Xref: info.physics.utoronto.ca comp.ai.genetic:3891 comp.answers:7398 news.answers:29524
From: David.Beasley@cm.cf.ac.uk (David Beasley)
Subject: FAQ: comp.ai.genetic part 4/6 (A Guide to Frequently Asked Questions)
Summary: This is part 4 of a entitled "The Hitch-Hiker's Guide to
Evolutionary Computation". A periodically published list of
Frequently Asked Questions (and their answers) about Evolutionary
Algorithms, Life and Everything. It should be read by anyone who
whishes to post to the comp.ai.genetic newsgroup, preferably *before*
Originator: David.Beasley@cm.cf.ac.uk (David Beasley)
Sender: David.Beasley@cm.cf.ac.uk (David Beasley)
Organization: University of Wales College of Cardiff, Cardiff, WALES, UK.
Date: Tue, 20 Sep 94 09:06:10 GMT
Expires: 23 Dec 1994 09:04:52 GMT
TABLE OF CONTENTS OF PART 4
Q10: What introductory material on EAs is there?
Q10.1: Suitable background reading for beginners?
Q10.2: Textbooks on EC?
Q10.3: The Classics?
Q10.4: Introductory Journal Articles?
Q10.5: Introductory Technical Reports?
Q10.6: Not-quite-so-introductory Literature?
Q10.7: Biological Background Readings?
Q10.8: On-line bibliography collections?
Q10.11: How do I get a copy of a dissertation?
Q11: What EC related journals and magazines are there?
Q12: What are the important conferences/proceedings on EC?
Q13: What Evolutionary Computation Associations exist?
Q14: What Technical Reports are available?
Q15: What information is available over the net?
Q15.1: What digests are there?
Q15.2: What mailing lists are there?
Q15.3: What online information repositories are there?
Q15.4: What relevant newsgroups and FAQs are there?
Q15.5: What about all these Internet Services?
Subject: Q10: What introductory material on EAs is there?
There are many sources of introductory material on evolutionary
algorithms: background books (see Q10.1), textbooks (see Q10.2),
classical works (see Q10.3), journal articles (see Q10.4), technical
reports (see Q10.5), more advanced literature (see Q10.6), biological
background reading (see Q10.7), bibliography collections (see Q10.8),
videos (see Q10.9) and CD-ROMs (Q10.10). Information on how to get
dissertations is also given below (see Q10.11).
Conference proceedings (see Q12) are also a good source of up-to-date
(and sometimes introductory) material.
Subject: Q10.1: Suitable background reading for beginners?
These books give a "flavor" of what the subject is about.
Dawkins, R. (1976, 1989 2nd ed) "The Selfish Gene", Oxford: Oxford
University Press. [The 2nd edition includes two new chapters]
Dawkins, R. (1982) "The Extended Phenotype: The Gene as a Unit of
Selection", Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dawkins, R. (1986) "The Blind Watchmaker", New York: W.W. Norton.
Gonick, L. (1983) "The Cartoon Guide to Computer Science", New York:
Barnes & Nobel. [eds note: features an interesting chapter on Charles
Babbage in conjunction with "horse racing forecasting", if you want
to use EAs to fullfill this task, better read this section first]
Gonick, L. (1983) "The Cartoon Guide to Genetics", New York: Barnes &
Regis, E. (1987) "Who got Einstein's Office? Eccentricity and Genius
at the Institute for Advanced Study", Reading, MA: Addison Wesley
[eds note: chapters 5, 10 and 12]
Levy, S. (1992) "Artificial Life: The Quest for a new Creation", New
York, NY: Pantheon. [LEVY92]: [eds note: read this and you will have
the urge to work in this field]
Sigmund, K. (1993) "Games of Life: Explorations in Ecology, Evolution
and Behaviour", Oxford: Univ. Press. 252 pp. Hard/Softcover avail.
Subject: Q10.2: Textbooks on EC?
These books go into the "nuts and bolts" of EC.
Goldberg, D.E. (1989) "Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization,
and Machine Learning",Addison-Wesley. [GOLD89]: (Probably the most
widely referenced book in the field!)
Davis, L. (ed) (1991) "Handbook of Genetic Algorithms", Van Nostrand
Reinhold, New York, NY. [DAVIS91]:
Michalewicz, Z. (1992) Genetic algorithms + Data Structures =
Evolution Programs", Springer-Verlag, New York, NY. Also second,
extended edition (1994) with index.
Koza, J.R. (1992), Genetic Programming: On the Programming of
Computers by means of Natural Selection", Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Subject: Q10.3: The Classics?
Mostly older works which have helped to shape the field.
Charles Darwin (1859), "The Origin of Species", London: John Murray.
(Penguin Classics, London, 1985; New American Library, Mentor
Box, G.E.P. (1957) "Evolutionary operation: a method of increasing
industrial productivity", Applied Statistics, 6, 81-101.
Fraser, A.S. (1957) "Simulation of genetic systems by automatic
digital computers", Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, 10,
Friedman, G.J. (1959) "Digital simulation of an evolutionary
process", General Systems Yearbook, 4:171-184.
Bremermann, H.J. (1962) "Optimization through evolution and
recombination". In M.C. Yovits, et al, (eds) Self-Organizing Systems.
Washington, DC: Spartan Books.
Holland, J.H. (1962) "Outline for a logical theory of adaptive
systems", JACM, 3, 297-314.
Samuel, A.L. (1963) "Some Studies in Machine Learning using the Game
of Checkers", in Computers and Thought, E.A. Feigenbaum and J.
Feldman (eds), New York: McGraw-Hill.
Walter, W.G. (1963) "The Living Brain", New York: W.W. Norton.
Fogel, L.J., Owens, A.J. & Walsh, M.J. (1966) "Artificial
Intelligence through Simulated Evolution", New York: Wiley.
Rosen, R. (1967) "Optimality Principles in Biology", London:
Rechenberg, I. (1973, 1993 2nd edn) "Evolutionsstrategie: Optimierung
technischer Systeme nach Prinzipien der biologischen Evolution",
Stuttgart: Fromman-Holzboog. (Evolution Strategy: Optimization of
technical systems by means of biological evolution)
Holland, J.H. (1975) "Adaptation in natural and artificial systems",
Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.
De Jong, K.A. (1975) "An analysis of the behavior of a class of
genetic adaptive systems", Doctoral thesis, Dept. of Computer and
Communication Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Schwefel, H.-P. (1977) "Numerische Optimierung von Computer-Modellen
mittels der Evolutionsstrategie", Basel: Birkhaeuser.
Schwefel, H.-P. (1981) "Numerical Optimization of Computer Models",
Chichester: Wiley. [eds note: English translation of the previous
entry; a reworked edition is currently in preparation for 1994]
Axelrod, R. (1984) "The evolution of cooperation", NY: Basic Books.
Cramer, N.L. (1985) "A Representation for the Adaptive Generation of
Simple Sequential Programs" [ICGA85]:, 183-187.
Baeck, T., Hoffmeister, F. & Schwefel, H.-P. (1991) "A Survey of
Evolution Strategies" [ICGA91]:, 2-9.
Rudolph, G. (1994) "Convergence Analysis of Canonical Genetic
Algorithms", IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, Special issue on EP.
Available by ftp from ENCORE (See Q15.3) in file:
Subject: Q10.4: Introductory Journal Articles?
Goldberg, D.E. (1986) "The Genetic Algorithm: Who, How, and What
Next?". In Kumpati S. Narenda, ed., Adaptive and Learning Systems,
Plenum, New York, NY.
Dawkins, R. (1987) "The Evolution of Evolvability", [ALIFEI]:,
Hillis, W.D. (1987) "The Connection Machine", Scientific American,
Holland, J.H. (1989) "Using Classifier Systems to Study Adaptive
Nonlinear Networks". In: Lectures in the Science of Complexity, SFI
Studies in the Science of Complexity, D. Stein, (ed), Addison Wesley.
Brooks, R.A. (1991) "Intelligence without Reason", MIT AI Memo No.
1293. Appeared in "Computer's and Thought", IJCAI-91.
Hillis, W.D. (1992) "Massively Parallel Computing" Daedalus, winter,
121(1), 1-29. [HILLIS92]:
Holland, J.H. (1992) "Genetic Algorithms", Scientific American,
267(1), 66-72. [HOLLAND92]:
Holland, J.H. (1992) "Complex Adaptive Systems" Daedalus, winter,
Sims, K. (1991) "Artificial Evolution for Computer Graphics",
Computer Graphics, 25(4), 319-328
Spears, W.M., DeJong, K.A., Baeck, T., Fogel, D. & de Garis, H.
(1993) "An Overview of Evolutionary Computation", [ECML93]:, 442-459.
Baeck, T. & Schwefel, H.-P. (1993) "An Overview of Evolutionary
Algorithms for Parameter Optimization", Evolutionary Computation,
Baeck, T., Rudolph, G. & Schwefel, H.-P. (1993) "Evolutionary
Programming and Evolution Strategies: Similarities and Differences",
Mitchell, M. & Forrest S. (1993) "Genetic Algorithms and Artificial
Life", Artificial Life, 1(1). Also avail. as SFI Working Paper
Beasley, D., Bull, D.R., & Martin, R.R. (1993) "An Overview of
Genetic Algortihms: Part 1, Fundamentals", University Computing,
15(2) 58-69. Available by ftp from ENCORE (See Q15.3) in file:
GA/papers/over93.ps.gz or from
Beasley, D., Bull, D.R., & Martin, R.R. (1993) "An Overview of
Genetic Algortihms: Part 2, Research Topics", University Computing,
15(4) 170-181. Available by ftp from ENCORE (See Q15.3) in file:
GA/papers/over93-2.ps.gz or from
Peter Wayner (1991), "Genetic Algorithms: Programming takes a
valuable tip from nature", BYTE, January, 361--368.
Goldberg, D. (1994), "Genetic and Evolutionary Algorithms Come of
Age", Communications of the ACM, 47(3), 113--119.
Subject: Q10.5: Introductory Technical Reports?
Hoffmeister, F. & Baeck, T. (1990, 1992) "Genetic Algorithms and
Evolution Strategies: Similarities and Differences", University of
Dortmund, Dept. of CS, SyS-1/92. Available by ftp from
Whitley, D. (1993) "A Genetic Algorithm Tutorial", Colorado State
University, Dept. of CS, TR CS-93-103. Available by ftp from
Subject: Q10.6: Not-quite-so-introductory Literature?
Bock, P. (1993) "The Emergence of Artificial Cognition: An
Introduction to Collective Learning", Singapore: World Scientific.
Davis, L. (ed) (1987) "Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing",
available from Morgan Kaufmann Publishers (address and phone number
Davidor, Y. (1991) "Genetic Algorithms and Robotics", Singapore:
World Scientific. ISBN 9-810202172.
Forrest, S. (ed) (1990) "Emergent Computation. Self-Organizing,
Collective, and Cooperative Phenomena in Natural and Artificial
Computing Networks", [FORREST90]:, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Special
issue of Physica D.)
Hillis, W.D. (1990) "Co-Evolving Parasites Improve Simulated
Evolution as an Optimization procedure", [ALIFEII]:, 313-324.
Holland, J.H., Holyoak, K.J., Nisbett, R.E. & Thagard, P.R. (1986)
"Induction: Processes of Inference, Learning, and Discovery",
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Holland, J.H. (1992) "Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems:
An Introductory Analysis with Applications to Biology, Control, and
Artificial Intelligence, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books,
(2nd edn). Hard: ISBN 0-262-08213-6. Soft: ISBN 0-262-58111-6.
Serra, R. & Zanarini, G. (1990) "Complex Systems and Cognitive
Processes", New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
Stender, J. (ed.). (1993) "Parallel Genetic Algorithms", IOS
Publishing. [Cites just about everything in the parallel GA field.
-- John Koza]
Rujan, P. (1988) "Searching for optimal configurations by simulated
tunneling", Zeitschrift der Physik B", Vol.73, 391-416.
Subject: Q10.7: Biological Background Readings?
Adams, D. with Carwardine M. (1990) "Last Chance to see...", London:
Heinemann. [David Corne: I strongly suggest you read this. Its a
report on visits to various parts of the world to see endangered
species. It is remarkably and wonderfully funny and illuminating. It
would actually be a good reference to have in any bit of the FAQ to
do with genetic diversity and/or the lack of it, or the remarkable
kinds of adaptations that can occur for the strangest reasons.]
Cairns-Smith, A.G. (1985) "Seven Clues to the Origin of Life",
Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Fisher, R.A. (1958) "The Genetic Theory of Natural Selection", New
Futuyma, D.J. (1986) "Evolutionary Biology", Sunderland, MA: Sinauer
Assoc. [eds note: the bibliography of this book is truly a treasure
Lewin, B. (1993) "Genes IV".
Lewontin, R.C. (1974) "The Genetic Basis of Evolutionary Change", New
York: Columbia Univ. Press.
Maynard Smith, J. (1972) "On Evolution", Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ.
Maynard Smith, J. (1978) "Optimization Theory in Evolution", Annual
Review of Ecology and Systematics 9:31-56.
Maynard Smith, J. (1982) "Evolution and the Theory of Games",
Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Maynard Smith, J. (1989) "The Problems of Biology", Oxford: Oxford
Maynard Smith, J. (1989) "Evolutionary Genetics", Oxford: Oxford
Mayr, E. (1963) "Animal Species and Evolution", Cambridge, MA:
Harvard Univ. Press.
Mayr, E. (1982) "The Groth of Biological Thought", Cambridge, MA: The
Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press.
Ridley, M. (1985) "The Problems of Evolution", Oxford: Oxford Univ.
Watson, J.D. (1966) "Molecular Biology of the Gene", Menlo Park:
Watson, J.D., Hopkins, N.H., Roberts, J.W., Steitz, J.A. & Weiner,
A.M. (1987) "Molecular Biology of the Gene (4th edn)", Menlo Park:
Williams, G.C. (1966) "Adaptation and Natural Selection", Princeton,
NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.
Wright, S. (1932) "The roles of mutation, inbreeding, crossbreeding
and selection in evolution", in: Proc. of the 6th Int'l Congress on
Genetics I, 356.
There is a *lot* of interesting material on biology and evolution in
the talk.origins newsgroup repository, available by FTP. The index of
files, available from ics.uci.edu:/pub/origins/Index , lists what's
there, and includes files on Darwinism, definition of evolution,
introduction to evolutionary biology, a list of important FAQ files,
speciation, and genetic drift.
Subject: Q10.8: On-line bibliography collections?
The Big One
Jarmo Alander has compiled probably the biggest EC bibliography
around. It has 2500 entries, and is available in postscript form by
ftp from: garbo.uwasa.fi:/pc/research/2500GArefs.ps.gz and also from
ENCORE (see Q15.3) in file refs/2500GArefs.ps.gz Please send any
additions or corrections to
The same directory on ENCORE also contains some other bibliography
Bibliography at Florida Atlantic University
A bibliography of over 400 entries in the area of Evolutionary
Computation (GA/ES/EP/GP) is available (in BibTeX and PostScript
formats, compressed) by anonymous FTP from:
magenta.me.fau.edu:/pub/ep-list/bib/EC-ref.bib.Z and EC-ref.ps.Z
Please send any additions and corrections to
Combinations of GAs and NNs
Dave Schaffer has compiled a bibliograpy on
combinations of GAs and neural networks. About 150 entries, available
in Bib format from ENCORE (See Q15.3) in file refs/cogann.bib.gz
Jochen Ruhland has also
compiled a bibliography on this topic. Some papers deal only with
neural networks, some only with genetic algorithms. About 300
references altogether. Some include an abstract. Available from:
We_and_our_work/papers/diplom.1.bib.gz There are plans to expand this
bibliography from time to time; the sequels will have names
Bibliography at IlliGAL
A bibliography on Genetic Algorithms compiled by David E. Goldberg,
Kelsey Milman, and Christina Tidd is available as IlliGAL Report No
92008 (see Q14), via ftp from:
GAPHD Bibliography Collection
Martyn Amos has assembled a
collection of bibliographies from various sources, tidied up the
entries and removed duplicates. The collections are as follows:
Alife.bib.gz - General Artificial Life
ICGA-93.bib.gz - Proc. International Conference on GAs (1993)
chaos.bib.gz - Chaos theory
ga+nn.bib.gz - GAs and neural networks
ga.bib.gz - General GA references
ga2.bib.gz - General GA references
parallelGA.bib.gz - Parallel GAs
theory.bib.gz - Theoretical computer science (bias towards graph
theory, stochasic modelling and pobability theory)
misc.bib.gz - Miscellaneous topics (eg. Internet)
There are about 6200 references in total, although the biggest file
by far is theory.bib, which is not directly related to EC. The
references are in BibTeX format. The files are available by FTP from
ftp.dcs.warwick.ac.uk:/pub/gaphd/Bibliographies/ or by WWW from
Evolutionary Models in the Social Sciences
Edmund Chattoe has set up a
bibliorgraphy/mailing list on Evolutionary Models In Economics and
the Social Sciences. You can subscribe to the list by sending a
message with the string "subs-list" in the subject line to
. The latest copy of the EMSS bibliography and
some accompanying notes can be retrieved from this site
GAs and Economics
Bernard Manderick has compiled a
bibliography on the use of GAs in economics, and this was published
in GA-Digest, v7n4 (with some followup comments in v7n5 & v7n7).
This can be retrieved by FTP from
ftp.aic.nrl.navy.mil:/pub/galist/digests/v7n4 (see Q15.1).
GAs in Control
Carlos Fonseca has compiled a
bibliography of about 50 references on GAs in Control, and it was
published in GA-Digest, v7n18. This can be retrieved by FTP from
ftp.aic.nrl.navy.mil:/pub/galist/digests/v7n18 (see Q15.1).
A parallel GA bibliography is available via ftp from:
Andreas Uhl has also compiled a parallel
GA bibliography with about 80 entries. It is available by WWW in:
John Koza has compiled an annotated
bibliography on GP, and about 60 references were published in GA-
Digest, v7n30. This can be retrieved by FTP from
ftp.aic.nrl.navy.mil:/pub/galist/digests/v7n30 or from ENCORE (See
Q15.3) in file refs/gp-ref.gz
GAs and protein folding
Melanie Mitchell has compiled a bibliography of
about 40 references on this topic, and it was published in GA-Digest,
v7n33. This can be retrieved by FTP from
ftp.aic.nrl.navy.mil:/pub/galist/digests/v7n33 (see Q15.1).
GAs in Image Processing and Computer
Kyeongmo Park has compiled a bibliography of about
20 references on this topic, and it was published in GA-Digest,
v8n10. This can be retrieved by FTP from
ftp.aic.nrl.navy.mil:/pub/galist/digests/v8n10 (see Q15.1).
Masters and PhD theses
Richard K. Belew has collected information on approximately 2600
Masters and Ph.D. theses, nominally in the area of AI. The entire
list (about 170KB) is available for anonymous FTP at:
cs.ucsd.edu:/pub/rik/aigen.rpt Questions, suggestions, additions etc.
Subject: Q10.9: Videos?
Sims, K. (1990) "Panspermia", ACM Sigraph Review. Order form
available by FTP from
siggraph.org:/publications/video_review/order_blank Look in that
directory for other useful information. Note that "Panspermia" is
Item 23 of Issue 62 of the "SIGGRAPH Video Review".
Langton, C.G. (ed) (1992) "Artificial Life II Video Proceedings" The
Advanced Book Program of the Santa Fe Institute: Studies in the
Sciences of Complexity, Addison Wesley, ISBN 0-201-55492-5. [ALIFEII-
Koza, J.R. & Rice, J.P. (1992) "Genetic Programming: The Movie",
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. See GP-faq for an order form. (see Q15)
The Santa Fe Institute has produced a thirteen minute promotional
video, which includes a five minute segment discussing the Tierra
research project, illustrated with a very high quality animation
produced by the Anti Gravity Workshop in Santa Monica, CA. To obtain
the video, contact the Santa Fe Institute at: 1660 Old Pecos Trail,
Suite A, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 (Tel: 505-984-8800, Fax:
505-982-0565, Net: ) or contact Linda Feferman:
Subject: Q10.10: CD-ROMs?
PTF for AI by CMU
Carnegie Mellon University is establishing an Artificial Intelligence
Repository to contain public domain and freely distributable
software, publications, and other materials of interest to AI
researchers, educators, and students. The AI Repository will be
accessible by anonymous FTP and Andrew File System (AFS) without
charge (See Q15.3). The contents of the repository will also be
published by Prime Time Freeware as an inexpensive mixed-media
For your information, here is a precis of the CD-ROM:
PTF for AI is a periodic collection of AI-related source code and
documentation. PTF for AI in no way modifies the legal restrictions
on any package it includes. The first issue (1-1; Summer, 1993)
consisted of an ISO-9660 CD-ROM bound into a ~100 page book. It
contained ~600 MB of gzipped archives (2+ GB uncompressed and
unpacked). Cost: $60 US.
For more information contact: Mark Kantrowitz, Archivist, CMU AI
Repository, Editor, PTF for AI. Net: ,
Tel: +1 412-268-2582, Fax: +1 412-681-5739.
AI CD-ROM by NCC
Network Cybernetics Corporation is now shipping the second annual
revision of their popular AI CD-ROM, an ISO-9660 format CD-ROM
containing a wide assortment of information on AI, Robotics, and
other advanced machine technologies. The AI CD-ROM contains thousands
of programs, source code collections, tutorials, research papers,
Internet journals, and other resources. The topics covered include
artificial intelligence, artificial life, robotics, virtual reality,
and many related fields. Programs for OS/2, DOS, Macintosh, UNIX,
Amiga, and other platforms can be found on the disc. The files have
been collected from civilian and government research centers,
universities, Internet archive sites, BBS systems and other sources.
The CD-ROM is updated annually to keep it current with the latest
trends and developments in advanced machine technologies such as AI.
The AI CD-ROM Rev. 1 was a "CD-ROM professional consumer disk product
of the year award" finalist and has received good reviews in many
magazines including Byte (Jerry Pournelle, March '93) and IEEE
Computer (J. Zalewski, July '93), CD-ROM Professional and others.
For people wanting to see a complete listing of the CD's contents,
look for the file AICDROM2.ZIP at an ftp site near you. The file is
also available from the Compuserve AI forum, and the NCC dial-up BBS
at 214-258-1832. It contains the file listing, this press release, a
couple of magazine reviews of the disc, and other assorted
Inquiries to: Network Cybernetics Corporation, 4201 Wingren Road,
Suite 202, Irving, TX 75062-2763, USA (Fax: 214-650-1929, Net:
Subject: Q10.11: How do I get a copy of a dissertation?
All US American dissertations are available from: UMI Dissertation
Information Service, University Microfilms International, A Bell &
Howell Information Company, 300 N. Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan
48106, USA. Tel.: 800-521-0600, or +1 (313) 761-4700
Subject: Q11: What EC related journals and magazines are there?
[eds note: comments on speed of reviewing and publishing, whether
they accept LaTeX/TeX format or ASCII by e-mail, etc. are welcome]
1. Dedicated EC Journals:
Published quarterly by: MIT Press Journals, 55 Hayward Street,
Cambridge, MA 02142-1399, USA. Tel: (617) 253-2889, Fax: (617)
Along with the explosive growth of the computing industry has come
the need to design systems capable of functioning in complex,
changing ENVIRONMENTs. Considerable effort is underway to explore
alternative approaches to designing more robust computer systems
capable of learning from and adapting to the environment in which
One broad class of such techniques takes its inspiration from natural
systems with particular emphasis on evolutionary models of
computation such as GAs, ESs. CFS, and EP. Until now, information
on these techniques has been widely spread over numerous disciplines,
conferences, and journals. [eds note: The editorial board reads like
a who-is-who in EC.] For paper e-mail submission, use one of the
o America: John Grefenstette
o Europe: Heinz Muehlenbein
o Asia: Hiroaki Kitano
o Ed-in-chief: Ken De Jong
Please note, that submissions should be sent to one of the sub-
editors. Grefenstette and Kitano accept LaTeX or PostScript
Journal of Biological and Information Processing Sciences, Elsevier
Science Publishers, P.O. Box 1527, 1000 BM Amsterdam, The
BioSystems encourages experimental, computational, and theoretical
articles that link biology, evolutionary thinking, and the
information processing sciences. The link areas form a circle that
encompasses the fundamental nature of biological information
processing, computational modeling of complex biological systems,
evolutionary models of computation, the application of biological
principles to the design of novel computing systems, and the use of
biomolecular materials to synthesize artificial systems that capture
essential principles of natural biological information processing.
Topics: Molecular EVOLUTION: Self-organizing and self-replicating
systems, Origin and evolution of the genetic mechanism; Biological
Information Processing: Molecular recognition, Cellular control,
Neuromuscular computing, Biological adaptability, Molecular computing
technologies; EVOLUTIONARY SYSTEMS: Stochastic evolutionary
algorithms, Evolutionary OPTIMIZATION, SIMULATION of genetic and
ecological systems, Applications (neural nets, machine learning,
2. Related Journals:
Published by: Complex Systems Publications, Inc., P.O. Box 6149,
Champaign, IL 61821-8149, USA.
Complex Systems devotes to the rapid publication of research on the
science, mathematics, and engineering of systems with simple
components but complex overall behavior. Try finger(1) on
for additional info.
Published by: Kluwer Academic Publishers, P.O. Box 358, Accord
Station, Hingham, MA 02018-0358 USA.
Machine Learning is an international forum for research on
computational approaches to learning. The journal publishes articles
reporting substantive research results on a wide range of learning
methods applied to a variety of task domains. The ideal paper will
make a theoretical contribution supported by a computer
The journal has published many key papers in learning theory,
reinforcement learning, and decision tree methods. The journal
regularly publishes special issues devoted to GAs and CFS as well.
Published quarterly by: MIT Press Journals, details above.
Broadly, behavior is adaptive if it deals successfully with changes
circumstances. For example, when surprised, a hungry --but
environmentally informed-- mouse may dart for cover rather than
another piece of cheese. Similarly, a tripped-up ROBOT [eds note: not
necessarily built by Sirius Cybernetics Corp.] could get back on its
feet and accomplish a moonrock-finding mission if it had learned to
cope with unanticipated lunar potholes.
Adaptive Behavior thus takes an approach complementary to traditional
AI. Now basic abilities that allow animals to survive, or ROBOTs to
perform their mission in unpredictable ENVIRONMENTs, will be studied
in preference to more elaborate and human-specific abilities.
The journal also aims to investigate which new insights into
intelligence and cognition can be achieved by explicitly taking into
account the ENVIRONMENT feedback --mediated by behavior-- that an
animal or a ROBOT receives, instead of studying components of
intelligence in isolation.
Topics: INDIVIDUAL and Collective Behavior. Neural Correlates of
Behavior. Perception and Motor Control. Motivation and Emotion.
Action SELECTION and Behavioral Sequences. Internal World Models.
Ontogeny, Learning, and EVOLUTION. Characterization of ENVIRONMENTs.
Published quarterly by: MIT Press Journals, details above.
Artificial Life is intended to be the primary forum for the
dissemination of scientific and engineering research in the field of
ARTIFICIAL LIFE. It will report on synthetic biological work being
carried out in any and all media, from the familiar "wetware" of
organic chemistry, through the inorganic "hardware" of mobile ROBOTs,
all the way to the virtual "software" residing inside computers.
Research topics ranging from the fabrication of self-replicating
molecules to the study of evolving POPULATIONs of computer programs
will be included.
There will also be occasional issues devoted to special topics, such
as L-Systems, GENETIC ALGORITHMs, in-vitro EVOLUTION of molecules,
artificial cells, computer viruses, and many social and philosophical
issues arising from the attempt to synthesize life artificially.
[eds note: The editorial board reads like a who-is-who in ALIFE]
Published quarterly by: Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service
Center Secaucus, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094, USA. Tel: (201)
348-4033, Fax: (201) 348-4505.
Evolutionary Economics aims to provide an international forum for a
new approach to economics. Following the tradition of Joseph A.
Schlumpeter, it is designed to focus on original research with an
evolutionary conception of the economy. The journal will publish
articles with strong emphasis on dynamics, changing structures
(including technologies, institutions, beliefs, imitation, etc.). It
favors interdisciplinary analysis and is devoted to theoretical,
methodological and applied work.
Research areas include: industrial dynamics; multi-sectoral and
cross-country studies of productivity; innovations and new
technologies; dynamic competition and structural change in a national
and international context; causes and effects of technological,
political and social changes; cyclic processes in economic EVOLUTION;
the role of governments in a dynamic world; modeling complex dynamic
economic systems; application of concepts, such as self-organization,
bifurcation, and chaos theory to economics; evolutionary games.
Subject: Q12: What are the important conferences/proceedings on EC?
1. Dedicated EC Conferences:
ICGA: International Conference on Genetic Algorithms
Major international conference held in North America in odd-numbered
years. Covers all aspects of EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION. The 1995
conference will be held at the University of Pittsburgh on July
15--20. Details are in GA-Digest v8n32,
. Further details from Larry Eshelman .
Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Genetic Algorithms
(1985) J.J. Grefenstette (ed) [ICGA85]: and Proc. of the 2nd Int'l
Conf. on Genetic Algorithms (1987) J.J. Grefenstette (ed) [ICGA87]:
available from Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 365 Broadway,
Hillsdale, New Jersey, 07642, (800) 926-6579.
Proc. of the 3rd Int'l Conf. on Genetic Algorithms (1989) J.D.
Schaffer (ed) [ICGA89]: and Proc. of the 4th Int'l Conf. on Genetic
Algorithms (1991) R.K. Belew and L.B. Booker (eds) [ICGA91]: and
Proc. of the 5th Int'l Conf. on Genetic Algorithms (1993) S. Forrest
(ed) [ICGA93]: available from Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc., P.O.
Box 50490, Palo Alto, CA, 94303-9953, (415) 578-9911. Net:
FOGA: Foundations of Genetic Algorithms
Major international workshop focusing on theoretical aspects of EC,
that's usually limited to some 50 participants and is held somewhere
in North America.
FOGA 3 took place from July 30 to August 3 in 1994. Enquires to:
Darrell Whitley, Dept. of CS, Colorado State University, Fort
Collins, CO 80523.
Foundations of Genetic Algorithms (1991) G.J.E. Rawlins (ed)
[FOGA91]: and Foundations of Genetic Algorithms 2 (1993) L.D. Whitley
[FOGA93]: available from Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc., P.O. Box
50490, Palo Alto, CA, 94303-9953, (415) 578-9911.
PPSN: Parallel Problem Solving from Nature
Major international conference held in Europe in even-numbered years.
Covers all aspects of problem solving inspired by natural processes.
The 1994 conference will be held in Israel in a Kibbutz close to
Jerusalem, October 9-14. For details contact Yuval Davidor
Parallel Problem Solving from Nature, (1990) H.-P. Schwefel and R.
Maenner (eds) [PPSN90]: published by Springer-Verlag, 175 5th Avenue,
New York, NY, 10010, (212) 460-1500. Parallel Problem Solving from
Nature 2, (1992) R. Maenner and B. Manderick (eds) [PPSN92]:
published by North-Holland, Elsevier Science Publishers, Sara
Burgerhartstraat 25, P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, The
Netherlands. Parallel Problem Solving from Nature 3, (1994) Y.
Davidor, [PPSN94]: (to be published)
EP: Annual Conference on Evolutionary Programming
Major international annual conference held in San Diego, CA, USA.
Covers all aspects of EC with emphasis on EP related research. The
1994 conference was held in San Diego, February 24-25. For details
contact David Fogel .
Proceedings of the 1st Annual Conference on Evolutionary Programming,
(1992) D.B. Fogel and W. Atmar (eds), [EP92]:, and Proc. of the 2nd
Annual Conf. on EVOLUTIONARY PROGRAMMING, (1993) D.B. Fogel and W.
Atmar (eds), [EP93]: published by the Evolutionary Programming
Society, 9363 Towne Centre Dr., San Diego, CA 92121, Attn: Bill
Porto, Treasurer. (cf Q13)
ICEC: IEEE Conference on Evolutionary Computation
Major international conference covering all aspects of EC. The first
took place in June 1994 at the World Congress on Computational
Intelligence, Florida. The second is on 29 Nov.--1 Dec. 1995 in
Perth, Australia. Details from .
Proceedings of the 1st IEEE Conference on Evolutionary Computation,
(1994) D.B. Fogel (ed.) (2 Volumes). Published by IEEE, 445 Hoes
Lane, PO Box 1331, Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331. Also, talks from
invited speakers are published in "Computational Intelligence
Imitating Life" (1994) J.M. Zurada, R.J. Marks, C.J. Robinson (eds),
2. Related Conferences:
Alife: International Conference on Artificial Life
Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on ARTIFICIAL LIFE,
(1989) C.G. Langton (ed), Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences
of Complexity, Proc. Vol. VI, [ALIFEI]: and Proc. of the 2nd Int'l
Conf. on Artificial Life II, (1992) C.G. Langton, C. Taylor, J. Doyne
Farmer and S. Rasmussen (eds), Santa Fe Institute Studies in the
Sciences of Complexity, Proc. Vol. X, [ALIFEII]: and Proc. of the 3rd
Int'l Conf. on Artificial Life III, (1993) C.G. Langton (ed),
[ALIFEIII]: published by Addison Wesley, Redwood City, CA, USA.
ARTIFICIAL LIFE IV, was organized by Rodney Brooks, MIT AI Lab,
and held on July 6-8, 1994. Proceedings edited by
R. Brooks and P. Maes. [ALIFEIV]:
ECAL: European Conference on Artificial Life
Proceedings of the 1st European Conference on ARTIFICIAL LIFE, (1991)
F.J. Varela and P. Bourgine (eds), [ECAL91]: and Proc. of the 2nd
European Conf. on ALIFE: Self-organization and life, from simple
rules to global complexity, (1993), (? eds) (? pub) [ECAL93]:
published by MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA.
ECML: European Conference on Machine Learning
Machine Learning: ECML-93, Proc. European Conf. on Machine Learning,
(1993) P.B. Brazil (ed), [ECML93]: published by Springer, New York,
SAB: International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior
From Animals to Animats. Proceedings of the 1st International
Conference on SIMULATION of Adaptive Behavior, (1991) [SAB90]: J.-A.
Meyer and S.W. Wilson, ISBN 0-262-63138-5, and Proc. of the 2nd Int'l
Conf. on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, (1993) [SAB92]:, J.-A.
Meyer, H. Roitblat and S.W. Wilson (eds) and Proc. of the 3rd Int'l
Conf. on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, [SAB94]:, P. Husbands,
J.-A. Meyer and S.W. Wilson (eds) published by MIT Press, Cambridge,
SAB94 took place on August 8-12, 1994 in Brighton, UK.
3. Pointers to upcoming Conferences:
The Genetic Algorithm Digest
Aka "GA-Digest" always starts with a "Calendar of GA-related Events,"
i.e. a list of upcoming conferences, covering the complete field of
EAs. (cf Q15)
The Artificial Life Digest
Aka "Alife digest" always starts with a "Calendar of Alife-related
Events," that lists conferences, workshops, etc. (cf Q15)
The Evolutionary Programming Digest
Aka "EP-digest" doesn't list conferences explicitly, like the
previously mentioned ones, but carries most CFP's; that can be looked
at in the backissues folder as: magenta.me.fau.edu:/pub/ep-
list/digest/vX.YYY.Z (cf Q15)
Subject: Q13: What Evolutionary Computation Associations exist?
ISGA: International Society on Genetic Algorithms
The ISGA is a mostly fascinating society: it neither has a
membership fee (which makes it even more fascinating), nor an
address. However, ISGA meetings usually take place during ICGA
conferences, in so-called business meetings (BMs). [eds note: So
during a conference, ask for BMs, if you want to join; or be ready to
dart out of the room if you don't...]
EPS: Evolutionary Programming Society
Membership is $40/year ($10/year for students with id) and also gives
you a discounted registration at the annual conference. You can also
order EP proceedings ($30/members, $45/other) from EPS.
Address: EVOLUTIONARY PROGRAMMING Society, 9363 Towne Centre Dr., San
Diego, CA 92121, Attn: Bill Porto, Treasurer.
Subject: Q14: What Technical Reports are available?
Technical reports are informally published, unrefereed papers giving
up-to-date information on what is going on at research institutes.
Many later go on to be formally published in journals or at
The Clearing House for Genetic Algorithms (TCGA) distributes TCGA
Contact: Robert Elliott Smith, Department of Engineering of
Mechanics, Room 210 Hardaway Hall, The University of Alabama, P.O.
Box 870278, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA. Tel: (205) 348-1618, Fax:
(205) 348-6419, Net: .
The Illinois Genetic Algorithms Laboratory distributes IlliGAL
technical reports, as well as reprints of other publications; they
are available in hardcopy and can be ordered from: IlliGAL Librarian,
Department of General Engineering, 117 Transportation Building, 104
South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801-2996, USA.
NOTE: When ordering, please include your surface mail address!
IlliGAL also have an anonymous-FTP server, holding most of the
existing IlliGAL reports, at: gal4.ge.uiuc.edu:/pub/papers/IlliGALs/
There is also a WWW home page with a complete list, order form, and
other ibnformation at: ftp://gal4.ge.uiuc.edu:/illigal.home.html
The Systems Analysis Research Group (SyS) at the University of
Dortmund, maintains an experimental anonymous FTP server:
. On lumpi you can find SyS-Reports from 1992 on. (Get "/pub/ls-
Ral.Z" and look for "papers" folders, the server is sorted by EA
paradigms, i.e. "/pub/GA/papers" contains papers related to GAs,
etc.). A strongly recommended, and quarterly updated, report is a
list of current applications of GAs, EP and ESs; get
The Bionics and EVOLUTION Techniques Laboratory at the Technical
University of Berlin maintains an anonymous FTP server: ftp-
. On ftp-bionik you find reports and software, related to
Evolutionary Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks.
Other Sources of Reports
Reports are also available from some of the sources listed in Q15.1,
Q15.2 and Q15.3.
Subject: Q15: What information is available over the net?
A whole lot of information is available "electronically" via the
internet, accessible using e-mail or (more easily) FTP. There are
electronic digests (see Q15.1), electronic mailing lists (see Q15.2),
online FTP repositories (see Q15.3), and various USENET news groups
Subject: Q15.1: What digests are there?
Digests are regulated, moderated, information sources in which many
contributions are combined together before being posted out to
subscribers, usually on a regular basis (eg. weekly). Mailing lists
are listed in Q15.2.
Genetic Algorithm Digest
The GA research community exchanges news, CFP's, etc. through this
(approximately weekly) digest, currently moderated by Bill Spears
(formerly by Connie Ramsey and by Alan C. Schultz, Naval Research
Laboratory, Washington, DC).
A statistic published in v7,i3 stated that GA-digest is sent out
world-wide to 1800 addresses in 28 countries.
o Send administrative requests to
o The anonymous FTP archive: ftp.aic.nrl.navy.mil:/pub/galist/
contains back issues, GA-code, conference announcements (in
"/pub/galist/information/conferences") and many other things.
Info in "/pub/galist/FTP".
Artificial Life Digest
The ALIFE research community exchanges news, CFP's, etc. through this
digest, edited by Liane Gabora and Rob Collins of the ARTIFICIAL LIFE
Research Group at UCLA.
o Send administrative requests to
o Anonymous FTP archive: ftp.cognet.ucla.edu:/pub/alife/
Evolutionary Programming Digest
The digest is intended to promote discussions on a wide range of
technical issues in evolutionary OPTIMIZATION, as well as provide
information on upcoming conferences, events, journals, special
issues, and other items of interest to the EP community. Discussions
on all areas of EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION are welcomed, including
ARTIFICIAL LIFE, EVOLUTION STRATEGIEs, and GENETIC ALGORITHMs. The
digest is meant to encourage interdisciplinary communications. Your
suggestions and comments regarding the digest are always welcome.
To subscribe to the digest, send mail to and include the line "subscribe ep-list"
in the body of the text. Further instructions will follow your
subscription. The digest is moderated by N. Saravan of Florida
Subject: Q15.2: What mailing lists are there?
Mailing lists are unregulated, unmoderated, information sources in
which messages sent in by subscribers are posted out immediately and
individually to all other subscribers. Digests are listed in Q15.1.
Genetic Programming Mailing List
The GP community uses this list as a discussion forum, news exchange
and FAQ distribution channel, overseen by John Koza and James Rice at
o Admin requests:
o The anonymous FTP archive: ftp.cc.utexas.edu:/pub/genetic-
programming/ includes a lengthy, but "mostly interesting" FAQ by
James Rice on GP related subjects.
Tierra Mailing List
Thomas Ray's Tierra is discussed elsewhere (see Q4.1); here's how to
obtain Tierra electronically and get in contact with other users.
o Admin requests:
o Anonymous FTP archive: tierra.slhs.udel.edu:/pub/ (tierra, almond,
GA-Molecule mailing list
o Admin details:
UK's Evolutionary-Computation mailing list
o Admin details:
GEnetic Algorithm Research Student mailing list
Provides a forum for research students interested in GENETIC
o Admin requests:
GANN: Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks
The neuro-evolution e-mail list has been restarted under the new name
`gann'. This list will focus on the use of evolutionary algorithms
(GENETIC ALGORITHMs, GENETIC PROGRAMMING and their variants) in the
EXPLORATION of the design space of (artificial) neural network
architectures and algorithms. The list will be semi-moderated to
keep the signal to noise ratio as high as possible.
o Admin requests/enquiries: firstname.lastname@example.org
o Subscription requests to the admin address with Subject:
This group is for people using GAs for exam or course scheduling for
academic institutions, rather than manufacturing/job-shop scheduling.
To be added to the group, send email to Kirk Jackson
Evolutionary Models in the Social Sciences
See Q10.8 for details.
Subject: Q15.3: What online information repositories are there?
Many research institutes have online repositories of information
which my be retrieved using FTP or (increasingly), World Wide Web.
NOTE: See also Q14 above.
ENCORE (The EvolutioNary COmputation REpository network) is a
collection of anonymous FTP servers providing a wealth of information
in the area of EC, from technical reports, copies of journal
articles, down to source code for various EAs. ENCORE acts as a
distributor of much material generated at research institutes (and
other places) which don't necessarily have their own FTP servers.
Each node of ENCORE is referred to as an "EClair". The default
EClair node of ENCORE is at the Santa Fe Institute (USA):
Other sites mirror the contents of the default node, and include: The
Chinese University of Hong Kong:
The University of Warwick (United Kingdom):
EUnet Deutschland GmbH (Germany):
and The California Institute of Technology:
Other nodes are planned. Well worth getting is "The Navigator's Guide
to ENCORE", a handbook to this service, in file:
o handbook/encore.ps.gz (A4 paper) or
o handbook/encore-US.ps.gz (US letter size paper).
ENCORE is administered by Joerg Heitkoetter .
The Santa Fe Institute
The Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity (SFI)
issues a recommended series: SFI Studies in the Science of
Complexity, published by Addison Wesley and maintains a well-sorted
FTP server with EC related material.
o Admin requests:
o Anonymous FTP archive: ftp.santafe.edu:/pub/
Additionally, you can telnet bbs.santafe.edu and login as "bbs" to
get access to the Santa Fe Institute's bulletin board system. It's
administrator Scott D. Yelich is actively seeking
information on any complex system information for the BBS. This
includes CAs, GAs, ALIFE or almost anything else related to this
field. You will also find infos on SUMMERSCHOOLs held by the SFI.
The Australian National University (ANU)
The Bioinformatics facility at Australian National University has set
up an anonymous FTP server, that contains EC related material,
maintained by David G. Green.
o Admin requests:
o Anonymous FTP archive: life.anu.edu.au:/pub/complex_systems/alife/
o Gopher protocol: Besides direct access to all FTP information, the
gopher server offers online access to relevant newsgroups, online
databases and direct links to relevant international services.
Name=Complex systems, Host=life.anu.edu.au, Type=1, Port=70,
o World Wide Web protocol: Besides access to all of the above, the
hypermedia server offers introductory tutorials, preprints and
papers online. The URL for this service is
http://life.anu.edu.au/complex_systems/complex.html or link via
the servers home page http://life.anu.edu.au/
LGI laboratory, Grenoble, France
Research into Parallel GENETIC ALGORITHMs: papers (technical reports,
conference and journal articles, theses, monographies, etc...)
written by members of the SYMPA team are available by FTP from
Their adress is: SYMPA/LGI - Institut IMAG, BP 53 38041 Grenoble
The University of Alabama, Department of Computer Science
A number of papers and preprints are available in compressed
Postscript form by FTP from the Univ. of Alabama (Tuscaloosa) from
aramis.cs.ua.edu:/pub/tech-reports/ The naming convention for files
is: (author's last name).(journal name).ps . Maintained by Dr. Ron
CMU Artificial Intelligence Repository
Holds more than a gigabyte of software, publications, and other
materials of interest to AI researchers, educators, students, and
practitioners. The AI Programming Languages and the AI Software
Packages sections of the repository can be accessed in the lang/ and
areas/ subdirectories. Other directories, which are in varying states
of completion, are events/ and pubs/ (Publications, including
technical reports, books, mail/news archives).
The AI Programming Languages section includes directories for Common
Lisp, Prolog, Scheme, Smalltalk, and other AI-related programming
languages. The AI Software Packages section includes subdirectories
for: alife/ (ARTIFICIAL LIFE), anneal/ (Simulated Annealing),
genetic/ (GENETIC ALGORITHMs etc., including benchmarks and test
problems) and many more.
The AI Repository is accessible by FTP at: ftp.cs.cmu.edu:/user/ai/
(Be sure to read the files 0.doc and readme.txt in this directory)
and by WWW at the URL:
http://www.cs.cmu.edu:8001/Web/Groups/AI/html/repository.html It is
also available on CD-ROM (See Q10.10).
Subject: Q15.4: What relevant newsgroups and FAQs are there?
Besides the obvious comp.ai.genetic, there exist some other
newsgroups that sometimes carry EC related topics:
o comp.ai (FAQ in news.answers, comp.answers)
o comp.ai.fuzzy (FAQ in news.answers, comp.answers)
o comp.ai.jair.announce (FAQ in news.answers, comp.answers)
o comp.ai.jair.papers (PostScript papers of the Journal of AI
Research, published by Morgan Kaufmann ) [eds
note: this is the first journal that's completely published on
USENET first, and later in paper form; read the jair-faq, that's
posted to the announcement group to find out how to submit your
papers, get JAIR papers by FTP, Gopher or e-mail, etc.]
o comp.ai.neural-nets (FAQ in news.answers, comp.answers)
o comp.robotics (FAQ in news.answers, comp.answers)
o comp.theory.cell-automata (no FAQ)
o comp.theory.dynamic-sys (no FAQ)
o comp.theory.self-org-sys (no FAQ)
o sci.bio.evolution (no FAQ)
o sci.math.num-analysis (some FAQs in news.answers, sci.answers)
o sci.op-research (some FAQs in news.answers, sci.answers)
o talk.origins (discusses origins of life, EVOLUTION, etc. FTP
repository index at ics.uci.edu:/pub/origins/Index -- see Q10.7
for more details.)
Subject: Q15.5: What about all these Internet Services?
The Internet supports a variety of on-line services, and a number of
tools are available to enable people to make good use of these,
including: telnet, FTP, gopher, veronica, archie, Wide Area
Information Servers (WAIS), and the World-Wide Web (WWW).
Information about using Internet is available from a number of
sources, many accesible on-line, via email or FTP. For example, the
EFF (Electronic Frontier Foundation) publishes two guides for novices
on all the Internet has to offer, by Adam Gaffin and Joerg
Heitkoetter (see below). These are avaiable over the net.
To receive a short guide to using anonymous FTP, send e-mail with the
text "help" to .
If you dont have FTP access, you can retrieve documents using the
FTP-by-email service. The "ftpmail" service is installed on several
sites to allow transmission of FTPable files from almost anywhere. To
get the PostScript version of this FAQ from ENCORE, (See Q15.3) for
example, send a message to (for example)
containing the lines:
where is e.g. email@example.com
FTPmail sites available are listed below. Use one that is near you
for best performance.
(Europe) or to
Documents from the archive at can be retrieved
similarly by sending email to , containing
a message such as:
Kehoe, B.P. (1992) "Zen and the Art of the Internet: A Beginner's
Guide to the Internet", 2nd Edition (July). Prentice Hall, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ. 112 pages. The 1st Edition, (February) is available in
PostScript format via anonymous FTP from ftp.cs.widener.edu: and many
other Internet archives.
Krol, E. (1992) "The Whole Internet: Catalog & User's Guide".
O'Reilly & Associates, Inc., Sebastopol, CA. 376 pages.
LaQuey, T. and J.C. Ryer (1992) "The Internet Companion: A Beginner's
Guide to Global Networking". Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Reading,
MA. 208 pages.
Smith, Una R. (1993) "A Biologist's Guide to Internet Resources."
USENET sci.answers. ~45 pages. Available via gopher, anonymous FTP
and e-mail from many archives, eg.
Gaffin, A. (1994) "Everybody's Guide to the Internet." Published by
the EFF and MIT Press. $14.95. ISBN 9-780262-67105-7. This book is
available in ASCII by sending e-mail to ; you'll
receive the book split into several pieces; for a more elaborate
version of the guide see the following entry.
Gaffin, A. with Heitkoetter, J. (1994) "EFF's (Extended) Guide to the
Internet: A round trip through Global Networks, Life in Cyberspace,
and Everything...", aka `eegtti.texi'. This is available from
ftp.eff.org:/pub/Net_info/Net_Guide/Other_versions/ (Texinfo, ASCII,
HTML, DVI and PostScript). The European edition is kept on
ftp.germany.eu.net:/pub/books/eff-guide/ ~300 pages. A README file
gives more information. The hypertext (HTML) version can be browsed
by using a WWW reader, such as mosaic, and opening a URL with the
The EARN Association (May 1993) "A Guide to Network Resource Tools",
available via e-mail from , by sending the
message "get nettools ps" (PostScript) or "get nettools memo" (plain
End of ai-faq/genetic/part4