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ΙΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝ» Ί Ί Ί What's New with Artificial Intelligence? Ί Ί Ί Ί (c) 1991 Thinking Software Ί ΘΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΝΌ The Personal Robot is sleek metallic blue and silver, and sunlight glints off his shining torso as he washes his master's car in the noonday heat. Is there a Personal Robot lurking in your future? Very likely, and when you finally buy him (or her), it will be Artificial Intelligence running on your Robot's onboard 786 computer that will get your car washed and waxed. At your command, he will also clean your house, mow your lawn, or wash and iron your shirts! While you are out for the day! Artificial Intelligence is computer software that allows a computer (or Robot) to perform tasks we would consider intelligent if done by a person. These tasks include giving expert advice, understanding natural language, speaking intelligently and recognizing complex patterns such as handwriting. The three most important types of AI Programs today are Expert Systems, Natural Language Programs and Neural Networks. This exciting software is moving in several new directions in the 1990's: * Embedded Artificial Intelligence - A.I. within otherwise conventional database software. * Robotics - insect like electronic creatures with simple intelligence are being created at the MIT Robotics Lab. * Intelligent Vision - Robot Eyes that can identify various components on an assembly line, for example. * CASE - Computer Aided Software Engineering - using software to write new software. * CAI - Computer Aided Instruction, tutorial software that automatically adjusts to your level of knowledge. There is substantial interest in moving A.I. out of the factory and lab, and into the Office and home. Work Group Software and complex Electronic Mail and Filing Systems are already starting to reflect this trend and become more intelligent. A.I. Visionaries are talking about "Agents", very intelligent PC Based programs that can accept and carry out a long series of complex instructions, and report back to you when all tasks are completed. Some software designers are even experimenting with primitive but fascinating forms of Artificial Life (software that mimics growth and reproduction), and a new field called Virtual Reality. Virtual Reality Software, along with special goggles and gloves, allows you to seemingly enter an artificial world that exists only within the computer, and even move and touch objects that appear in the 3-D view provided by the goggles. The new generation of super high-speed 486 PC's now becoming available from IBM, Compaq, and other compatible builders have become the platform of choice for the development of A.I. Software. Could the 586 PC running at 100 Megahertz be already in the wings? EXPERT SYSTEMS An Expert System is computer software that can solve real world problems requiring logic, decision making and knowledge processing. Expert Systems can also categorize, consult, analyze, and diagnose. These software tools are useful in areas that formerly required a human expert. Expert Systems use deductive reasoning to solve problems that are often unstructured, and would be impossible to approach with conventional procedural computer techniques. You might think that when consulting an Expert System, you ask the Expert System a question, and receive a solution. Actually, its the other way round. The vast majority of Expert Systems in use today ask YOU the questions, and arrive at a solution based on your responses - and the IF/THEN rules in their knowledgebase. Here's a extremely simplified example: EXPERT QUESTION 1: Do you have a bad cough? YOUR ANSWER: Yes. EXPERT QUESTION 2: Do you smoke? YOUR ANSWER: No. EXPERT SOLUTION: You have a cold. If you had answered Yes to the second question, the Expert Solution would be: You have smoker's cough. The rulebase would look something like this: IF Do you have a bad cough = YES THEN ASK Do you smoke. IF Do you smoke = YES THEN SOLUTION = You have smoker's cough ELSE You have a cold. Naturally, an Expert System that you could question would be preferable, but this has been very difficult to program with current technology, because of the extreme difficulty of programming a computer to extract MEANING from a sentence or question. However, there is little doubt that this will eventually be accomplished, most likely through Knowledge Frames. One large Knowledge Frame project manager likens building Knowledge Frames on a computer to teaching the Encyclopedia to a small child. He has also called the process "teaching by brain surgery", as every single fact, relationship and idea must be manually typed into the computer in just the right way. It is hoped that building millions of linked Knowledge Frames will result in a computer with enough "common sense" to understand and respond to questions. THE DOMAIN OF THE KNOWLEDGEBASE An Expert System Shell is an Expert System minus its knowledgebase and domain. It is an Expert System ready to be taught the rules of knowledge in a particular field. An "Expert System Ready to Consult" is an Expert System that has been given knowledge rules for a specific domain or subject, such as Medical Diagnosis, Car Repair or virtually any organized body of knowledge. Some of the most famous Expert Systems can be found in the area of Medical Diagnoses and Computer Configuaration, and surpass human experts in their specific areas of expertise. In one specific area of expertise - playing chess - a domain specific computer called Deep Thought has won against GrandMaster human players, and most experts believe that Deep Thought will eventually become the world chess champion, perhaps within five years. NATURAL LANGUAGE Natural Language Software is the branch of AI that focuses on getting computers to understand spoken or typed english. English has proven itself as the most useful tool for people communicating with people. It is now starting to emerge as a viable alternative for people communicating with computers. Someday, desktop PC's will routinely respond to our spoken requests with answers in perfectly spoken English - or any other language! There is now software that can speak any file or text screen on your PC, (Monlogue, from First Byte), and software that can type your slowly spoken words (Dragon Dictate, $9000.00). There is also software to automatically translate from one language to another. One A.I. goal is to provide automatic real-time language translation as you speak during a Trans-Atlantic phone conversation. The SoundBytes Toolkit (Thinking Software, $59.95) allows programmers to add Speech to any PC Program. The PC Therapist (Thinking Software, $29.95) is an advanced update of Eliza, the famous talking psychiatrist first developed at M.I.T. There is absolutely no doubt that Encylopedia sales will soon be replaced by Enclopedias on CD-ROM Disks, with powerful Natual Language software "front-ends" that can accept a school child's typed question, and turn it into a correct search-and-retrieval procedure to answer any question from the Encyclopedia. Can you imagine a child telling his computer to "Prepare a report on the History of Artifical Intelligence", or - more likely - on the Presidents of the United States? NEURAL NETWORKS A Neural Network is a biological model of a human brain, simulated in the binary memory of your PC. It is made up of artificial Neurons, connected to each other by Axions. Each Neuron can have many inputs, but only one output. As a Neuron gets energized by input, it fires, sending energy along axions to other nearbye Neurons. If another Neuron receives enough energy it will also fire, propagating the excitation to others. There are hundreds or even thousands of such Neurons, arranged in layers, and all together they form a Neural Network, capable of learning from experience though a self correcting technique called back-propogation. Today, Neural Networks are the most exciting area in Artificial Intelligence, and these real operational computer models of the brain routinely perform outstanding feats of pattern recognition such as reading scribbled handwriting at high speed with incredible accuracy, learning to identify male versus female faces, and even learning to speak almost without human assistance. There is also a lot of excitement on Wall Street where high level programmers have created Neural Networks that can predict the Stock Market quickly enough to place buy and sell orders based on the Networks output. A number of small companies have been formed around the idea of using Neural Networks to predict the result of horse races and other sporting events based on past history. Some claim that Neural Network Software will lead us to a new "Age of Artificial Intelligence". When the first Personal Robot goes on the market (for the price of...let's say...about the price of a Cadillac or Mercedes...at first...) will its brain be an Expert System, a Neural Network, or Natural Language Software, or perhaps some exotic high-tech combination of the three still to be invented? The Personal Robot has finished washing and waxing the car, cleaning the house, doing the laundry, changing the sheets, and dinner is in the microwave. He stands silent and waiting for further commands from you, his master. He is not tired or resentful from performing the endless tasks. He has been programmed to seem cheerful at all times. So when you finally buy your Personal Robot, don't go treating him like a slave. Treat him....or her...like a buddy. *** Dear PC User, Thinking Software is almost 5 years old....we've been providing quality A.I. Software since September 1986. We keep our prices low by running inexpensive ads and sending out our disks in sturdy but simple mailers. Most of our disks are still $29.95, and you can save money by ordering three for $59.95, or six for $99.95. All the software in our catalog has been carefully tested and documented and is guaranteed to run on your machine. This place is a hotbed of creative software development, and here's some exciting news about our new products: 1. LIFEPLAN - We've modified our popular Personal Information Manager to use "text files" instead of database records. What does this mean to you? Complete freedom in the way you enter your Goals, Projects, Plans and Things-to-Do. $29.95. 2. MONEYMAKER - This is great for new PC Users. A dozen realistic ways to make extra money with your PC while you keep your present job. Plus tips on buying a Laser Printer, and a compact introduction to the most useful DOS Commands.$29.95. 3. PC THERAPIST - Our best seller has a new face! A cute little talking head to be exact! And now he talks thru your PC Speaker! (One user wrote: Max Headroom lives Again!).$29.95. 4. TURBO EXPERT - Build your first Expert System in one day, gain a real hands-on working knowledge of Artificial Intelligence Technology.$59.95. 5. BEST OF WINDOWS 3.0 - Is Windows 3.0 more fun then sex? Lets just say its the most fun I've had while sitting at a PC. If you are a Windows User, check out our new Best of Windows package - a dozen carefully selected programs for just $29.95. 6. AUTOWRITER - We now have an additional 800,000 byte text source file for AutoWriter, but you have to ask for it when you order. ($29.95) You'll need a 1.4 Meg Disk Drive, as we only supply this new text file on a 1.4 Meg Disk. The file is full of contemporary quotes and sayings to spice up your writing. 7. THE NEW PSYCHOLOGY - Our latest creation, a mind bending visual voyage into the future of psychology. EGA or VGA and hard drive required. If you are interested in Reich or Velikovsky you want this disk $29.95 8. EASY NEURAL NETWORKS - A complete introduction to Neural Networks, with an actual running Neural Network you can train and test. $59.95 GIVEAWAY REGISTRATION DEAL <========================> Here's a giveaway registration deal that no rational person could refuse. Register this copy of THINK for just ten dollars ($10.00!) and you get: The 32-page Artificial Intelligence Software Catalog which opens you to a whole new world of PC Software. The famous "AI-TUTOR" A.I. Tutorial Disk! Contains concise online tutorial on Expert Systems, Neural Networks, Natural Language, KnowlegeBases, Virtual Reality, Artificial Life, AI Agents. AI-TUTOR is an in-depth Artificial Intelligence Tutorial. It contains individual articles on Neural Networks, Expert Systems and Natural Language Software. Each type of software is explained in detail, with examples of popular programs in each category. PLUS your choice of ONE OF THE ABOVE 8 BEST-SELLERS (usually $29.95 or more)! Choose from: LifePlan, MoneyMaker, PC Therapist, Turbo Expert, Best of Windows 3.0, AutoWriter, The New Psychology, or EASY Neural Networks! If this sounds too good to be true, remember we have an ulterior motive. We are sure that once you see our AI Catalog and AI-TUTOR Disk, you'll find a lot of software you can't resist! ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- If you have a printer, press SHIFT/PRINTSCREEN to print this Order Form: Dear Thinking Software, Please RUSH the items checked below via AIRMAIL: ____ Special REGISTRATION DEAL ($10).A.I. Catalog & AI-TUTOR Disk ____ MY FREE REGISTRATION BONUS DISK:________________________________ ____ Overseas Airmail Postage $10.00 ____ Overseas Dealer Registration Info Pack $10.00 ____ One more disk at $29.95 (I can't resist)____________________________ THINKING SOFTWARE, INC. 46-16 65TH Place Woodside, New York 11377 ( ) Check here for 3.5 inch Microfloppies Please type or print your Name & Address: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------


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