From Medline UNIQUE ID: (NLM)93164275. AUTHOR(S): Otsuka J.; Miyazaki K.; Horimoto K. INST

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From Medline-------- UNIQUE ID: (NLM)93164275. AUTHOR(S): Otsuka J.; Miyazaki K.; Horimoto K. INSTITUTION: Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Science University of Tokyo, Noda, Japan. TITLE: Divergence pattern and selective mode in protein evolution: the example of vertebrate myoglobins and hemoglobin chains. SOURCE: J Mol Evol. 1993 Feb; 36(2): 153-81. ABSTRACT: The evolutionary relation of vertebrate myoglobin and the hemoglobin chains including the agnathan hemoglobin chain is investigated on the basis of a new view of amino acid changes that is developed by canonical discriminant analysis of amino acid residues at individual sites. In contrast to the clear discrimination of amino acid residues between myoglobin, hemoglobin alpha chain, and hemoglobin beta chain in warm-blood vertebrates, the three types of globins in the lower class of vertebrates show so much variation that they are not well discriminated. This is seen particularly at the sites that are ascertained in mammals to carry the amino acid residues participating in stabilizing the monomeric structure in myoglobin and the residues forming the subunit contacts in hemoglobin. At these sites, agnathan hemoglobin chains are evaluated to be intermediate between the myoglobin and hemoglobin chains of gnathostomes. The variation in the phylogenetically lower class of globins is also seen in the internal region; there the amino acid residues of myoglobin and hemoglobin chains in the phylogenetically higher class exhibit an example of parallel evolution at the molecular level. New quantities, the distance of sequence property between discriminated groups and the variation within each group, are derived from the values of discriminant functions along the peptide chain, and this set of quantities simply describes an overall feature of globins such that the distinction between the three types of globins has been clearer as the vertebrates have evolved to become jawed, landed, and warm-blooded. This result strongly suggests that the functional constraint on the amino acid sequence of a protein is changed by living conditions and that severe conditions constitute a driving force that creates a distinctive protein from a less- constrained protein. AUTHOR(S): Stock D W.; Whitt G S. INSTITUTION: Department of Ecology, Ethology, and Evolution, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801. TITLE: Evidence from 18S ribosomal RNA sequences that lampreys and hagfishes form a natural group. SOURCE: Science. 1992 Aug 7; 257(5071): 787-9. ABSTRACT: Lampreys and hagfishes (cyclostomes) traditionally were considered to be a natural (monophyletic) group. Recently, the consensus of opinion, based largely on morphological analyses, has shifted to a view that lampreys are more closely related to jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) than to hagfishes. Phylogenetic comparisons of 18S ribosomal RNA sequences from two hagfishes, two lampreys, a tunicate, a lancelet, and a number of gnathostomes support the monophyly of the cyclostomes. These data force a reassessment of several features of early vertebrate evolution.

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