorials, interviews with industry luminaries, buyer's guide (s/w and h/w), how to find work, getting an education. a chapter ea. on: television, motion pictures, visualisation, forensic, games. incl. 600Mb CD-ROM of PC & Mac animation and software. } "International Directory of Computer Animation Producers", Pixel, 1994. { 800+ separate listings of producers in 44 countries. listings include company profiles. also lists animation schools. see Pixel, in "Publishing Organisations", below, for ordering info. } "The Roncarelli Report on the Computer Animation Industry", Pixel, 1993. { market status and strategic analysis for the global computer animation industry. an annual. } Books (Computer Animation) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Leister, W, M"uller, H, and St"o\3er, A, "Fotorealistische Computeranimation", Springer-Verlag, 1991. ISBN 3-540-53234-X. { text in German. introductory text for both artists and computer scientists. covers: animation , modelling, rendering, video, post-production. includes 60-page glossary. [thanks Wolfgang Leister] } Vince, John, "3D Computer Animation", Addison-Wesley, 1992. { very introductory animation theory for programming. } Watt, Alan and Watt, Mark, "Advanced Animation and Rendering Techniques", Addison-Wesley, 1992. { an excellent text, covering important implementation theory and details. } Whitney, John, "Digital Harmony". { ?. storyboarding. } Books (Animation) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Arijon, Daniel, "The Grammar of the Film Language". { ?. storyboarding. } Culhane, Shamus, "Animation: from script to screen", St. Martin's Press, 1988. { ex-disney animator describes the whole animation process. including production details, setting up a studio, storyboards, character animation, and more. culhane manages to fit a lot into relatively small book. } Halas, John, "Visual Scripting". { ?. storyboarding. } Hoffer, Thomas, "Animation: a reference guide", Greenwood Press, 1993. { ? } Muybridge { muybridge spent years taking sequences of strobe photos of animal and human movement. the photos are a great help for anyone trying to make something move properly. some more good books for the coffee table ;-} Russet, Robert, and Starr, Cecile, "Experimental Animation". { ?. storyboarding. } Thomas, Frank and Johnston, Ollie, "Disney Animation: the illusion of life", Abbeville Press, NY, 1981. { a look at many of the techniques and approaches used by the disney studios. occasionally referred to as "The Animation Bible" (due to its size and the value of its contents). the disney "rules of animation" and many other useful rules-of-thumb are included. unfortunately out-of-print, so grab any copy you can. lots of pretty piccies make it good for your coffee table, too! } ?, "The Cinema as a Graphic Art". { ?. storyboarding. } Journals ~~~~~~~~ "Cinefex", Cinefex. { the special-effects industry magazine, with reviews of how the SFX in major films were done. increasingly, this means computer animation. } "Computer Artist". "Computer Graphics", ACM/SIGGRAPH. { SIGGRAPH's journal. Proc. SIGGRAPH is published in one issue. some special issues are also of note. } "Computer Graphics Forum", Eurographics (EG). { Eurographics' journal. Proc. Eurographics is published in one issue. rarely contains anything of note for animation. } "Computer Graphics World", CGW. { a graphics industry magazine. product reviews, industry news. } "The Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation", ?. "Pixel - the computer animation newsletter", Pixel. { "inside" news on the computer animation industry. } Proc. "Computer Animation", Springer-Verlag / CGS. { proceedings of CGS's computer animation conference } Proc. "Computer Graphics International", Springer-Verlag / CGS. { proceedings of the second-largest graphics conference } Proc. "Eurographics", see "Computer Graphics Forum". Proc. "Eurographics Workshop on Animation and Simulation", Eurographics. Proc. "Graphics Interface". { proceedings of an important graphics conference. } Proc. "SIGGRAPH", Addison-Wesley / ACM Press / ACM/SIGGRAPH, { see "Computer Graphics". proceedings of the largest graphics conference } "The Visual Computer", Computer Graphics Society (CGS). { a good graphics journal } An extensive list of computer graphics journals, including ordering and other information is available from Juhana Kouhia Organisations ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ACM/SIGGRAPH - The ACM Special Interest Group on Graphics. Computer Graphics Society. Eurographics. Pixel - the computer animation news people, inc. 109 Vanderhoof Ave, Suite 2, Toronto, ON, Canada M4G 2H7. (416) 424-4657. (Fax) 424-1812. PO Box 1674 5325 Sheridan Drive, Williamsville, NY, USA 14231-1674. Papers ~~~~~~ Lasseter, John, "Principles of Traditional Animation Applied to 3D Computer Animation", Computer Graphics, July 1987, Proc. SIGGRAPH '87. { Lasseter relates the disney principles of animation (see Thomas and Johnston, above) to computer animation, and introduces "hierarchical" animation while he's at it. } Shoemake, Ken, "Animating Rotation with Quaternion Curves", Computer Graphics, July 1985, Proc. SIGGRAHP '85. { an early quaternion paper. there are probably better ones, anyone? } - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ------------------- ** Miscellaneous ** ------------------- Animations (what's been done) ---------- other ~~~~~ // (big screen, video, ...) see faq:comp.graphics:faq for PIXAR ordering info - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Acknowledgements ---------------- Thanks to: Sean Brandenburg Matt Carpenter Mark Crawford Luigi Filippini Andy Gough Eric Haines Paul Hertz Jih-Shin Ho Dudley Hunkins Colin Jensen Charles King Juhana Kouhia Alan Larson Nadine Leenders Wolfgang Leister Jeff Massie Akira Mito Mike Morrison Jimmy Ning Mark Podlipec Frank Roussel Ole Villumsen Chris Williams for their contributions and comments, large and small. (i'm still working through some of it...) -- angus@mega.cgl.citri.edu.au graphics/animation postgrad melbourne, australia

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