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June 27, 1992
This rare file shared with KeelyNet courtesy of James Hartman.
The following file is taken from a copy of the original English
patent. It is believed by Vangard Sciences to be the first one
granted to T.T. Brown in regard to distorting or otherwise taking
advantage of the energy generally termed gravity.
For those who have been able to acquire a copy of Browns' Lab notes,
(thanks to one of our group) we see the beginnings of what Brown
later termed GRAVITATIONAL ISOTOPES. We hope to have this
information online in the next few months to further assist
experimenters and researchers into such phenomena.
We encourage our fellow KeelyNetters to experiment with this patent
as suggested and to report their findings back to our group for
discussion and duplication....thank you for your participation...
Application Date: Aug. 15, 1927
No. 21,452/27. 300,311
Complete Accepted: Nov. 15, 1928
A Method of and Apparatus or Machine for
Producing Force or Motion
I, Thomas Townsend Brown, of 15, Eighth Street, in the City of
Zanesville, State of Ohio, United States of America, a citizen of
the United States of America, do hereby declare the nature of this
invention and in what manner the same is to be performed to be
particularly described and ascertained in and by the following
This invention relates to a method of controlling gravitation and
for deriving power therefrom, and to a method of producing linear
force or motion. The method is fundamentally electrical.
The invention also relates to machines or apparatus requiring
electrical energy that control or influence the gravitational field
or the energy of gravitation; also to machines or apparatus
requiring electrical energy that exhibit a linear force or motion
which is believed to be independent of all frames of reference save
that which is at rest relative to the universe taken as a whole and
said linear force or motion is furthermore believed to have no equal
and opposite reaction that can be observed by any method commonly
known and accepted by physical science to date.
The invention further relates to machines or apparatus that depend
for their force action or motive power on the gravitational field or
energy of gravitation that is being controlled or influenced as
above stated; also, to machines or apparatus that depend for their
force action or motive power on the linear force or motion exhibited
by such machines or apparatus previously mentioned.
The invention further relates to machines and apparatus that
derive usable energy or power from the gravitational field or from
the energy of gravitation by suitable arrangement, using such
machines and apparatus as first above stated as principal agents.
To show the universal adaptability of my novel method, said method
is capable of practical performance and use in connection with
motors for automobiles, space cars, ships, railway locomotion, prime
movers for power installations, aeronautics. Still another field is
the use of the method and means enabling the same to function as a
gravitator weight changer. Specific embodiments of the invention
will be duly disclosed through the medium of the present
Referring to the accompanying drawings forming part of this
Figure 1 is an elevation, with accompanying descriptive data,
broadly illustrating the characteristic or essential
elements associated with any machine or apparatus in the
use of which the gravitational field or the energy of
gravitation is utilized and controlled, or in the use of
which linear force or motion may be produced.
Figure 2 is a similar view of negative and positive electrodes
with an interposed insulating member, constituting an
embodiment of the invention.
Figure 3 is a similar view of a cellular gravitator composed of a
plurality of cell units connected in series, capable of
use in carrying the invention into practice.
Figure 4 is an elevation of positive and negative electrodes
diagrammatically depicted to indicate their relation and
use when conveniently placed and disposed within a vacuum
Figures 5 and 5¡ are longitudinal sectional views showing my
gravitator units embodied in vacuum tube form wherein
heating to incandescence is permitted as by electrical
resistance or induction at the negative electrode; and
also permitting, where desired, the conducting of
excessive heat away from the anode or positive electrode
by means of air or water cooling devices.
Figure 6 is an elevation of an embodiment of my invention in a
rotary or wheel type of motor utilizing the cellular
gravitators illustrated in Figure 3.
Figure 7 is a view similar to figure 6 of another wheel form or
rotary type of motor involving the use of the gravitator
units illustrated in Figure 5, or Figure 5¡.
Figure 8 is a perspective view partly in section of the cellular
gravitator of Figure 3 illustrating the details thereof.
Figures 9, 10 and 10a are detail views of the cellular gravitator.
Figure 11 is a view similar to Figure 8 with the same idea
incorporated in a rotary motor.
Figures 12 and 13 are detailed views thereof.
The general showing in Figure 1 will make clear how my method for
controlling or influencing the gravitational field or energy of
gravitation, or for producing linear force or motion, is utilized by
any machine or apparatus having the characteristics now to be
Such a machine has major parts A and B. These parts may be
composed of any material capable of being charged electrically.
Mass A and mass B may be termed electrodes A and B respectively.
Electrode A is charged negatively with respect to electrode B, or
what is substantially the same, electrode B is charged positively
with respect to electrode A, or what is usually the case, electrode
A has an excess of electrons while B has an excess of protons.
While charged in this manner the total force of A toward B is the
sum force g (due to normal gravitational field), and force e (due to
the imposed electrical field) and force x (due to the resultant of
the unbalanced gravitational forces caused by the electro-negative
charge or by the presences of an excess of electrons on electrode A
and by the electro-positive charge or by the presence of an excess
of protons on electrode B).
By cancellation of similar and opposing forces and by the addition
of similar and allied forces the two electrodes taken collectively
possess of force 2x in the direction of B. The force 2x shared by
both electrodes exists as a tendency of these electrodes to move or
accelerate in toward B and B away from A. Moreover any machine or
apparatus possessing electrodes A and B will exhibit such a lateral
acceleration or motion if free to move.
Such motion is believed to be due to the direct control and
influence of the energy of gravitation by the electrical energy
which exists in the unlike electrical charges present on the
affected electrodes. The motion seems to possess no equal or
opposite motion that is detectable by the present day mechanics.
It is to be understood that in explaining the theory underlying my
invention I am imparting by best understanding of that theory,
derived from practical demonstration by the use of appropriate
apparatus made in keeping with the teachings of the present
The practice of the method, and apparatus aiding in the
performance of the method, have been successful as herein disclosed,
and the breadth of my invention and discovery is such as to embrace
any corrected or more refined theory that may be found to underlie
the phenomena which I believe myself to be the first to discover and
put to practical service.
In this Specification I have used terms as "gravitator cells" and
"gravitator cellular body" which are words of my own coining in
making reference to the particular type of cell I employ in the
present invention. Whatever the construction involves the use of a
pair of electrodes separated by an insulating plate or member, such
construction complies with the term gravitator cells, and when two
or more gravitator cells are connected in series within a body, such
will fall within the meaning of gravitator cellular body.
In Figure 2 the electrodes A and B are shown as having placed
between them an insulating plate or member C of suitable material,
such that the minimum number of electrons or ions may successfully
penetrate it. This constitutes a cellular gravitator consisting of
one gravitator cell.
A cellular gravitator, consisting of more than one cell, will have
the cell units connected in series. This type is illustrated in
Figure 3, D being insulating members and E suitable conducting
plates. Various arrangements of cell units, each possessing
distinct advantages, may be resorted to.
One arrangement, such as just referred to, is illustrated in
Figure 6 of the drawings. Here the cells designated F are grouped
and spaced evenly around the circumference of a wheel G.
Each group of cells F possesses a linear acceleration and the
wheel rotates as a result of the combined forces. It will be
understood that, the cells being spaced substantial distances apart,
the separation of adjacent positive and negative elements of
separate cells is greater than the positive and negative elements of
any cell, and the materials of which the cells are formed being the
more readily affected by the phenomena underlying my invention than
the mere space between adjacent cells, any forces existing between
positive and negative elements of adjacent cells can never become of
sufficient magnitude to neutralize or balance the force created by
the respective cells adjoining said spaces.
The uses to which such a motor, wheel or rotor may be put to
practically limitless, as can be readily understood, without further
description. The structure may suitably be called a gravitator motor
of cellular type.
In keeping with the purpose of my invention an apparatus may
employ the electrodes A and B within a vacuum tube. This aspect of
the invention is shown in figures 4 and 5. In figure 4 the
electrodes A and B are such as are adapted to be placed within a
Vacuum tube H (Fig. 5), the frame and mounting being well within the
province of the skilled artisan.
Electrons, ions or thermions can migrate readily from A to B. The
construction may be appropriately termed an electric, ionic, or
thermionic gravitator as the case may be.
In certain of the last named types of gravitator units, it is
desirable or necessary to heat to incandescence the whole or a part
of electrode A to obtain better emission of negative thermions or
electrons or at least to be able to control that emission by
variation in the temperature of said electrode A. Since such
variations also influence the magnitude of the longitudinal force or
acceleration exhibited by the tube, it proves to be a very
convenient method of varying this effect and of electrically
controlling the motion of the tube.
The electrode A may be heated to incandescence in any convenient
way as by the ordinary methods utilizing electrical induction, an
instance of the former being shown at J (Fig. 5) and an instance of
the latter at J¡ (Fig. 5), the vacuum tube in fig. 5¡ being
Moreover in certain types of the gravitator units, now being
considered, it is advantageous or necessary also to conduct away
from the anode or positive electrode B excessive heat which may be
generated during the operation of tube H or H¡. Such cooling is
effected externally by means of air or water cooled flanges that are
in thermo connection with the anode, or it is effected internally by
passing a stream of water, air or other fluid through a hollow anode
made especially for that purpose.
Air cooled flanges are illustrated at K (Fig. 5) and a hollow
anode for the reception of a cooling liquid or fluid (as air or
water) is shown at K¡ (Fig. 5). These electric, ionic, or thermionic
gravitator units may be grouped in any form productive of desired
force action or motion.
One such form is the arrangement illustrated in Figure 7 where the
particular gravitator units in question are indicated at L, disposed
around a wheel or rotary motor similarly to the arrangement of the
gravitator motor of cellular type shown in Figure 6, the difference
being that in Figure 7, the electric, ionic or thermionic gravitator
units are utilized. This motor may appropriately be designated as a
gravitator motor of the electric, ionic, or thermionic type,
The gravitator motors of Figures 6 and 7 may be supplied with the
necessary electrical energy for the operation and resultant motion
thereof from sources outside and independent of the motor itself. In
such instances they constitute external or independently excited
On the other hand the motors when capable of creating sufficient
power to generate by any method whatsoever for the operation of said
motors are distinguished by being internal or self-excited. Here, it
will be understood that the energy created by the operation of the
motor may be at times be in excess of the energy required to operate
IN SOME INSTANCES THE RATIO MAY BE EVEN AS HIGH AS A MILLION TO ONE.
Inasmuch as any suitable means for supplying the necessary
electrical energy, and suitable conducting means for permitting the
energy generated by the motor to exert the expected influence on the
same may be readily supplied, it is now deemed necessary to
illustrate details herein. In said self-excited motors the energy
necessary to overcome the friction or other resistance in the
physical structure of the apparatus, and even to accelerate the
motors against such resistance, is believed to be derived solely
from the gravitational field or the energy of gravitation.
Furthermore, said acceleration in the self-excited gravitator
motor can be harnessed mechanically so as to produce usable energy
or power, said usable energy or power, as aforesaid, being derived
from or transferred by the apparatus solely from the energy of
The gravitator motors function as a result of the mutual and
unidirectional forces exerted by their charged electrodes. The
direction of these forces and the resultant motion thereby produced
are usually toward the positive electrode. This movement is
practically linear. It is this primary action with which I deal.
As has already been pointed out herein, there are two ways in
which this primary action can accomplish mechanical work. First, by
operating in a linear path as it does naturally, or second, by
operating in a curved path. Since the circle is the most easily
applied of all the geometric figures, it follows the rotary form is
the most important. While other forms may be built it has been
considered necessary to explain and illustrate only the linear and
The linear form of cellular gravitator is illustrated in detail in
Figures 8, 9 and 10. It is built up of a number of metallic plates
alternated or staggered with sheets of insulating material (Fig. 3).
Each pair of plates so separated by insulation act as one gravitator
cell, and each plate exhibits the desired force laterally.
The potential is applied on the end plates and the potential
difference is divided equally among the cells. Each metallic plate
in the system possesses a force usually toward the positively
charged terminus, and the system as a whole moves or tends to move
in that direction. It is a linear motor, and the line of its action
is parallel to the line of the electrodes.
There are three general rules to follow in the construction of such
First, the insulating sheets should be as thin as possible and
yet have a relatively high puncture voltage. It is
advisable also to use paraffin-saturated insulators on
account of there high specific resistance.
Second, the potential difference between any two metallic plates
should be as high as possible and yet be safely under the
minimum puncture voltage of the insulator.
Third, there should, in most cases, be as many plates as
possible in order that the saturation voltage of the
system might be raised well above the highest voltage
limit upon which the motor is operated.
Reference has previously been made to the fact that in the
preferred embodiment of the invention herein disclosed the movement
is toward the positive electrode.
However, it will be clear that motion may be had in reverse
direction determined by what I have just termed "saturation
voltage", by which is meant the efficiency peak or maximum of action
for that particular type of motor; the theory, as I may describe it,
being that as the voltage is increased the force or action increases
to a maximum which represents the greatest action in a negative-to-
positive direction. If the voltage were increased beyond that
maximum the action would decrease to zero and thence to the
Referring more specifically to Figs. 8, 9, and 10, red fiber end
plates 1 act as supports and end insulators and the first metallic
plate 2 (for example aluminium) is connected electrically, through
the fiber end plate, with the terminal 5.
The second insulating sheet 3 is composed, for example, of
varnished cambric some times known as "empire cloth". The relative
size and arrangement of the metallic plate and insulating sheets are
best seen in figures 9 and 10. A paraffin filler H is placed between
adjacent insulating sheets around the edges of the metallic plates
(Fig. 10a) and 6 represents a thin paraffin coating over the whole
7 and 8 indicate successive layers of "empire cloth" or similar
material, and 9 is a binding tape therefor. A thin film of a
substance such as black spirit varnish 10 protects and insulates the
entire outer surface.
A phosphor bronze safety gap element 11 is connected electrically
with the terminal (not shown) opposite to the terminal 5. A safety
gap element corresponding with the element 11 is electrically
connected with the terminal 5, but has not been shown, in order
better to illustrate interior parts.
The purpose of the safety gaps is to limit the voltage imposed on
the motor to the predetermined maximum and to prevent puncture.
The rotary motor (Figs. 11, 12 and 13), compress broadly speaking,
an assembly of a plurality of linear motors, fastened to or bent
around the circumference of a wheel. In that case the wheel limits
the action of the linear motors to a circle, and the wheel rotates
in the manner of a firework pin wheel.
The illustrations I have given are typical. The forms of Figures 6
and 7 have been defined. In Figure 11, the insulating end disk 1a
has an opening 2a therethrough for an extension of the shaft 12.
The disk 1a is secured to a suitable insulating motor shell, by
fiber bolts or screws in any convenient manner, there being another
of these disks at the opposite end of the shell, in the same manner
as the opposite end plates 1 in figure 8. The cells are built upon
an insulating tube 11a disposed about the shaft-space 3a.
Thick insulating wedges 4a separate the four linear motors
illustrated. These thick insulating wedges, so-called, are
substantially greater in the body than the aggregate insulating
sheets of the units. In some instances, however, dependent upon
materials employed for the charged elements and insulating members,
this need not necessarily be the case.
In each motor of this circular series of motors, there are the
alternate sheets of insulation 5a associated with the alternate
metallic plates 6a: paraffin fillers 7a along the edges of the
plates 6a and between the insulating sheets 5a being employed
similarly to the use of paraffin in Figure 8.
The rotary motor is encircled by metallic (preferably) collector
rings 10a which are connected with the end metallic plates of the
separate linear motors at 9a and 13 (Fig. 12), one of these
connections 9 being shown in detail where the insulating tube is cut
away at 8 (Fig. 11).
It is unnecessary herein to illustrate a housing, and good ball
bearings, conveniently supplied, will complete the motor. The
potential is applied to the safety gap mounted on the housing and
thence is conducted to the collector rings of the motor by means of
While I have in the forgoing Specification outlined, in connection
with the broader aspects of my invention, certain forms and details,
I desire it understood that specific details have been referred to
for the purpose of imparting a full and clear understanding of the
invention, and not for purposes of limitation, because it should be
apparent that many changes in construction and arrangement, and many
embodiments of the invention, other than those illustrated, are
possible without departing from the spirit of the invention or the
scope of the appended claims.
Having now particularly described and ascertained the nature of my
said invention and in what manner the same is to be preformed, I
declare that what I claim is:ÄÄ
1. A method of producing force or motion, which comprises the step
of aggregating the predominating gravitational lateral or
linear forces of positive and negative charges which are so
cooperatively related as to eliminate or practically eliminate
the effect of the similar and opposing forces which said
2. A method of producing force or motion, in which a mechanical or
structural part is associated with at least two electrodes or
the like, of which the adjacent electrodes or the like have
charges of differing characteristics, the resultant,
predominating, uni-directional gravitational force of said
electrodes or the like being utilized to produce linear force
or motion of said part.
3. A method according to Claim 1 or 2, in which the predominating
force of the charges or electrodes is due to the normal
gravitational field and the imposed electrical field.
4. A method according to Claim 1, 2 or 3, in which the electrodes
or other elements bearing the charges are mounted, preferably
rigidly, on the body or support adapted to move or exert force
in the general direction of alignment of the electrodes or
other charge-bearing elements.
5. A machine or apparatus for producing force or motion, which
includes at least two electrodes or like elements adapted to be
differently charged, so relatively arranged that they produce a
combined linear force or motion in the general direction of
6. A machine according to claim 5, in which the electrodes or like
elements are mounted, preferably rigidly, whereby the
predominating uni-directional force obtained from the
electrodes or the like is adapted to move said part or to
oppose forces tending to move it COUNTER to the direction in
which it would be moved by the action of the electrodes or the
7. A machine according to claim 5 or 6, in which the energy
necessary for charging the electrodes or the like is obtained
either from electrodes themselves or from an independent
8. A machine according to Claim 5, 6 or 7, whose force action or
motive power depends on part on the gravitational field or
energy of gravitation which is controlled or influenced by the
action of the electrodes or the like.
9. A machine according to any of Claims 5 to 8, in the form of a
motor including a gravitator cell or gravitator cellular body,
substantially as described.
10. A machine according to Claim 9, in which the gravitator
cellular body or an assembly of the gravitator cells is mounted
on a wheel-like support, whereby rotation of the latter maybe
effected, said cells being of electric, ionic or thermionic
11. A method of controlling or influencing the gravitational field
or the energy of gravitation and for deriving energy or power
therefrom comprising the use of at least two masses differently
electrically charged, whereby the surrounding gravitational
field is affected or distorted by the imposed electrical field
surrounding said charged masses, resulting in a unidirectional
force being on the system of charged masses in the general
direction of the alignment of the masses, which system when
permitted to move in response to said force in the above
mentioned direction derives and accumulates as the result of
said movement usable energy or power from the energy of
gravitation or the gravitational field which is so controlled,
influenced, or distorted.
12. The method of and the machine or apparatus for producing force
or motion by electrically controled or in influencing the
gravitational field or energy of gravitation, substantially as
hereinbefore described with reference to the accompanying
For the Applicant,
HERBERT HADDEN & CO.,
Dated this 15th day of August, 1927. Chartered Patent Agents,
31 and 32, Bedford Street,
Redhill: Printed for His Majesty's Stationery Office,
by Love & Malcomson, Ltd. ÄÄ 1928.
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