Filename: +quot;RC4013.TXT+quot; Source: Rosicrucian Fellowship Astrology Course [PAGE 232
Filename: "RC4013.TXT"
Source: Rosicrucian Fellowship Astrology Course
[PAGE 232]
ASTROLOGY LESSON NO. 1:
THE BASIS OF CALCULATION:
TIME:
A horoscope is simply a chart of the heavens calculated by the rules of
astronomy. It shows certain positions of the planets and zodiacal signs in
relation to the earth. These positions are not permanent, however. If they
were, the location of the heavenly bodies could be determined once for all
time without need of further calculation. The influence of the planets upon
the earth would then also remain constant, and there would be no use for as
tronomy or astrology. But as the earth makes a complete revolution upon its
axis each 24 hours, every point in the northern heavens may be seen once a
day from any point in the northern half of the earth, and every star in the
southern heavens rises and sets each day in every part of the southern half
of our globe. The earth and its sister planets revolve around the sun at
such varying rates that their positions relative to the earth and to one an
other are constantly changing. Every day the heavens are different from ev
ery other day. If a child were born NOW, while you are reading this, the
positions of the planets at this moment will not be duplicated for about
twentysix thousand years, a period which the astronomers call a "Great Si
dereal Year." In the meantime the relations of the planets would undergo an
infinite number of kaleidoscopic changes; consequently their influence would
be different in respect to every individual born in the interval, and thus
TIME becomes a prime factor in the science of astrology.
PLACE:
It is further evident, however, that time is not the same the world over.
When the sun rises at the place where you live, it is setting at another
place; so that when it is morning in your home, it is evening for the people
in another part of the world. This makes another difference in the horo
scopes of children born at the same moment but in different parts of the
world, as you will readily understand when you consider that the sun's rays
affect the earth differently in the morning, at noon, and at midnight. The
planets' places and influence would also differ in the case of children born
at the same time but in opposite parts of the world, for if a planet were
just above the birthplace of one, its rays would impinge upon that child
with unimpeded force, but to reach the other, born in an opposite part, it
would be necessary for the stellar ray to travel directly through the
earthas wireless waves cross mountainsand part of its force would thus
be spent by the time it reached the child. Therefore planets under the
earth have less influence on a life than those above.
Thus you see that TIME and PLACE ARE THE BASIC FACTORS IN A HOROSCOPE,
and the more accurately we are able to determine them, the better we shall
[PAGE 233]
be able to delineate the character and predict events for those whom we aim
to help.
THE EXACT TIME:
In nothing the time of birth of children it is advisable to have the
clock set as accurately as possible. Mark that the time of birth in the as
trological sense is not the moment of delivery, but the instant when the
child gives its FIRST CRY, for that cry is the completion of its initial
breath; then the air, charged with the subtle stellar influences peculiar to
that moment, has run its course through the sensitive little infant body and
has stamped every atom with its vibration. This primal impression will pre
vail during life though the atoms change again and again, just as a scar
perpetuates itself upon the flesh. Therefore, the stellar rays at the mo
ment of birth exert a powerful influence all through life. They are impel
ling forces which sway most of us hither and thither as driftwood is pro
pelled by currents of the sea. It is THE PURPOSE OF ASTROLOGY to teach that
these forces exist, and that by exerting our wills we may steer the bark of
our life as we wish, and also to teach how we may aid others in the like en
deavor.
THE EXACT PLACE:
LATITUDE:
Geographically, the earth is divided by two imaginary circles. One runs
east and west half way between the north and south poles as shown in the ac
companying chart. It is called the EQUATOR. Other circles, called Paral
lels of Latitude, are imagined running parallel to the equator, and their
use is to measure the distance of any place north or south of the equator.
Now get an atlas, and look at the map of North America. Along the right and
left hand borders you will see certain numbers. Note that a curved line
runs from number 50 on the right to number 50 on the left. This is the fif
tieth degree of latitude. All cities along this line, in America, Europe,
or Asia are equidistant from the equator, and are said to be located in
"LATITUDE 50 NORTH."
Another line runs from number 40 on the left border to number 40 on the
right. Let us note some of the principal cities on or near this line: San
Francisco is a little further south, Denver right on the line; Chicago and
New York a trifle north. Now turn to the map of Europe. There the right
and left hand numbers with their connecting circles are also parallels of
latitude. At the number 40 you will see Lisbon and Madrid. Proceeding
eastward Rome and Constantinople appear a little to the north of our line.
These places may be said, for the purpose of elementary instruction, to
be in the same degree of latitude, and therefore another determinator must
be used to differentiate the location of each place from all others.
LONGITUDE:
This is accomplished by dividing the earth from pole to pole by another
set of imaginary circles called Meridians of Longitude, also shown in our
chart. They are so called because all places located along such a circle
have noon at the same instant, regardless of how far they are from the equa
tor or whether near the north or south pole.
Now look again at your map of Europe. There you will see numbered lines
running from the top of the map to the bottom. These are meridians of lon
gitude. One is numbered 0. If you follow that line you will find London,
and close thereto a place called Greenwich. That is the location of the
world's greatest observatory, and for purposes of astronomical calculation
all places on earth are considered as being so and so many degrees west or
east of Greenwich.
Thus, by LATITUDE we obtain the location of a certain place NORTH or
SOUTH of the equator.
By LONGITUDE we designate its position EAST or WEST of Greenwich.
When the location of a place is stated in terms of latitude AND longi
tude, it marks a certain spot beyond all doubt or possibility of confusion
with any other place, and gives the astrologer the second of the primal fac
tors necessary to calculate a scientific horoscope: PLACE.
QUESTIONS:
ASTROLOGY LESSON NO. 1:
IMPORTANT NOTICE: Write plainly; answer all questions in as few words as
possible. Then go over them again and see if you can improve them before
you mail them to us. Each lesson must be well learned before you being the
next.
1. What is meant by Longitude and Latitude?
2. State the location of San Francisco, Leningrad, London (England),
Vienna, Berlin, New Orleans, Vancouver, B.C., and Montreal, Canada.
3. When does birth occur from the astrological viewpoint?
4. How can the planets at birth influence the whole life?
5. What is the purpose of astrology?
6. Write the signs of the zodiac and their symbols.
[PAGE 234]
ASTROLOGY LESSON NO. 2:
If you go on your housetop or any other convenient elevation on a clear
night, you will see a great many stars adorning the vaulted arch of heaven,
and if you look more closely you will observe that they all twinklethat is
to say, with the exception of perhaps one or two which shine with a per
fectly steady light. The twinklers are suns of other solar systems so far
away that a traveler going with the speed of light would require hundreds of
years to reach some of them. They move in such enormous circles and are at
such a distance that they appear to maintain the same positions relative to
one another. Therefore they are called "FIXED STARS."
There is a radical difference between the twinklers and the stars which
emit a steady light. If you watch one of the latter night after night, you
will find that it changes position relative to the fixed stars in a direc
tion from west to east, the same as the sun. Continued observation of the
various heavenly bodies whose light is steady will show that they all follow
the same path among the maze of fixed stars. Four such luminous PLANETS are
visible to the naked eye at various times of the year. Their names are SAT
URN, JUPITER, MARS, AND VENUS. A fifth, MERCURY, is usually so close to the
sun that it is invisible on account of the luminosity of the sun's rays, but
at times it may be seen in the west shortly after sunset or in the east just
before sunrise. It twinkles like a fixed star, though it is a planet.
There is a spiritual reason for the anomaly, but as that feature would di
vert our attention, we will pass it by at present.
A telescope is required to properly observe the two planets nearest the
outskirts of our solar system, URANUS and NEPTUNE.
These seven heavenly bodies move around the sun. So does the Earth, and
the moon revolves about the Earth; but when we look into space it appears as
if the earth stood still, and sun, moon, and planets all move around us.
The ancient PTOLEMAIC system of astronomy is vogue until modern times was
based upon this conception of the universe, and subscribed to by all until
superseded by the COPERNICAN THEORY. Skeptics and scoffers who have never
taken time nor trouble to investigate arrogantly maintain that since the Co
pernican theory has proved that the planets, including the Earth, move round
the sun, that fact in itself is PRIMA FACIE evidence of the fallacy of as
trology, which they term an "exploded superstition."
We do not care to "convince a man against his will," and deem a defense
of astrology superfluous, but feel that it may benefit beginners to know the
astrologers' views.
When the sun's rays slant, as they do morning and evening, they give less
heat than at noon when they are more nearly perpendicular. Although we are
millions of miles NEARER THE SUN IN MIDWINTER than in summer, it is coldest
in winter because the sun's rays are more nearly HORIZONTAL then than at any
other time of the year. In summer the scorching heat of the perpendicular
ray is not lessened because we are then farthest from the sun. Thus it is
evident from observation that THE ANGLE of the ray is practically SOLE
DETERMINATOR of its effect upon the Earth.
Astrology deals also with planetary angles and their observed effects
upon humanity. It teaches that varying angles of sun and planets give dif
ferent physical, moral, and mental tendencies. The discovery of Copernicus
does not render the tabulated statistics of astrologers null and void any
more than it eliminates heat from the solar ray. When A CERTAIN ANGLE has
been established, A CORRESPONDING HEAT is felt today as before the days of
Copernicus, and the finer influences dealt with by astrology are not miss
ing, either.
Neither is it an argument against the truth and utility of astrology that
predictions sometimes fail. If all came true, it would prove life an un
profitable struggle against inexorable fate and the human will of no avail.
SIGNS AND HOUSES:
The path pursued by sun and planets among the fixed stars, year after
year, is called THE ECLIPTIC, and the fixed stars grouped near this great
circle are called THE NATURAL ZODIAC.
In each of the twelve months the sun appears to travel through a certain
group of the zodiacal stars, and therefore they have been divided into
twelve natural "SIGNS" of the zodiac. Astrologers also speak of twelve
"HOUSES," and it is often a sore puzzle to the beginner to differentiate be
tween these "signs" and "houses," and to understand their relation to one
another in the horoscope. We shall therefore try to elucidate he matter as
plainly as possible: Procure an orange, apple, or any other soft
ballshaped article, and six long hatpins, or knitting needles. Pierce the
ball with them in such a manner that they resemble twelve spokes in a wheel.
The ball will then represent the earth, and the projecting parts of the
needles are dividing lines between house and house, each house being located
between two needles.
[PAGE 235]
THE HOUSES:
1ST HOUSE: Early Environment 7TH HOUSE: Marriage
2ND HOUSE: Finance 8TH HOUSE: Death
3RD HOUSE: Travel 9TH HOUSE: Mind
4TH HOUSE: Old Age 10TH HOUSE: Social Standing
5TH HOUSE: Children 11TH HOUSE: Friends
6TH HOUSE: Health 12TH HOUSE: Sorrow
Now, mark this definition, and you will have no difficulty. The twelve
signs are divisions of the heavens relative to the Vernal Equinox and the
Ecliptic. The twelve houses are divisions of the heavens relative to the
birthplace and the horizon.
The purpose of the division into signs and houses is to determine the
angle of the stellar ray, for upon that depends its influence. In order
that you may still better understand the principle, drive one of the needles
of your wheel into a block of wood so that it stands upright; place it in
front of you, and compare it with the illustration in this lesson which is
marked "THE HOUSES." (Diagram No. 1).
[NOTE: Diagram No. 1 is not included in this file.]
BIRTH CHARTAUGUST 2, 19098:15 PMLONG. 88 W.LAT. 42 N.
MIDHEAVEN: Sagitt. 18 SUN: Leo 10:05 SATURN: Aries 23:14
11TH HOUSE: Capricorn 9 MOON: Aquarius 26:40 URANUS: Capricorn 18:13R
12TH HOUSE: Aquarius 2 MERCURY: Leo 8:31 NEPTUNE: Cancer 17:44
ASCENDANT: Pisces 7:08 VENUS: Virgo 5:02 DRAGON'S HEAD: Gemini 13:44
2ND HOUSE: Aries 25 MARS: Aries 4:06 DRAGON'S TAIL: Sagitt. 13:44
3RD HOUSE: Taurus 26 JUPITER: Virgo 15:17 PART OF FORTUNE: Virgo 23:43
The small circles in the diagram correspond to your ball or orange, which
represents the Earth moving in space without visible support, and receiving
the rays from all the stars and planets scattered over the vault of heaven.
Let us suppose you are standing on top of the Earth ball, or at the point
indicated by the arrow in Diagram No. 1. As you are living in the northern
part of the world, you look south when you gaze at the noonday sun, which is
then in its highest elevation, and its ray falls from the angle marked 10 in
the diagram. It has been observed that planets which are in that "tenth
house" at the birth of a child affect its honor and social standing, and
therefore the tenth house is said to "rule" these matters. Planets just
rising in the east at birth send their rays through the division marked 1,
and have been shown to affect the form of body and conditions of the paren
tal home; hence the "first house" is held to determine these affairs, and so
on with all the other houses.
As you know, the sun appears to travel around the Earth in a year of 365
days. Mathematicians have made this the basis of their calculations by di
viding all circles into 360 parts, as it would have been inconvenient to di
vide by an uneven number like 365. The distance traveled by the sun each
day is called a DEGREE, which is 1/360th part of a circle. A month has 30
days and the distance traveled by the sun in that time is 30 degrees. This
is therefore THE LENGTH of each of the twelve "SIGNS" of the zodiac. This
measure is as unvarying as the "fixed" stars with which it deals.
NOTICE:
IN ORDER TO UNDERSTAND THE NEXT LESSON YOU WILL REQUIRE AN EPHEMERIS FOR
1912.
QUESTIONS
1. What is the difference between the signs and the houses?
2. What is the difference between the signs of the zodiac and the
planets?
3. What is a degree? How many degrees are there in each sign?
4. How many signs and how many house are there?
5. What determines the influence of a planet?
6. How many degrees are there from Aries 1 to Taurus 15?
The "houses" differ from the "signs" in the following respect also: If
we cast the horoscopes of children born at the equator, directly under the
path of the sun and planets, the "houses" are onetwelfth part of a circle,
or 30 degrees long. As we go farther and farther north, our lines of demar
cation must slant more and more, hence some "houses" are only 12 to 15 de
grees long and OTHERS are 40 to 50. You may see this on the second diagram.
The first house being twice as long as the tenth would indicate that the
child ten born will probably be more of a "home body" than a public charac
ter.
[PAGE 236]
ASTROLOGY LESSON NO. 3:
TRUE LOCAL TIME:
In our first lesson we spoke about time in general. We will now consider
a special kind of time, namely, True Local Time. This is the same as Sun
Time, which is gauged by the instant when the sun crosses the meridian (when
it is directly overhead) at any particular place. This instant marks True
Local Noon for that place. We will also learn how to convert Standard Time,
the prevailing time in the United States, into True Local Time.
Prior to November 18, 1883, the time used in any particular locality was
Sun Time, that is, True Local Time.
But since that time it has been found convenient to substitute what is
called Standard Time, for Sun Time, particularly in America, and therefore
the student should understand the division of the country into time zones,
so that he may be able to make necessary corrections when calculating horo
scopes for dates subsequent to the institution of Standard Time.
This innovation grew out of the confusion which existed in railroad time
tables before its introduction. Where several railroads entered a city,
each had its clocks set to a standard of its own, and in addition, the
people in that city had their own local time. Sometimes the clock on one
railway station varied half an hour from that of another railroad company,
and both pointed to a different time from the timepiece on the city hall.
It was therefore suggested that if the country be divided into time zones,
each about fifteen degrees of longitude in width (this being the distance
the sun travels in one hour), and all the clocks in each division set to one
uniform time, gauged by a meridian located in the center of its time zone,
the difficulty would be overcome. Accordingly, America was divided into
four such zones by three imaginary lines, as illustrated in the diagram:
In the Eastern Time Zone clocks are set to the 75th Meridian, 5 hours
earlier than Greenwich Mean Time.
In the Central Time Zone time is regulated to the 90th Meridian, which is
6 hours earlier than Greenwich.
In the Mountain Time Zone timepieces are governed according to the 105th
Meridian, which is 7 hours earlier than Greenwich Mean Time.
In the Pacific Time Zone time is set to the 120th Meridian, 8 hours ear
lier than Greenwich.
In all cities located on these Standard Meridians (indicated by arrows on
our diagram), such as Philadelphia and Denver, and no correction is required
in calculation of horoscopes. But Detroit, which you will see located near
the dividing line between the Eastern and Central Time Zones, is 8 degrees
west of the 75th Meridian, and its clocks are therefore 32 minutes faster
than Sun Time, for when they show noon according to the 75th Meridian Stan
dard, the True Local Time is 32 minutes before twelve. Chicago you see a
little east of the 90th Meridian (2 degrees). When the clocks there are at
twelve, it is really 8 minutes past the noon hour. San Francisco clocks
show noon when the True Local Time is only 11:50 A.M., because that city is
2 1/2 degrees west of the Standard Meridian. Correction is therefore neces
sary because True Local Time must be used in all subsequent calculation of
the horoscope. The rule for obtaining True Local Time is: to the NEAREST
Standard Meridian Time, ADD four minutes for each degree the birth place is
EAST of the Meridian corresponding to that Time.
If the birth place is West of that Meridian, SUBTRACT four minutes for
each degree it is West thereof.
To illustrate, we will find the True Local Time for a birth at New York,
July 23, 1912, 5:56 A.M., Standard Time. By reference to the map we find
that New York is in about 74 degrees West Longitude, which is ONE degree
EAST of the nearest Standard Time Meridian, namely, the 75th meridian. Fol
lowing our rule, we add ONE times four, or four minutes to the time shown by
the clock (5:56 A.M.), obtaining thereby 6:00 A.M., which is the True Local
Time of birth.
Similarly, for a birth at New York, July 28, 1912, 9:56 P.M., we find
that the True Local Time is 10 P.M.
Note specially, however, that this correction of Standard to True Local
Time applies only to the United States and is required only for dates subse
quent to Nov. 18, 1883, when Standard Time was adopted. But, in such other
countries as have special time regulations, these must be taken into account
in calculating True Local Time.
GREENWICH MEAN TIME:
We are not to learn about another kind of time. Suppose that we have a
pole many billions of miles long, and that the earth is sufficiently soft so
that we can imbed the pole therein. Then, as we look out along our pole, we
shall find it pointing directly at one of the fixed stars. As the Earth
turns upon its axis, our pole will point to different stars at various
times, but from the time it is in line with one certain star to the next
time it reaches that position, the Earth will have made one complete revolu
tion. This is a Sidereal Day an our only absolutely correct measurement of
time.
When you look in your ephemeris on March the 21st, you see in the column
marked "Sidereal Time," the figures 23 hours, 54 minutes; the next day has a
different sidereal time, and so has every day through the rest of the year.
You may therefore think our statement wrong, but there would be no such dif
ference if the Earth were stationary in space. In addition to revolving
upon its axis, however, it also travels in an orbit around the Sun, and so
if the pole, which we imagine stuck in the Earth, points to a certain star
on the noon of March 21st, it must move a little further to catch up with
the Sun (which marks our noon), on March 22nd. On March 23rd, it must have
moved still a little further after passing the marking star, and yet further
for every succeeding day in the year. Moreover, as the speed of the Earth
is variable at different times of the year, so also the difference in time
between the sidereal clock and the solar clock varies. Therefore we
[PAGE 237]
cannot even use Sun time in our civil life, but are forced to average these
differences in time, and thus we get what is called MEAN TIME. Further, as
the greatest observatory of modern times is at Greenwich, England, the world
sets its clocks by the timepiece there, and calls it Greenwich Mean Time.
The ephemeris gives us the Longitude of each planet at noon, Greenwich
Mean Time, for every day in the year. If we were all born in Greenwich and
at twelve o'clock noon, we might just set the figures given in the ephemeris
for our birthday, down in the horoscope without further calculation. But as
most of us were born at places east or west of Greenwich, a correction is
obviously necessary, and the fact that people are born at all hours of the
day necessitates a further correction, so that the position of the planet
may be accurately calculated for the birthtime at the birthplace. How this
is accomplished and the philosophy of the correction will be seen by the
following illustration:
Any circle, as you know, is mathematically divided into 360 degrees, and
you may with profit look up what is said about this in Lesson No. 1, where
the Sun's motion in its orbit was the theme. That revolution takes one
year, and thus the Sun's seeming daily motion is about one degree. But the
Earth also describes a circle upon its axis in twentyfour hours, and so ap
pears to move one degree of space in four minutes, or fifteen degrees in one
hour. New York is located in about 75 degrees west longitude, and the Sun
must therefore travel 4 hours, 56 minutes from the noon mark at Greenwich to
reach the midday position at New York. And when the Sun is at the zenith in
Greenwich, when the clocks there strike twelve, the rays of the morning Sun
are peeping into New York, and its clocks point to 7:04 A.M.
A little child born in New York at 7:04 o'clock in the morning and an
other child born in London at noon would thus be born at exactly the same
moment, though the clocks thus differed in their birthplaces. But it would
be necessary to correct the New York birthtime to Greenwich time, in order
to use the ephemeris calculated for the latter place. This is done by add
ing to the True Local Time of birth, four minutes for every degree of longi
tude the birthplace is west of Greenwich, or subtracting four minutes for
each degree of longitude which the birthplace is east of Greenwich.
We will now calculate the Greenwich Mean Time for a birth at New York,
July 23, 1912, 5:56 A.M., Standard Time. We found in the first part of this
lesson that the corresponding True Local Time was 6:00 A.M., which we will
use in the following calculation:
New York is about 74 degrees West Longitude. Multiply that number by
four minutes; the product is 296 minutes. As there are 60 minutes in an
hour, we reduce the 296 minutes by dividing by that number; thus we obtain 4
hours and 56 minutes. This we add to our True Local Time of birth, 6 A.M.,
and obtain 10:56 A.M., which is our Greenwich Mean Time. That is to say, at
the time when our child was born in New York, and the clocks in that place
pointed to 5:56 A.M., the observatory clock in Greenwich, England, indicated
the time as 10:56 A.M. When Greenwich Mean Time has been found, the student
is advised to forget the birth time in further calculations upon that horo
scope, for only Greenwich Mean Time is then used. Thus you see how by the
above correction we have changed Standard Time to Greenwich Mean Time.
QUESTIONS:
1. What is the True Local Time when clocks set to Standard Time show
11:25 at Chicago; 9:30 at New York, 10:55 at Denver (all A.M.)?
2. What is the Greenwich Mean Time when it is 2 P.M., Standard Time,
at Chicago?
[PAGE 238]
ASTROLOGY LESSON NO. 4:
SIDEREAL TIME:
We have now mastered the preliminary points in astrology; we understand
the importance of time and place, how they are determined by Longitude and
Latitude; also the relation of Signs and Houses. Thus we are prepared to
commence casting a horoscope.
You have procured a Simplified Scientific Ephemeris for 1912, which gives
the planets' places as seen from the observatory at Greenwich each noon dur
ing the whole year. You will notice that on the right hand pages there is a
column marked S.T. That means Sidereal Time; and in that column we shall
find our starting point for this lesson.
A technical explanation of what Sidereal Time is would have a tendency to
confuse the average student at his present stage of astrological progress,
and as it is unessential to our calculation, we therefore simply describe
its use:
THE SIDEREAL TIME AT BIRTH determines the SIGN (and degree), to be placed
on each of the twelve HOUSES.
Be sure to get these threeSidereal Time, Signs, and Housesthoroughly
connected in your mind, for they are the first factors in the calculation of
all horoscopes. if you memorize each rule well you will master the next
lesson more easily.
THE PREVIOUS NOON:
Our starting point of calculation is the Sidereal Time given in the
ephemeris for the noon PREVIOUS to BIRTH. Pleas note the emphasis we place
on the word "previous;" there is a reason: A horoscope calculated by our
system for a certain time and place will be exactly like one figures by any
other truly scientific method, but the rules of other systems are compli
cated; to find the Houses involves subtraction in certain cases, addition in
others. We endeavor to simplify the rules of astrology, and in this op
eration use only addition; but you must be sure to understand the term "the
noon previous to birth." If you miss that and get the wrong starting point,
all your calculations must necessarily be out of line.
A few examples may serve to make the point clear. If a child is born on
August 20th at 11:55 A.M. (five minutes to twelve), August 19, 12 M., is the
noon previous birth. If the child were born August 20th at five minutes
past 12:00 (0:05 P.M.), the previous noon would be that of August 20th, and
we should use the Sidereal Time of that day, recorded in the ephemeris, as
our starting point.
RULE TO FIND THE SIDEREAL TIME AT BIRTH:
To the Sidereal Time at noon PREVIOUS to birth (given in the ephemeris),
we ADD:
1. A correction of 10 seconds for every 15 degrees of Longitude the
birthplace is WEST of Greenwich.
2. The interval between the previous noon and True Local Time of
birth.
3. Correction of 10 seconds for every hour of interval.
The sum of these is the Sidereal Time at birth; but sometimes the sum is
more than 24 hours, and as that is the ultimate length of a day, we simply
subtract 24 hours and work with the remainder in such cases.
When you calculate a horoscope for a birthplace EAST of Greenwich, sub
tract THE CORRECTIONS FOR LONGITUDE instead of adding.
We will try first to find the Sidereal Time of birth occurring in London,
England, Sept. 15th, 1912, at 2 A.M.
Turn to the month of September in the ephemeris and note the Sidereal
Time recorded opposite Sept. 14, which is the noon previous to birth. This
S.T. is 11 hours, 32 min. There is no correction for Longitude, as London
is very close to Greenwich. The interval from the previous noon, Sept. 14,
to birth, Sept. 15 at 2 A.M., is 14 hours, and the correction for that in
terval at 10 seconds per hour is 140 seconds, or 2 min. 20 sec.
These we tabulate and add:
Sidereal Time at noon previous to birth, H M S
Sept. 14, as given in ephemeris................... 11 32
Correction of 10 sec. for every 15 deg.
West Long. of birthplace. (London is 0 deg.
West)............................................. 0 0 0
Interval from previous noon (Sept. 14),
to True Local Time of birth (Sept. 15, 2 A.M.).... 14 0 0
Correction of 10 sec. for each hour of
interval140 sec................................. 0 2 20
_____________
25 34 20
We subtract the circle of 24 hours............. 24 0 0
______________
S.T. at birth.................................. 1 34 20
In calculations for places in England the correction for Longitude is so
small that it is negligible, but it makes quite a difference in America or
Asia.
Our next imaginary child is born in New York, July 23, 1912, at 5:56 A.M.
Standard Time, equals 6:00 A.M. True Local Time (See Lesson No. 3). In the
ephemeris we see that the Sidereal Time on July 22nd is 7 hours, 59 minutes
at Greenwich. But New York, the birthplace, is 74 degrees of Longitude WEST
of Greenwich, and our rule requires us to ADD a correction of 10
[PAGE 239]
sec. for every 15 degrees of West Longitude; 74 divided by 15 gives 4,
with 14 deg. over., and 4 times 10 sec. gives 40 sec.; for the 14 deg. over
we allow 9 sec., which is added to 40 making 49 sec. We must add the inter
val from previous noon to birth. Previous noon is July 22nd, at 12 o'clock,
and from that time till birth, 6 A.M., July 23rd, gives an interval of 18
hours. Our last addition is 10 seconds for each of the 18 hours interval,
180 sec., which equals 3 minutes, as there are 60 seconds in a minute. Now
we will tabulate these figures properly, and add:
Sidereal Time at noon previous to birth H M S
(July 22), as given in ephemeris.................. 7 59 0
Correction of 10 sec. for each 15 degrees
W. Long.:......................................... 49
Interval from previous noon to True
Local Time of birth............................... 18 0 0
Correction of 10 seconds for each hour
of interval180 sec.............................. 0 3 0

26 2 49
As this is more than 24 hours we
subtract and work with the remainder.............. 24 00 00
S.T. at birth.................................. 2 2 49
We next calculate the Sidereal Time of a birth occurring at New York,
July 23rd, at 9:56 P.M. Standard Time, 10:00 P.M. True Local Time (see Les
son No. 3). The previous noon is July 23rd, at 12 o'clock, and the Sidereal
Time given in the ephemeris for that day is 8 hours, 3 min. The correction
for Longitude of the birthplace is the same as in the previous example, as
both are supposed to be born in New York. The interval from previous noon,
July 23rd, to 10 P.M., the hour of birth, is 10 hours, and the correction of
10 seconds for each hour of that interval is 100 seconds, or 1 minute, 40
seconds. These figures we tabulate and add:
Sidereal Time at noon previous to birth H M S
(July 23), as given in the ephemeris.............. 8 3 0
Correction of 10 seconds for each 15 deg.
West Long. of birthplace.......................... 0 0 49
Interval from previous noon (July 23)
to True Local Time of birth....................... 10 0 0
Correction of 10 sec. for each hour
of interval100 sec............................ 00 1 40

S.T. at birth.................................. 18 5 29
The addition of 49 and 40 seconds makes 89, but as there are 60 seconds
in a minute we convert the 89 seconds to 1 minute and 29 seconds.
Our final example will demonstrate the method of calculating Sidereal
Time for BIRTHPLACE IN EAST LONGITUDE; and to obtain both comparison and
contrast we will figure for a birth occurring at Madras, India, on July 23rd
1912, at 10 P.M. Madras is about 80 degrees East Longitude; New York is 74
degrees West, and as the birth times are the same, all the factors of calcu
lation will be identical, but the SUBTRACTION of correction for longitude
will give a different result. We tabulate as follows:
Sidereal Time at noon previous to birth H M S
(July 23), as given in the ephemeris.............. 8 3 0
Less correction of 10 seconds for
each 15 degrees East Longitude.................... 0 0 53

8 2 7
Plus interval from previous noon
(July 23) to True Local Time of birth............. 10 0 0
Correction of 10 seconds per hour
of interval from previous noon to birth........... 0 1 40

S.T. at birth.................................. 18 3 47
Thus you see that there is a difference in the Sidereal Time at birth,
between that of a child born in New York and that of another born in Madras
at the time the clock pointed in each place to 10 P.M.; and though it is not
as great a variation as in the solar time, it may bring a different degree
of the Zodiac on the houses.
QUESTIONS:
1. What is the use of Sidereal Time?
2. What is the noon previous to
(a) March 25, 5 A.M.?
(b) June 17, 1 P.M.?
(c) August 2, 1 A.M.?
[PAGE 240]
ASTROLOGY LESSON NO. 5:
As we have now learned to find the sidereal time at birth for any place
on our planet, we will proceed to cast the horoscope of an imaginary child
born in New York, July 23rd, 1912, at 6:00 A.M., True Local Time. We fig
ured the sidereal time of this birth to be 2 hours, 2 minutes, and 49 sec
onds. Now you need a "Table of Houses." (See our SIMPLIFIED SCIENTIFIC
TABLES OF HOUSES, which covers Latitudes from 0 to 66 degrees. Students who
live in the Southern Hemisphere are particularly grateful for these tables
for they are the only ones we know of that permit casting a horoscope for
south latitude by the same easy process as when the birthplace is in the
Northern Hemisphere. In addition there is a 46page listdouble
columngiving the longitude and latitude of the principal cities and towns
in the world, including all county seats in the United States. This saves
the trouble of looking up the longitude and latitude of the birthplace in an
atlas.)
We now look for the longitude and latitude of New York City in our list
and find that it is located in latitude 41 North and longitude 74 West.
The lefthand column on each page is marked "Sidereal Time", and you will
notice that there are about 4 minutes between each sidereal time recorded
and the one below it. This is because a new degree of the zodiac reaches
the Midheaven, or zenith, at each of those intervals.
The Midheaven is the tenth house, and in the Tables of Houses the degrees
occupying it at a given sidereal time are found in the columns having the
number 10 at the head.
The degrees which occupy the cusp of the eleventh house are found in the
column having the number 11 at the head, and so on with the columns headed
12, 2, and 3.
The wide column headed "Asc." shows the degrees to be placed on the first
house or Ascendant.
It is worth while knowing and remembering that AT A GIVEN SIDEREAL TIME
the same zodiacal degree is on the Midheaven in all northern latitudes, (AND
ITS OPPOSITE IN ALL SOUTHERN LATITUDES), as the student can readily see by
comparing the degrees in the columns marked 10.
Even the numbers in the other narrow columns covering the 11th, 12th, 2nd
and 3rd houses often correspond, but (MARK THIS CAREFULLY) the Ascendant is
always different for every degree of Latitude. As this is one of the most
important points in the horoscope, th student is cautioned to be very care
ful to find the RIGHT SIDEREAL TIME IN THE RIGHT TABLE, for an error at this
point will throw the whole horoscope off and make it less valuable by caus
ing an error in the location of the houses.
With these preliminary remarks we will proceed to cast the horoscope of
the child which we imagine was born on July 23rd, 1912, at 6:00 A.M., True
Local Time, in the city of New York. In our last lesson we figured the si
dereal time at that birth to be 2 hours, 2 minutes and 49 seconds. We now
turn to the Tables of Houses for latitude 41 N. and find the sidereal time
nearest to 2 h. 2 m. 49 s. on the left hand page in the left column, the
fourth from the top: 2 h. 3 m. 8 s.
Latitude 41 occupies the center of the page so we run our finger across
the stop at the first column, where we see the figure 3. At the top of the
column above it is the number 10, and below that the sign of Taurus. This
means that the 3rd degree of Taurus is to be placed on the tenth house of
our horoscope. In the next column in line with our sidereal time is the
figure 9, and at the top of the column the zodiacal sign Gemini with the
number 11 above, which mean that the 9th degree of Gemini is to be placed on
the eleventh house of our map. The figure next to the right in line with
our sidereal time is 14; above, at the head of the column are the sign Can
cer and the number 12, showing that the 14th degree of Cancer is to be in
scribed on the twelfth house. Following our line toward the right we next
see the numbers 13 and 31 in the wide column with the sign Leo and Asc.
above. This means that the 13th degree, 31st minute of Leo were ascending
at the time of birth, and we write this in the first house. Still following
our line to the right we note the figure 5; above, the sign Virgo and the
number 2 indicating that the 5th degree of Virgo is to be placed on the sec
ond house of our horoscope. In the last column next to the heavy dividing
line between this division and the next is the figure 1. The sign Virgo is
at the head of the column, but in this case we do not heed that sign for in
the line above our finger there is the sign Libra; therefore we place one
[PAGE 241]
degree of Libra on the third house.
This is a very important point which the student is requested to note
most carefully: We always use the FIRST SIGN ABOVE OUR LINE, regardless of
whether it is at the top of the column or in the middle. If we had been us
ing the figures in the next line above or any other line where a SIGN is
placed but NO DEGREES, we simply put down that sign and 0 degrees. BE SURE
TO WATCH THIS!
We have now obtained signs and degrees for six of our houses from the
Table of Houses; the other six houses of our map we complete by filling in
THE SIX OPPOSITE SIGNS.
Taurus 3 is on the tenth house; the opposite degree is Scorpio 3 and the
opposite house is the fourth; we therefore place 3 degrees of Scorpio on the
fourth house.
Sagittarius 9 is opposite to Gemini 9 and the fifth house is opposite to
the eleventh; we therefore place Sagittarius 9 on the fifth house.
Capricorn 14 is opposite to Cancer 14 and the sixth house is opposite the
twelfth; we therefore place Capricorn 14 on the sixth house.
Aquarius 13:31 is the opposite degree of Leo 13:31, and the seventh house
is the opposite of the first: therefore we write Aquarius 13:31 on the sev
enth house.
Pisces 5 is the opposite of Virgo 5, and the eighth house opposes the
second, therefore we write Pisces 5 on the eighth house.
One degree of Aries is the opposite of one degree of Libra, and the ninth
house is opposite to the third, so we write Aries 1 on the ninth house,
which completes the circle.
As we have stated in previous lessons, there are cases where certain
house are more than thirty degrees long in the northernmost and southernmost
latitudes, and other instances where they are much shorter. When a house is
longer than 30 degrees, a whole sign may happen to be placed in the middle
thereof. A sign thus placed is called INTERCEPTED, and so it becomes neces
sary after we have entered on a map the degrees given in the tables of
houses, to COUNT THE SIGNS and see that they are all there. If any has been
omitted, we simply write it between the two signs where it ought to be; for
instance, as the place of Gemini is between Taurus and Cancer, we would so
write it in the horoscope where it is found missing: similarly, Capricorn
between Sagittarius and Aquarius, etc.
A count of the twelve houses on the map we have made shows that all the
twelve signs are present and our horoscope is therefore complete so far as
the signs and house are concerned, but it remains to calculate the places of
the planets and enter them in their respective houses before the map is com
plete. This instruction we will reserve for another lesson, however, and
show by another example how the signs are placed on the houses.
We will take the birth in New York City, July 23rd, 1912, at 10:00 p.m.,
True Local Time, for which we calculated the sidereal time at birth to be 18
hours, 5 minutes, and 29 seconds. The nearest sidereal time, 18 hours, 4
minutes, and 22 seconds is found on the left hand page of THE TABLE OF
HOUSES, second figure from the top. Under latitude 41 is the figure 1,
above are the sign Capricorn and the number 10, which mean that 1 degree of
Capricorn is on the tenth house. The next column has the figure 22; Capri
corn and 11 are at the top, showing that the 22nd degree of Capricorn is to
be inscribed on the eleventh house. 19 in the next column, Aquarius and 12
above, show that the 19th degree of Aquarius goes on the twelfth house.
1:54 in the next wide column and Aries at the top indicate that the 1st de
gree and 54th minute of Aries are ascending and are to be inscribed on the
first house. 13 in the next column, Taurus and the number 2 above, show
that the 13th degree of Taurus must be placed on the second house. 9 in the
last column, Gemini and 3 at the top indicate that Gemini 9 goes on the
third house.
We inscribe the opposite points on the opposite houses: Cancer 1 on the
fourth, Cancer 22 on the fifth, Leo 19 on the sixth, Libra 1:54 on the sev
enth, Scorpio 13 on the eighth, and Sagittarius 9 on the ninth. A count re
veals the fact that the signs Virgo and Pisces are missing; these are then
inserted, making the horoscope complete so far.
QUESTIONS:
1. What are the degrees opposite to Leo 20, Aquarius 19, Gemini 16,
and Taurus 20?
2. In Lat. 41, what is the nearest sidereal time to 14315; 151112;
23311?
3. Calculate the signs and degrees for a birth, New York, September
15th, 1912, at 2:00 A.M., Standard Time.
[PAGE 242]
ASTROLOGY LESSON NO. 6:
In lesson No. 5 we learned how to place certain SIGNS and degrees of the
zodiac upon the various cusps of the twelve HOUSES by means of SIDEREAL
TIME. In lesson No. 3 we learned how to calculate the GREENWICH MEAN TIME,
which is used for the purpose of figuring out the exact positions of the
planets in the horoscope. We will now proceed with our work on the ex
perimental horoscope for July 23rd, 1912, in which we found that the Green
wich Mean Time was July 23rd, 10:56 A.M.
Right here is a very important point to be noticed when calculating horo
scopes for birthplaces east or west of England, namely, that by addition to,
or subtraction from, the LOCAL TIME of birth, which is necessary to convert
it into Greenwich Mean Time, THE DATE for which we are to calculate MAY BE
CHANGED.
This day we call the G.M.T. DAY, and it begins on the NOON BEFORE our
calculated Greenwich Mean Time, and lasts 24 hours until the NOON FOLLOWING.
Thus, if a child is born in San Francisco on July the 23rd, at 8:00 P.M.,
we ADD 4 minutes for each of the 120 (approximate) degrees the birthplace is
west of Greenwich. That makes a total of 8 hours, and gives us a Greenwich
Mean Time of 4:00 A.M. But, mark this well: it is 4:00 A.M. ON JULY 24TH.
That is to say, at the time when the clock of San Francisco pointed to 8 on
the evening of July 23rd , the observatory clock in Greenwich marked the
hour of 4:00 in the morning of July the 24th.
Let us now suppose that another child is born in a place 120 degrees east
of Greenwich at 4:00 o'clock on the morning of July 23rd. In that case, we
SUBTRACT 8 hours from the local birthtime, and that gives us a Greenwich
Mean Time of 8:00 P.M., on July the 22nd. In other words, at the time when
this child was born and the clock in its birthplace marked 4:00 A.M., on the
morning of July 23rd, the observatory clock in Greenwich had only reached
8:00 P.M. on the 22ND OF JULY. In that case, the G.M.T. Day would begin at
noon on the 22nd of July, which is the noon BEFORE our calculated Greenwich
Mean Time. It would extend to the following noon, July the 23rd. And we
would have to calculate the motion of the planets in that interval to fit
them into the horoscope of the child. But in the case of the child born in
San Francisco, the G.M.T. Day would being at noon, on the 23RD OF JULY, it
would extend to noon JULY 24TH, and the planets' motion in that interval
would be the basis of our calculations. Therefore, IT IS ALWAYS ABSOLUTELY
NECESSARY THAT THE DAY OF THE MONTH SHOULD BE STATED, as well as the Green
wich Mean Time calculated. Thus we place special emphasis on July the 23rd,
10:56 A.M., in stating the Greenwich Mean Time of the horoscope we are work
ing on.
The motion of each planet differs from that of every other planet, but
the Greenwich Mean Time is the same for them all, and therefore a constant
factor in the horoscope. the method of correction consists in finding how
far each planet travels between the Greenwich Mean Time of birth and the
NEAREST noon (please mark this, the NEAREST noon), and adding its motion
during this interval to the longitude of the planet given in the Ephemeris,
if the Greenwich Mean Time is P.M.; but SUBTRACTING if the Greenwich Mean
Time is BEFORE NOON. This may be done by simple proportion, and students
who have become proficient enough to know how far it is safe to depend upon
that quick but less accurate method, use it a great deal. For the beginner,
however, it is advisable to learn the more exact mathematical method, even
if it may seem confusing at first. To do this, it is necessary to learn the
use of logarithms, which are not so formidable as the name would seem to im
ply. A table of these logarithms will be found on the last page of our
Ephemeris for any year.
This table is so divided that it answers equally well for degrees and
minutes of the ZODIAC and hours and minutes as applied to TIME, because, as
we have already seen, one degree in the zodiac has 60 minutes, the same as
an hour on the clockdial. At the top of the outside narrow columns which
are marked Min. are the figures from 0 to 59; these indicate minutes. At
the top is a line of figures from 0 to 23; these are marked hours or de
grees.
This table may be used for two purposes:
1. To FIND THE LOGARITHM of a certain number of hours and minutes, or
of degrees and minutes.
2. Given a certain logarithm, the table enables us to FIND ITS VALUE
in hours and minutes or in degrees and minutes.
Thus by the use of this table we can convert a certain number of hours
and minutes into their corresponding logarithm, or we can find the
[PAGE 243]
equivalent of a logarithm in degrees and minutes, or in hours and minutes.
This is accomplished by the simple method illustrated in the following ex
amples:
Suppose we wish to find the logarithm of 5 hours and 25 minutes. Place
the top edge of an envelope on the table of logarithms so that the figure 25
in the two narrow outside columns is just above the top edge; place the in
dex finger of the right hand on the figure 5 in the top line, which indi
cates the hours or degrees. Run that finger down the column, and just above
the edge of the envelope you will see the number 6465. This is the
logarithm of 5 hours and 25 minutes.
Next we will find the logarithm of 10 hours and 47 minutes. To do this,
we place the top edge of our envelope just below the figures 47 in the two
outside columns, and our index finger on the column No. 10. We run our fin
ger down this column, and just above the edge of our envelope appears the
number 3475. This is the logarithm of 10 hours and 47 minutes. (Or 10 de
grees and 47 minutes.)
We will next try to FIND THE VALUE of the logarithm 5740. To do this, we
must search in the table for that logarithm or THE NEAREST THERETO. A
search reveals the fact that it is placed in line with the number 24 of the
minute column and in column No. 6 of the degrees. Therefore, the value of
logarithm 5740 is 6 hours and 24 minutes.
We will next find the value of logarithm 1.1627. We find this in the
column marked 1 at the top, and in line with No. 39 in the minute column.
One degree (or hour) and 39 minutes is therefore its value.
Having thus learned to use the table of logarithms, we will apply it in
the calculation of our present horoscope by finding the logarithm of the in
terval between Greenwich Mean Time and the NEAREST NOON. Please remember
the word NEAREST in this connection, and do not make the mistake of finding
the logarithm of the Greenwich Mean Time itself. It is the LOGARITHM OF THE
INTERVAL from that time till noon that is wanted. Long experience has
taught us the absolute necessity of drumming these things into the student's
mind, for it is easy to adopt a wrong method but difficult to understand af
terwards how the horoscope is out of line with facts.
As the Greenwich Mean Time is 10:56 A.M., on July 23rd, the clock must
still travel 1 hour and 4 minutes before it reaches the noon mark of that
day. Therefore this is obviously the nearest noon, and 1 hour and 4 minutes
is the interval. Placing our envelope so that 4 in the minute column is
just above the top edge and running our index finger down the column marked
1 at the top, we note just above the edge of our envelope the logarithm
1.3522. THIS IS THE LOGARITHM OF INTERVAL, and will be used in the calcula
tion of all planets' positions in this horoscope. Thus we have disposed of
the preliminary calculations which APPLY TO ALL THE PLANETS, and the neces
sary correction may then easily be made for each of the individual planets.
This matter we will take up in our next lesson.
QUESTIONS:
In questions under I you must make correction of Standard Time to True
Local Time.
I
When birth occurs at Chicago, Longitude 88 West, on August 25th, 1912, at
8 P.M.:
(a) What is the Greenwich Mean Time?
(b) When does the G.M.T. Day begin and end?
(c) Which is the NEAREST noon?
(d) How long is the Interval from Greenwich Mean Time to NEAREST
noon?
(e) What is the Logarithm of Interval?
II
When birth occurs at Leningrad, Longitude 30 East, 1 A.M., January 20th,
1912:
(a) What is the Greenwich Mean Time?
(b) When does the G.M.T. Day begin and end?
(c) Which is the NEAREST noon?
(d) How long is the Interval from Greenwich Mean Time to NEAREST
noon?
(e) What is the Logarithm of Interval?
Continued with file "RC4014.TXT"
End of File
EMail Fredric L. Rice / The Skeptic Tank
