Mark Isaak May2893 08:05AM More on Pesticide Resistance, and Wings A while ago I posted so

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Mark Isaak May-28-93 08:05AM More on Pesticide Resistance, and Wings Organization: The Aurora Group, Palo Alto, CA From: isaak@aurora.com (Mark Isaak) Message-ID: <1993May28.160521.24055@aurora.com> Reply-To: isaak@aurora.com (Mark Isaak) Newsgroups: talk.origins A while ago I posted something telling how the theory of evolution is used against the problem of pesticide resistance. An article in the _Annual Review of Entomology_, vol. 37, 1992 goes into much more detail than the simplistic account I gave. In particular, it points out that the "blast the hell out of them" approach is the best strategy against developing resistance under certain circumstances (when genes conferring resistance are rare and untreated populations will immigrate), but practical problems, such as strong insecticides becoming weak over time, keep that strategey from being very useful. The full reference is: Denholm, I., and M. W. Rowland. Tactics for managing pesticide resistance in arthropods: theory and practice, _Annual Review of Entomology_, #37 (1992), 91-112. The same journal has an article "Functional morphology of insect wings" by Robin J. Wootton, which has a couple paragraphs on the evolution of insect wings. The most relevant point to talk.origins is that some insect fossils show organs in an apparently intermediate stage before true "winghood." From the article: "The winglets, or 'paranotal lobes,' on the prothorax of some groups, best developed in the Palaeozoic Palaeodictyoptera (88) and in some protorthopteroid types (39), appear as if they were sometimes movably articulated and may perhaps have played a minor aerodynamic role in e.g. stabilization, but they can never--after the earliest stages in the evolution of flight--have been significant lifting surfaces." References cited above: 88. Kukalova-Peck, J. 1978. Origin and evolution of insect wings, and their relation to metamorphosis, as documented by the fossil record. _J. Morphol._ 156:53-125 39. Carpenter, F. M. 1935. The Lower Permian insects of Kansas. Part 7. The Order Protoperlaria. _Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci._ 70:103-46. -- Mark Isaak "There lives more faith in honest doubt, isaak@aurora.com Believe me, than in half the creeds." - Tennyson

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