Filename: RC1115.TXT Source: +quot;Science + Religion+quot; by Elsa Glover [PAGE 4146] PER

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Filename: RC1115.TXT Source: "Science & Religion" by Elsa Glover [PAGE 4146] PERCEPTION AND CONSCIOUSNESS OF SPATIAL DIMENSIONS: Have you ever contemplated how the world appears to animals? What does a snail think happened if it suddenly comes to the end of the leaf upon which it has been crawling? What does an eagle think happened if it sees a mouse run into a hole in the ground? What does a dog think causes the change in the appearance of a car as the car approaches, passes, and then recedes? Such exercises in understanding can be valuable not only because they may help develop sympathy and hence love for animals (and love for all creatures is worthwhile), but also because the relation of an animal to a human may be in some ways similar to the relation of a human to beings with superhuman abilities (such as Christ) so that such contemplations can aid our understanding of the super- human beings. Material scientists observe that the one-celled animal called the ameoba has no eyes. Its perception of its environment is limited mainly to feeling objects that it comes in contact with. Annelida (worms) are able to react to changes in light intensity, and starfish have eye-spots on the tips of their arms, which can respond to different illumination on different tips, but have no arrangement for the formation of images. Insect eyes can perceive light and dark, direction and motion, and in some cases size, but cannot focus on [PAGE 4147] objects of varying distances (although different parts of the eye may be suited to seeing things near or far). The focusing ability is improved in cephalapods (octopuses), fish, and amphibians with the development of the ability to change the distance of the lens from the retina, which enables the eye to focus images on the retina of objects at varying distances. The focusing ability is further refined in snakes and higher vertebrates with the development of the ability to change the shape of the lens in order to accomodate for objects at different distances. With improved focusing ability comes improved ability to make visual distinctions. Although flies and earthworms show no ability to distinguish size, butterflies, cockroaches, turtles, chicks , rats, and monkeys can distinguish areas of different sizes. Bees, wasps, butterflies, turtles, birds, chicks dogs, raccoons, and monkeys have demonstrated ability to distinguish different flat shapes. In birds, mammals, and humans, the optic nerves partially cross on the way to the brain so that each retina sends nerve fibers to both hemispheres of the brains. Thus the visual fields of the two eyes combine. The two slightly different views of the two eyes together give the appearance of solidity to objects viewed. In some mammals the eyes are placed so far to the sides of the head that the field over which both eyes can see the same object is very small. Even in the animals in which appropriate nerve and eye structure exists for stereoscopic vision, the ability to use this structure may be limited. Birds can distinguish flat forms but do not show recognition of different vessels. Mice and rats exhibit difficulty in judging the distances of platforms (in order to choose the closest platform, or to jump to platforms at varying distances). In humans, however, the ability to clearly view the various objects in a scene and to perceive their distances is well developed. Because the amoeba is aware only of itself and things that come in contact with it, we may say that its perception of space is essentially the perception of a single point, which is zero-dimensional perception. The transition from one state of perception to another is gradual so that some intermediate forms may neither be clearly in one state nor the next. The annelida and starfish [PAGE 4148] have some characteristics of a zero-dimensional perception (in their inability to perceive anything unless it comes in contact with their body), but some slight consciousness along a line may be developing as simultaneous awareness of separate points within their body is developed. Insects that have developed the ability to perceive direction (but not size or shape) have perception along a line, which is one-dimensional. They can see something outside themselves and can decide to move toward or away from it. Those insects that demonstrate size and form recognition have the beginning of perception of a surface, which is a two-dimensional perception. This two-dimensional percep- tion is further developed and refined in fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Birds and mammals, which have the capability of stereoscopic vi- sion but still have difficulty distinguishing solid forms, are in a transition from a two-dimensional to a three-dimensional perception. Humans have the abi- lity to perceive things of varying shapes and distances. They can simultane- ously perceive length, width, and height, and thus have three-dimensional per- ception. A creature that is capable of forming only n-dimensional mental images would not be able to function successfully in a body with n+1 or higher dimensional perception, as signals would reach the mind that the mind could not process. If a zero-dimensional consciousness inhabited a human body, it would not be able to mentally conceive of a foot and a hand at the same time, and when separate signals came from the two organs, they would merge into one in the mind and no distinction would be made in the signals. Creatures that are capable of forming n-dimensional mental images would find it advantageous to have a body with no less than n-dimensional perceptual abilities, and thus in time such bodies would be built. Thus, generally, the dimensionality of the perceptual abilities is equal to the dimensionality of the images that the mind is able to deal with and thence is equal to the dimensionality of the consciousness (with some exceptions occurring in transitional stages). To a creature with zero-dimensional consciousness, the world consists of [PAGE 4149] nothing but the one point of which it is conscious. Anything that enters that point seemingly comes out of nowhere, and when it leaves, it seems to cease to exist. If such a creature were to move along the surface of, say, a leaf, it would become conscious of one point after another on the leaf. The points it had left would, for it, be past. The points it had not yet reached would, for it, be the future. But we, with our ability to view the whole leaf, could see both the past and the future of the zero-dimensional coonsciousness at a glance. To a creature with one-dimensional consciousness, the world is one- dimensional. Nothing exists for it except what lies along the line that it is conscious of. If anything enters this line, it appears to come into existence to the one-dimensional consciousness. If anything leaves this line, it appears to go out of existence. If such a creature moves its line of view, say, by turning its head, it will see in a number of directions in succession. Its path of perception would trace a line around the landscape (as a line drawn across a photograph). Again we, with our higher-dimensional vision, would be able to view all at once what the one-dimensional consciousness would consider past and future. To a creature with two-dimensional consciousness, the world appears two- dimensional, as a photograph. Such a creature conceives only a plane of existence. If it views a house and sees someone open the door of the house and come out, to its consciousness, that person appeared out of nowhere. If it walks around a house, to it, the house appears to continuously change its shape and features, although we, with our higher-dimensional consciousness, view the house as having constant shape. The zero-dimensional consciousness views the world as being zero-dimen- sional, but that does not make the world zero-dimensional. The one-dimensional consciousness views the world as being one-dimensional, but that does not make the world one-dimensional. The two-dimensional consciousness perceives the world as being two-dimensional, but that does not make the world two-dimen- sional. To us, with our three-dimensional consciousness, the world appears to [PAGE 4150] be three-dimensional, but that does not exclude the possibility of the exist- ence of higher dimensions. Note that when we, with our three-dimensional consciousness, view the world of a lower dimensional consciousness, we can make things appear out of "nowhere" or disappear in their world, and we can see their past and future all at once. Throughout history there have been certain people who have exhibited these types of abilites in relation to our three-dimensional consciousness. They have demonstrated the ability to cause things to appear or disappear, to describe what happened in past events at which they were not present, and to foretell the future (so they are called prophets). Christ was able to bring bread and fishes into existence when there were many people who needed food (Matt. 14:13-21), and to disappear from a crowd without being seen (Luke 4:28-30), John 8:59). He was able to tell the whole past history of people whom he met for the first time (John 1:43-51, John 4:7-19), and he repeatedly exhibited that he knew what experiences he and his disciples would encounter before they encountered them (Matt. 17:24-27, Mat. 20:18-19, Matt. 26:20-25, Matt. 26:31-35, Luke 5:1-11). It is reasonable to relate the con- sciousness of Christ and the other prophets of four-dimensional consciousness. Paul, in his letter to the Ephesians (3:14-18), wrote, "I bow my knees to the Father...that Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith; that ye, being rooted and grounded in love, may be able to comprehend with all the saints what is breadth, and length, and depth, and height." Paul included four dimensions here, and implied that not only the saints could comprehend these, but that we also will be able to comprehend them when Christ dwells in our hearts and we become rooted and grounded in love. References: Abbott, Edwin A. "Flatland." New York: Dover Publications, 1952 Ouspensky, P.D. "Tertium Organum." Rochester, N.Y.: Manas Press, 1920 Washburn, Margaret F. "The Animal Mind." New York: Macmillan, 1926 [PAGE 4151] THE ROLES OF SCIENCE AND RELIGION IN THE SEARCH FOR TRUTH: Man possesses sense organs with which he can make observations of the physical world. After making many observations, he begins to see patterns in what he observes. He sees that water runs downhill, that heavenly bodies run in certain paths, that electricity passing through a wire can produce heat and sometimes light, etc. Then he develops "laws, " which are statements of observed patterns. He also develops theories, which aim to explain why things happen as they do. These theories often involve things that are not perceivable, but that are accepted as true if the associated explanations are reasonable. No one has ever seen gravity (or a "gravitational field," as the scientists would say), but we "explain" that the reason that water runs downhill and that objects near the earth fall when they are unsupported is that gravity pulls on them. No one has ever seen an electron, but the heating effects of an electric current can be explained by saying that electric current is composed of moving electrons and that the moving electrons have kinetic energy (another invisible thing) and that when the electrons collide with atoms in the wire, their kinetic energy turns into heat energy. Thus, because electrons help provide an explanation for the heating effects of electric currents and other phenomena, electrons become part of the theory and are believed in. [PAGE 4152] This process of observing the material world and making laws and theories is called "material science." Material science has limitations. It is based on physical sense perceptions and inferences from these. But there are some things that cannot be physically perceived or inferred. Religion is needed to complete the picture. Some individuals are clairvoyant, that is, they are able to perceive superphysical worlds. They have observed these worlds and their operations and have developed and written down the laws that pertain to the superphysical worlds. Those who cannot yet make these observations for themselves can only know about the superphysical worlds if they are willing to accept the statements of the clairvoyants on faith. Material science is aware of physical cause-effect relations, but cannot detect the guiding Spiritual Influences that control what happens on Earth. Clairvoyants say that acts of nature (volcanoes, earthquakes, lightning, and weather systems) are all purposeful actions of the divine hierarchies. Clairvoyants say that even we ourselves are guided, so that whatever we encounter in life was designed to be something that we needed to learn to deal with in order to further our evolution. Material science has noted that if body A pushes on body B, then body B pushes back on body A with an equal and opposite force, but material science cannot make statements about reactions that lie beyond directly observable pushes. Clairvoyants say that when person A influences person B at the emotional, mental, or spiritual level, this influence returns to and will later be felt by A. In time, each person will develop his own clairvoyant powers. What is now known through religion will then become part of science. Until that time, however, religion and science will complement one another. Both are needed for a complete picture of Truth. [PAGE 4153] REFERENCES Heindel, Max. "The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception" Oceanside, Cal.: The Rosicrucian Fellowship, 1973 Steiner, Rudolf. "Knowledge of the Higher Worlds and Its Attainment." New York: Anthroposophic Press, 1947 Steiner, Rudolf. "Manifestations of Karma" London: Rudolf Steiner Press, 1969. MASS, ENERGY, AND SPIRIT: Mass is a property of matter that makes it difficult to accelerate the matter. Newton's Second Law states that the acceleration of an object is equal to the net force acting on that object divided by the mass of the object. This can be written as a=F/m where "m" is the mass of an object, "F" is the net force acting on the object, and "a" is the acceleration of the object. From this equation it can be seen that when a given force acts on a body, the more mass the body has, the less acceleration will be produced. Because a truck has more mass than a car, a truck is not able to go from rest to full speed as quickly as a car, nor can a moving truck stop as quickly as a car. Mass also influences gravitational pull (weight). The more mass an object has, the more strongly will it be pulled by gravity at any given location, that is, the more weight it will have at that location. Because a truck has more mass than a car, it is more difficult to lift a truck (pushing against gravity) than to lift a car. Material scientists generally accept the reality of anything that has mass. If they can see it, feel a resistance when they push it, and weigh it, then they are willing to believe it exists. Suppose we take a block of ice. The ice has mass and force is needed to accelerate or lift it. Suppose we place the ice in a dish and heat it. In time the ice will melt. If we continue heating, it will vaporize and disappear from the dish. In fact, all massive objects can be turned into [PAGE 4154] vapor if enough heat is applied, and thus can be made to disappear. The material scientist has learned to stretch his imagination to accept the occasional disappearance of part of what he considers real. He notes that even when matter vaporizes and disappears, it can be recondensed and thus made to reappear. An interesting thing about this process is that the total mass of the system remains constant even through the invisible part of the process. If one kilogram of ice is vaporized, and if all the vapor is collected and recrystallized, the resulting block of ice will again have a mass of one kilogram. Because the vapor carries the property of mass without loss, credence is given to the idea that the vapor, even though invisible, is just as real as the solid from which it was produced. With the arrival of the twentieth century, the imagination of material scientists was stretched on step further. In 1905, Albert Einstein theorized that mass and energy should be interconvertible according to the equation E=mc[squared] where "E" is the amount of energy needed to produce a mass "m," and c=2.998 X 10[to the 8th power] m/s. Alternately, "E" is the amount of energy that can be produced from a mass "m". Einstein's mass-energy equation has been experimentally verified both in nuclear reactions and in elementary particle reactions. It is observed that mass can be created out of electromganetic radiation in what are called "pair production" events. If sufficiently energetic electromagnetic radiation (which is massless) passes near a heavy nucleus, an electron and an anti-electron (both of which have mass) can be produced. The presence of the nucleus is needed in order to absorb some of the momentum of the reaction. In a similar manner, a proton and anti-proton, or a neutron and an anti-neutron, or any other particle and corresponding anti-particle can be produced. Some have theorized that this is the manner in which all matter was originally created. Inversely, when a particle and an anti-particle encounter one another, they disappear and only massless [PAGE 4155] electromagnetic radiation remains. In the pair annihilation processes, not only does mass become invisible, but also mass ceases to exist. it is interesting to note, however, that even when the mass ceases to exist, the total mass plus energy divided by c squared remains constant. If one kilogram of mass were converted into pure (massless) energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation, and if all this radiation were caught and given appropriate conditions, it would be theoretically possible to again produce from it one kilogram of mass. (A number of difficulties would occur if anyone were to actually try to do this.) The fact that the electromagnetic radiation carries the property of mass-energy without loss gives credence to the idea that electromagnetic radiation, even though it does not have mass and cannot be pushed, pulled, or weighed, is just as real as massive particles. Radiation does have energy. A system is said to possess energy if it has the ability to bring about changes in itself or other things. Electromagnetic waves are known to have energy because they can produce electric currents (as radio and TV waves do when they encounter antennas), they can heat objects (as do rays from the sun and microwaves), they can cause chemical reactions (as do rays from the sun when they hit leaves of plants or human skin), etc. Thus the ability to do things has become accepted as a part of reality by material scientists. The clairvoyant, when he investigates these matters, agrees with the conclusions of the material scientist and also can give some added insights. Whereas the material scientist could only infer the reality of vapor and electromagnetic waves, the clairvoyant can directly see vapor and electromagnetic waves and thus confirm their reality. Vapor is classed by the clairvoyant as belonging to the Chemical Region of the Physical World, along with solids and liquids. Electromganetic waves and the other force fields that act on the particles of the Chemical Region are in the Etheric Region of the Physical World. In addition, the clairvoyant can see and work in even finer states of matter as he raises his consciousness to what are [PAGE 4156] called the Desire World and the World of Thought. These higher worlds* are just as real to the clairvoyant as solid objects are to the material scientist. The clairvoyant, Max Heindel, states that matter (both in the Physical World and in higher worlds) in crystallized spirit, and energy (in all the worlds) is the same spirit not yet crystallized. Matter and energy are recognized by clairvoyants to be part of the one reality, spirit. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- *The Desire World and the World of Thought are said to be "higher" than the Physical World because the matter in them vibrates at a higher rate than does physical matter (just as the atoms in gases vibrate at a higher rate than the atoms in liquids, which in turn vibrate at a higher rate than do atoms in solids.) Spatially, the Physical World, Desire World, and World of Thought interpenetrate one another (as do solids, liquids, and gases in the Physical World). [PAGE 4157] THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE: In 1820, Pierre Simon Laplace claimed that if he knew the position and velocity of every particle in the universe, he could in principle predict all the future positions of all particles and hence all future events. Subsequent to Laplace, throughout the nineteenth century, various other material scientists echoed this opinion. Their belief was supported by their observations. Given the initial position and velocity of a thrown ball, they could predict where it would land. Given the initial position and velocity of the sun and planets, they could predict where each would be at a later time. Even electrically charged objects appeared to obey inexorable laws, so that given their initial positions and velocities, their future positions could be predicted. Laplace's belief led people to take the view that the world operated totally according to laws, that what would happen was predetermined, and that men had no control over either their own future or the future of the world. With the approach of the twentieth century, scientists began to observe some things that began to shake their confidence in their ability (in principle) to predict all future events. In the photoelectric effect experiment (1887), the Franck-Hertz experiment (1914), the Compton effect experiment (1922) and the electron diffraction experiment (1927), electrons and light waves were not behaving the way the classical theory predicted. [PAGE 4158] The conclusions that were, in time, drawn by material scientists were: 1] Light moves through space as a wave (which spreads out over some region of space), but when light interacts with anything, localized particles (called photons) appear within the wave. Where a photon will appear within a light wave cannot be predicted, although statements can be made as to the relative probability of the photon appearing in any given region. 2] An electron moves through space as a wave, but when the electron interacts with anything, a localized particle appears within the electron wave. As with the photons, only probability statements can be made as to where within the electron-wave the electron-particle will appear. 3] Likewise, other elementary particles (such as protons and neutrons) move through space as waves and interact as particles. Out of the wave-particle picture of light and matter grew the Uncertainty Principle, first introduced by Werner Heisenberg in 1927. Let "delta x" represent the width of a wave. Then the uncertainty in where the particle may appear will also be "delta x". One may locate where a particle will appear by arranging things so that the particle wave is very narrow. What Heisenberg noticed was that the narrower the wave became, the greater would be the uncertainty in the velocity that the wave could give to the particle that it created. In algebraic form, Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle states that delta v X delta x is equal to or greater than h/m where "delta v" is the uncertainty in the velocity of the particle, "delta x" is the uncertainty in the position of the particle, "m" is the mass of the particle, and h=6.626 x 10 to the minus 34th power Js. Thus, physical [PAGE 4159] scientists arrived at the conclusion that is is impossible to know precisely both the position and the velocity of a particle. If we cannot know precisely the initial position and velocity of the particles in the universe, and if particles (when they are not interacting) can disappear (turn into waves) and reappear in some unpredictable place, then Laplace's belief that all future events can (in principle) be predicted is no longer tenable. Material scientists ascribe the appearance of particles in one place or another to "chance" because they are only able to make probability predictions. Albert Einstein, however, stated in 1947, "I shall never believe that God plays dice with the world." What appears as chance to material scientists does not appear as chance to clairvoyants, who can see higher powers at work. Clairvoyants see many intelligent forces at work in the world. Each person has a Spirit (sometimes called an Ego) that can direct the dense physical body to do as it wills. Animals and plants also have Egos, although their Egos have lesser abilities to direct their dense physical bodies than do the Egos of men. There are also angels who help direct processes of reproduction and growth, and archangels who help direct migrations and construction of habitations and other instinctual activities of animals, and the formation of customs, beliefs, and group activities of nations of peoples. There are Recording Angels who direct the experiences that people encounter in life in such a way that everyone receives exactly what he needs for his development. In Truth there can be no contradictions. Insofar as material science is true, and insofar as religion is true, the two can live side by side in harmony with one another. The development of the Uncertainty Principle by material science brought science one step closer to the Truth, and made room in scientific theory for the interaction of Spirit with matter, which religion claims occurs. [PAGE 4160] WISDOM IN THE UNIVERSE: In Proverbs 3:19 it is written, "The Lord by wisdom founded the earth; by understanding he established the heavens." Material scientists have made many observations of what is in the universe and how things function. Do these observations give evidence of wisdom? To answer this question, we must have some means of recognizing wisdom when we see it. One way of recognizing whether wisdom is in the current universe is to compare it with (imagined) alternative possible universes, and see whether the actual universe or the alternatives function better. In the current universe, two of the basic particles from which matter is constructed are the proton and the electron. These particles are observed to be attracted to one another by what is called an electrical force. What would the universe be like if there were no forces between particles? All the particles in the universe would fly around randomly and no forms could be built. If one is have a meaningful physical creation, one must be able to stick particles together into various forms. Thus, the existence of electrical forces is wise. In the current universe, the electrical force is not able to hold two protons together, but there is another force, called the nuclear force, which is able to hold protons together. What would the universe be like if protons could not bond together? Then the only element in the universe would be hydrogen (which consists of one proton orbited by one electron). If there [PAGE 4161] was only one element in the universe, the possibility of creating complex structures with varying properties would be limited. Thus, the material world is a better world because of the existence of the nuclear force. When some protons bond themselves together and attract electrons into orbit around themselves, the result is called an atom. All atoms with the same number of protons are called by the same element name. For example, all atoms with six protons are called carbon atoms, all atoms with twenty-six protons are caled iron, all atoms with seventy-nine protons are called gold, etc. It is observed that in the current universe the motions of the electrons around the protons are governed by what are called "quantum- mechanical waves." These permit the electrons to go into only certain orbits around the protons. What would the world by like if these waves did not govern the motions of the electrons? First of all, no two atoms of an element would have the same chemical properties. One gold atom would have its electrons arranged differently from another gold atom, so each atom would have different properties. Furthermore, the atoms would be able to change their properties continuously. Every time one atom collided with another atom, the electrons in the atoms would get knocked into different orbits and the atoms would change their properties. Atoms that formed a solid one minute might turn into a liquid or gas the next, or might change from a brittle solid to an elastic solid, or from a non-flammable substance to a flammable substance, etc. Such instability in the world would not be conducive to the building of useful physical forms. Thus quantum-mechanical waves for the governing of electron motions fulfill a useful purpose and exhibit wisdom. When two or more atoms join together, the result is called a molecule. From molecules, the various plant, animal, and human bodies are constructed. Humans obtain the materials for their bodies by eating plants. It is observed the human bodies are not built from chewed-up chunks of fruits and vegetables. If they were, the possible body structures would be quite limited. Can you imagine trying to build arteries and veins and capillaries [PAGE 4162] out of little chunks of celery, perhaps held together with honey and flour? It is wise that the human body is able to break down food into its component parts and then rebuild new molecules that will serve its purposes. Any molecule can be broken down if heated sufficiently. But if the human body were to try to break down food particles by heat, then all the molecules in the region of the heat would be broken down. This would not be wise, because while food needs to be broken down, other molecules need to be preserved or built from the food particles. The actual means by which the body breaks down food and builds needed molecules avoids the above problems. Within the body are molecules that are called enzymes. There are mahy different kinds of enzymes. For each type of molecule that needs to be broken down, there is a specific enzyme that can take hold of and break only that type of molecule, and none other. Also, for each small molecule that needs to be constructed, there is an enzyme that is able to take hold of the specific components needed, ignoring all other substances present, and pull those components together until they bond. Thus, the body speicifically breaks down certain molecules that it cannot use and builds others that it can use. Enzymes are able to pull together a few components to create a small molecule. The average-sized protein molecule needed in the human body contains a chain of some 400 amino acids, all arranged in a specific pattern. The job of putting such a molecule together is too large a job for enzymes. There are within the body certain molecules (called DNA molecules), which have, in coded form, the patterns according to which the various proteins of the body need to be put together. There are certain other molecules (called m-RNA, t-RNA, and ribosomes) that work together to pull the appropriate amino acids into the sequence specified by the DNA. Thus the human body can obtain for itself the types of molecules that it needs. Nor do these molecules that construct other molecules just set to work and continuously manufacture proteins (in a healthy body). There are other sets of molecules (called regulator, repressor, and operator genes) that are able [PAGE 4163] to sense whether a particular protein is needed and to stimulate production if it is needed and to repress production if it is not needed. It is efficient (and therefore wise) for the body not to waste its energies on producing things that it does not need. When we begin to look at the structure of the various organs and systems within the human body, we see further evidence of wisdom. The body, by means of the blood, is able to carry oxygen and food nutrients to all cells in the body and to carry waste products away from the cells. Without the blood circulation, the cells would be like a stove that is not suppled with new fuel or air, and from which the ashes are not removed. it would son burn out. Not only does the physical body have all the features needed to function in the physical world, but also it has many features that maximize its functioning ability. The bones are composed of compact material near the surface and a meshwork of porous material inside, which gives strength without much weight. The lungs (with their alveoli), the intestines (with their villi), and the circulatory systems (with its capillaries) have branches that maximize surface areas, which increases the efficiency of absorption of materials from these surfaces. The nose is so constrcuted that it is able to warm and filter dust from the air breathed, so that the lungs are not stressed. The eyelids of the eyes are able to shut when particles [PAGE 4164] approach that could hurt the eye or when light in the eye is not desired. The skin is able to sweat when the body is overheated, so that evaporating moisture will cool the body. The capillaries in the circulatory system have the feature that they can open and close as needed, so that when a certain part of the body open and bring added blood. This permits the body to operate with less blood than would be needed if all the capillaries had to be supplied with blood all the time. The vocal cords, together with the tongue and lips, permit not only sounds, but controlled sounds (words) to be made. Additionally, the body has many "spare" parts, so that it can continue to function even if certain parts are injured. The body can continue to live and function effectively even if it loses half of the brain, one kidney, one lung, three-quarters of the liver, and up to eighty percent of the small intestine. As we proceed in our examination of the universe, let us turn our attention to the Earth and the Sun. The Sun shines on the Earth and supplies it with energy. Without the sunshine, all water would freeze, no wind would blow, no plants could grow, and animals and humans could not live. The method of production of energy in the sun is by nuclear reactions, which convert mass into energy. This is such an efficient method of energy production that the sun can radiate energy at apporximately the same rate as it does now for a period of around ten billion years. Thus life on Earth has enough time to develop and evolve complex life forms. By comparison, if the sun produced its energy by means of chemical reactions (as occur in ordinary coal or gas fires), the sun with its present mass would not be able to continue its current output of energy for more than about 1,400 years. Thus, the nuclear method of energy production is much wiser. The placement and motions of the Earth also show wisdom. The Earth is at the appropriate distance from the Sun (not too far and not too near) and has the appropriate rotational and revolutional motions to provide the present life forms with appropriate measures of the sun's radiations to foster life [PAGE 4165] and evolution. The atmosphere of the Earth contains the oxygen needed by animals and humans for breathing. If all forms of life breathed in oxygen and breathed out carbon dioxide (as do animals and humans), the oxygen supply would soon run out. Plants, however, take in carbon dioxide and give off oxygen and thus help maintain a stable situation. If gravity were the only force that acted on water, all the water would run into the oceans and plants and animals on land would die. Water is, however, able to evaporate from the oceans. Winds, energized by the sunshine, then carry the water vapor over the land where it condenses and falls as rain. Thus the plants get the water that they need, and rivers and streams supply animals and humans with fresh water. All these processes work together to produce a stable environment for the development of life on Earth over long periods of time. Considering the slow nature of evolution of the beings involved, this is wise. In time, all forms "die" and dissolve. This is also wise. Plant, animal, and human bodies, although they exhibit wisdom in their structure, are not yet perfect. It is therefore good for the spirits inhabiting these forms, after they have gained all the experience they can from one form, to leave that form and then build another better form. Even suns burn out and solar systems dissolve in time. There comes a time when the solar system has lived out its uselfulness and must dissolve so it can be rebuilt in a more perfect manner. We humans work along with the other creative hierarchies in designing and building and improving the universe. it is well for us to recognize what in the creation is wise so that when we make changes, we do not change that which is already good, and thus make things worse instead of better. [PAGE 4166] BODY ORGANIZATION: Material scientists have observed regulatory and organizing qualities in the bodies of living creatures. As the botanist, Edmund W. Sinnott, has noted (chapter 2 in "Creativity and Its Cultivation"): "Living things are organisms. An organism is, first of all, an organized system of structures and activities. It is not a sprawling mass of semi- independent parts and processes but is held together under a coordinating control...Food enters it and is built into it...As tissues wear out, matter leaves the organism again...It does not change the living system, however, for by a series of regulatory processes the organism maintains itself... "Each organism has...its special cycle of progressive and creative development. Continual change is the keynote of this cycle; not unguided change but change that moves toward a very definite end--the mature individual and the completion of the cycle...The normal course of development toward a particular end can be blocked and altered in various ways,... (but) the organsim shows a persistent tendency to achieve the end unimpeded... "The growing shoot-tip from a plant, cut off and put into water or moist sand, will regenerate its lost root system. Various organs of animals (if lost) will be restored--crab claws, appendages of amphibian larvae, tails of worms, eyes of snails, etc..." In the same book, chapter 3, the architect Alden B. Dow remarks that the more varied the building blocks available for making something, the more varied can be the structure of that thing. he notes that in nature there are [PAGE 4167] many varieties of atoms and molecules and that there are therefore myriads of possible ways of combining these. He concludes: "For this reason I am not surprised at the creativeness or individuality found in natural structures. I am amazed, however, that with all this creative ability nature is willing to conform just enough to produce a thing we can recognize as a common daisy. If the building blocks are similar, I can see how there would be a common kind of character among individual forms. For example, a house built of bricks is a brick house, and a house built of wood is a wood house. This, no doubt, is what we call genetics, but it does not account for the similarity of the forms of all daisies." The material scientists are puzzled. What gives organization to the organism? What directs the development and healing of the organism? What makes organisms of a particular type conform to a recognizable pattern, although variations can occur within the general pattern? Clairvoyants can see the guiding forces that direct these phenomena, and thus can give answers to these questions. Clairvoyants note that first a distinction needs to be made between body and spirit. The spirit is as separate and distinct from its form as the carpenter is apart from and personally independent of the house he builds for his own occupancy. It is Spirit that molds forms into an expression of itself. Spirit builds bodies with wisdom and purpose and forethought. It mentally conceives the various functions it wishes a body to be able to perform, and then creates various structures within the body that are capable of carrying out these functions. Thus, bodies are not the result of chance combining of atoms, but rather are the result of careful planning. This is why we see organization in organisms. Dense physical bodies are able to grow toward a specific form and to heal themselves if their forms are damaged because the spirit has created a matrix of etheric force fields (called a vital body), which directs the placement of the dense particles brought into the dense body (as food). If one takes a board and makes indentations in it and then rolls marbles across [PAGE 4168] the board, the marbles will settle in the indentations. Likewise, atoms fit themselves into the force points in the vital body. During growth, the points in the vital body are in a process of being filled with atoms. If some tissue wears out or some dense organ is removed, and if the vital body is un-injured, the organ will grow again as that region of the matrix again becomes filled. Thus, the vital body enables the organism to develop toward a predetermined form and to heal itself. The reason for similarities in forms is that many forms can be created from one mental pattern. Once the creative spirits mentally created a basic daisy pattern, this same basic pattern was used in the creation of all daisies. Likewise for each other species of plant and animal. Initially, one basic pattern was created for human form. In time, modifications were made in this pattern, so that there became separate basic patterns for each race and nation. Humans have now reached the stage in their evolution where they are able individually to do creative work. Thus human spirits have begun to individually modify the structures of their bodies, so that each is becoming recognizably different from every other. Everywhere in nature we can see, if we look for it, evidence of wisdom, order, and relations between parts, and progressions toward goals. Tennyson was filled with these wonders of nature when he wrote, Flower in the crannied wall, I pluck you out of the crannies, I hold you here, root and all, in my hand, Little flower--but IF I could understand What you are, root and all, and all in all, I should know what God and man is. REFERENCE Anderson, Harold H., ed. "Creativity and Its Cultivation" New York: Harper, 1959 [PAGE 4169] MACHINES VERSUS PEOPLE: We are in a high technology age in which machines have been developed that can see (cameras); hear (tape recorders); speak (tape players); plant, cultivate, water, and harvest food; assist in many manufacturing processes; move on the ground (cars) and in the air (airplanes); and carry out logical processes (computers). These accomplishments have led many to ask whether machines can be constructed that can do everything that humans can do, and many researchers have been working with the aim of developing machines that can rival a human. These attempts, although they have resulted in machines with quite amazing abilities, have also encountered profound problems. Hubert L. Dreyfus, in his book "What Computers Can't Do," has made an extensive study of the limitations of computers (and thence also of computer-controlled machines). He notes that the main areas in which computers are unable to compete with humans are 1) seeing purpose and acting with purpose, 2) seeing a shole picture and making all parts fit in with the whole, 3) filling in unseen or unspecified details based on a sense of the whole, 4) deciding what is relevant and ignoring irrelevencies, 5) seeing similarities among situations. Clairvoyants can give added information as to why machines cannot do certain things that humans can do. Clairvoyants can see that humans have, in addition to their dense physical body, a vital body, a desire body, a concrete mind, a Human Spirit, a Life Spirit, and a Divine Spirit. Machines do not have these higher bodies and spirits, and man, in his present state [PAGE 4170] of evolution, does not yet have the ability to endow machines with these bodies and spirits. Thence, machines will not be able to exhibit the characteristics that result from these bodies and spirits functioning through the dense body. The action of the vital body in the dense physical body enables the dense physical body to assimilate food, excrete whatever substances are not needed, grow heal, and reproduce itself. The vital body also stores a record of not only everything that a person does, but also stores the effects that these actions have had on other people. These effects will, in time, be felt by the person who initiated the actions, and thus people are held accountable for their actions and develop a feeling of responsibility. The action of the desire body in the dense and vital bodies permits feelings of love and hate, sympathy and antipathy, purpose and devotion. The action of the mind enables one to create an image of a whole situation in which all the parts are related. The mind can also operate intuitively (picking up ideas and meanings that have not been explicitly stated) and creatively. The Human Spirit (which operates in the region of abstract thought) can give direction as to what rules of action should be used under what circumstances. For example, the "rules" of action that one uses in the wrokplace may be quite different from the "rules" of action one uses at a party. What is appropriate in one place may not be appropriate in the other place. (Computer robots generally have to be set up to operate under a very specific and limited set of conditions, and cannot operate outside the conditions for which they were constructed.) The Life Spirit provides an intuitive feeling of what is right and what is wrong, and of what is good and what is bad, and what is valuable and what is useless. The wisdom stored in the Life Spirit is the extracted essence of the experiences of many lifetimes on earth. The Divine Spirit gives the ability to say "I will" and to act self-consciously and with initiative. When they read the plan for the future evolution of mankind, clairvoyants tell us that in the Jupiter Period, men will develop the ability to give vital bodies to the machines that they create. In the Venus [PAGE 4171] Period, men will develop the ability to also give a desire body to the machines that they create. In the Vulcan Period, men will develop the ability to add a mind to the machines that they create. Then the current dreams of creating living, feeling, and thinking bodies will be fulfilled. The spirits that inhabit these bodies will not, however, be created by man. They already exist and will simply be using the bodies as habitations in which to work and evolve. The main pitfall of people in a technological age does not lie in the creating of super machines. The intellectual exercise is good for people's minds, and the machines can take over taks that would be quite boring for humans to do. The main pitfall lies in seeing the machines take over (some) human tasks and inferring that humans are nothing more than machines, and then proceeding to treat humans as one would treat a machine. We must strive always to keep in mind the fact that humans are sparks of God, and are deserving of our respect and even wonder. All humans, however intellectually and spiritually blind they appear at present, have infinite potential, and will through the evolutionary process some day become as all-loving and all- wise and as creative as the Christ. REFERENCE Dreyfus, Hubert L. "What Computers Can't Do" new York: Harper and Row, 1979 [PAGE 4172] AGING: Material scientists have observed that human bodies, in time, go through a process of aging. The body becomes clogged with earthy deposits. Cells in the various organs (heart, kidneys, brain, etc.) break down so that the capacity of the organs to function diminishes. The artery walls become inelastic and thicken, which makes it more difficult for blood to flow. The bones tend to lose strength. Material scientists have studied means of slowing the aging process. To slow down the clogging of the body with mineral deposits, one can use foods and drinks that contain little earthy material, such as distilled water, milk, fresh vegetables and fruits. One also needs to maintain good elimination, so earthy matter taken in can be eliminated as readily as possible. In slowing down the cellular breakdown process, pantothenic acid, vitamin C, and vitamin E are importan. Pantothenic acid is found in brewer's yeast, potatoes, peas, brown rice, sunflower seeds, and whole wheat. Vitamin C is found in all fresh fruits and vegetables. Vitamin E is found in whole grains, leafy green vegetables, nuts, beans, and peas. Also other B vitamins, selenium, and the amino acids cysteine, methionine, and ornithin aid in preventing cell breakdown. Unsaturated fats (because they contain free radicals) may promote cell breakdown. To slow down the hardening and thickening of the artery walls, one needs to avoid taking in too much cholesterol and fat. To do this, one should limit one's intake of milk fat, meat fat, egg yolks, coconut oil, coca, margarine, and oils. Skim milk may be used in place of whole milk. Grains, nuts, and legumes may be used in place of flesh foods. Exercise also helps keep cholesterol levels low. [PAGE 4173] To keep the bones from losing strength, one needs exercise, and appropriate amounts of vitamin C and calcium. Good sources of calcium are milk, soybeans, leafy green vegetables, sesame seeds, almonds, and sunflower seeds. Vitamin D (in eggs, milk, sprouted seeds, mushrooms, sunflower seeds, and sunshine) and the amino acid lysine aid calcium absorption. Material science can only give suggestions for slowing the aging process. it still cannot stop the aging process. We still find ourselves in the situation noted by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow when he wrote, Art is long, and Time is fleeting, And our hearts, though stout and brave, Still, like muffled drums, are beating Funeral marches to the grave. Material scientists have noted that not only human bodies undergo aging, but also animal and plant bodies age and eventually die. The Earth ages as its deposits oc coal, oil, gas, and minerals are mined and used, and as its mountains wear down and are carried by running water into the sea, and as its interior gradually cools. The sun ages as it radiates heat and light into space. To replenish the heat and light lost, it steadily burns nuclear fuel in its interior. Each day, our sun burns 10 to the 13th power of its 10 to the 27th power tons of fuel in its center. The fuel supply is limited. Eventually, after about 10 billion years from the time when it started burning fuel (about 5 billion years from now), the sun will exhaust its nuclear fuel. Then it will ultimately cool and cease to shine. Material scientists have, in fact, observed that all irreversible processes in the universe lead to the aging of the universe. This is summarized in what is called the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that, "In every irreversible process, the entropy of the universe increases." Entropy is a technical term that has a somewhat complicated mathematical definition, but roughly, entropy is a measure of the physical disorder in the universe. When a sheet of paper is torn into bits, the torn paper is more disordered than the shole sheet. The Second Law notes that we may start with a whole sheet and tear it up, but we cannot start with a torn [PAGE 4174] sheet and put it back together again unless something else sacrifices its order to accomplish the process. If a human being expends energy in putting the paper back together, the increase in order of the paper will be less than the decrease in order caused by the consumption of plants (and sometimes animals) in order to have the energy to put the paper together. Thus the disorder of the universe increases and the universe has aged. Clairvoyants can give added insight into the process of aging. They see that while earthly activities of humans cause aging of the dense body, they also cause growth of the human soul. The record of earthly activities is stored in the vital body. This record contains both what we did and what effects our actions had on others. In time, the spirit reviews these records either voluntarily during life in the exercise of retrospection,* or automatically after death. When the record is reviewed, the actions are noted and their effects are felt, and the spirit extracts from the total experience conclusions about what is right and wrong, what is good and bad, and what is valuable and worthless. The spirit stores these conclusions and thence grows in wisdom and power. The aging process, which appears to be a continuous decline from the physical point of view, is seen to be one of continuous growth and improvement from the spiritual point of view. As Paul said (1 Cor. 15:44), "What is sown a physical body is raised a spiritual (soul) body," and (2 Cor. 4:16), "Though our outer nature is wasting away, our inner nature is being renewed every day." The clairvoyant can also see that, although the dense body ages, the pattern according to which the dense body was constructed remains unharmed by time. When the dense body has aged to the point that it is uninhabitable, the spirit leaves the dense body, but takes with it the pattern according to which the dense body was made. The spirit may make changes in the pattern if ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- *The exercise of retrospection involves reviewing the events of each day after retiring for the night before falling asleep. The events are reviewed in reverse order from that in which they occurred so that effects are seen first, then the causes are seen afterward. As the events are reviewed, one is supposed to try to feel what effects one's actions have had on other people, and to evaluate whether one's actions were right or wrong. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- [PAGE 4175] it has noticed any defects, and then it uses this pattern for building a new body within the womb of a new mother. Although bodies decline during a lifetime on Earth, the trend from lifetime to lifetime on earth is one of continued improvement. Similarly, the Solar System can withdraw from manifestation when it "runs down" and needs to get a new start with renewed impetus and order. Because physical things appear to be in a continuous state of decline, one may become pessimistic and lacking in hope if one focuses one's attention only on the physical. Let us therefore strive to always keep in mind that the spirit is in a continuous state of growth, and that we are step-by-step moving toward a state of glory beyond all comparison. [PAGE 4176] EVOLUTION: Based on their observations of the nature of nuclear decay processes, material scientists have deduced various laws of nuclear decay. Applying these laws to various materials, it is possible to deduce how long the nuclear-decay processes have proceeded in an undisturbed manner within the material. In this manner the time since a rock solidified or the time since a plant or animal died can be determined from a sample of the rock, plant, or animal. Using these procedures, scientists have found that moon rocks are between five and six billion years old and the oldest earth rocks are between three and five billion years old. Fossils of plant and animal bodies have been found that have ages of up to about 560 million years. When these fossils are ordered according to the time when they were formed, it is observed that in earlier times only the simpler forms of life were present, and as time progressed more and more complex forms appeared. The oldest fossils are algae, jellyfish, soft corals, and primitive worms. Later the first shelled marine animals appeared, then later the first fish, then the first amphibians, then the first reptiles, then the first birds, then the first mammals, then later the first humans appeared. The material scientist learns about the past by making present observations and then extrapolating backward accoring to scientific laws as he understands them. This method obviously has limitations as to how far back it can go and as to its accuracy. The clairvoyant can study the past [PAGE 4177] with greater accuracy and can go further back than the material scientist because he can read the record of the past, which is stored in the superphysical worlds. The material scientist cannot see the superphysical powers that directed the development of the physical processes, but the chlairvoyant can see what these powers did, and thus can help complete the picture. The clairvoyant Max Heindel gives a detailed account of the evolution of the earth and life forms on it and of the spirits working in these life forms in "The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception". He starts his account at a time that precedes even the existence of the present Solar System. He tells how present humanity, in the far distant past, were spiritual beings within God, and had no dense body or feelings or thoughts as we do now. We had no self- consciousness and no ability to exercise initiative. To help us develop self-consciousness, various creative hierarchies within God helped us build bodies through many lengthy steps, which involved many times construction of bodies, working through the bodies for a time, and then leaving those bodies, modifying the body plans, and then reconstructing the bodies. This had gone on for long ages even before the present earth came into existence. The spirits inhabiting present-day animal bodies had also been helped to start learning to build bodies prior to the present earth, but they generally started later than present humanity. The spirits inhabiting present-day plant bodies had also been helped to start learning to build bodies prior to the existence of the present earth, but they generally started later than the present animals. The clairvoyants say that the steps in the construction of the life forms on the present earth were as follows: First humans (with the help of the various creative hierarchies) built mineral forms (various atomic and molecular combinations and crystal forms). Then the humans left the mineral forms and built (with help) plant forms and worked in and through these. Then they left the plant forms and built (with help) animal forms, and finally they built (with help) human forms, and are still building and [PAGE 4178] improving these forms. Once a form has been constructed, it can be reproduced (by generation) and other spirits can inhabit the form than originally designed it. Thus the animal and plant spirits started functioning on earth by entering into the forms constructed originally by and for the humans. Being less advanced, the animals and plants could not do as well in body building as the humans had, so under the care of the animal and plant spirits (and the higher spirits who guide them, the forms that they had taken over from the humans sometimes initially degenerated. For example, after an "early ape" body had been formed by humans, some of these body forms (inhabited by human spirits) were improved to the present-day human form, and others (inhabited by animal spirits) degenerated to the present-day ape forms. In time, of course, as the animal spirits continue to work through their ape forms, they will gradually learn to improve them. Material scientists have observed that the genetic pattern of the offspring is sometimes different than the genetic pattern of the parents. Material scientists are not able to see the powers that direct the changes in genetic patterns, because these powers have their origin in the superphysical worlds. Max Heindel describes in detail the many creative hierarchies who have directed and who are directing the body-building processes. These creative hierarchies build with purpose. They try to make the bodies capable of being more and more responsive to the Will of the Spirits that inhabit them. We, as humans, are among the creative hierarchies and we work both at improving the designs of animal and plant bodies. Most of this design work is done between earth lives, when our consciousness is focused in the higher worlds. Some new body-forms are made and some go into extinction, some advance and some degenerate. The important thing to keep in mind, however, is that spirits never go into extinction and that they continually evolve (in general). The basic law of evolution is "Onward and Upward Forever." [PAGE 4179] ANIMAL BEHAVIOR: Animals, when confronted with a new problem which neither they nor any of their species has encountered before, generally show little or no reasoning abilities in trying to find a solution and just try many motions, hoping that they may hit on something that will work. Animals frequently, however, are in possession of patterns of behavior that solve their customary problems of life, which are so complex that it is difficult for material scientists to determine how the animal, without reason, could have arrived at such a pattern of behavior. For example, there is a species of spider that obtains food by building an elastic web, drawing the center back to make it cone-shaped, and then releasing it when a flying insect appears so that it springs out and catches the insect. (See John Paul Scott, "Animal Behavior," p. 166). The sea otter that lives off the western coast of North America dives for mussels, clams, and spiny lobsters. When it brings one of these to the surface, it also brings up a flat rock. The otter then lies on its back in the water, places the rock on its chest, holds the prey in both hands and brings it down hard on the rock until the shell of the prey is cracked. (See Scott, p. 167). Some material scientists theorize that in the past some one spider or sea otter may have hit on its patterns of behavior by "chance, and then continued the behavior because it was found to be rewarding. The offspring and associates of this particular spider or sea otter may then have learned the pattern of action by imitation. There are, however, some complex [PAGE 4180] patterns of action that the animals of a species are all observed to carry out even without having observed any other members of the species. For example, the amoeba is a one-celled animal that has no sense organs and thus has no means of observing other amoebas. Yet all amoebas have similar "wise" procedures for catching prey. If the prey is moving and hence likely to escape, it flows around the prey in a wide embrace, so as not to disturb it prematurely. Quiet prey, on the other hand, is tightly surrounded. If the prey is an object that usually moves in a horizaontal plane, the amoeba surrounds it in this plane first, and then cuts off the vertical paths of escape. (See Margaret F. Washburn, "The Animal Mind," p. 39). Some indigo buntings were separated from other indigo buntings at an early age and hand-reared. If they were not exposed to the night sky at an early age, they did not know what direction to travel in the autumn. If they were exposed to the night sky or even to the artifical sky of a planetarium at an early age, then they were correctly able to choose the southerly direction for their autumnal migration. (See Scott, pp. 238-239). How the indigo buntings arrived at their choice of the southerly direction, even without cues from other birds, remains a mystery to material scientists. Another remarkable example of a complex pattern of behavior that the members of a species carry out without having watched other members is the nest-building of the mallee fowl of Australia. The male mallee in late winter scoops out a hole in the sand, fills it with vegetation, and covers it with a mound of sand. Decomposition heats up the sand, and the female comes to the mound, mates, and lays one very large egg approximately once a week. The male covers each egg with sand and visits the mound daily, uncovering the nest, and testing the temperature by thrusting its open beak into the sand. If it becomes too hot, the bird opens the nest early in the morning and scratches cool sand into it. As summer progresses, less heat radiates from the decaying vegetation, and the bird piles the sand deeper and deeper in order to provide insulation. Later in the autumn, the ground begins to cool down, and the bird keeps the nest warm by opening it during [PAGE 4181] the middle of the day and scratching in sand that has been warmed by the sun. In this way, the bird is able to keep the nest at a relatively constant temperature of 92 degrees F throughout the long laying season. In the process of incubation, the mallee fowl may build a mound of sand fifteen feet across and three feet high and move a large portion of it daily. When the chicks hatch, they dig their way through two or three feet of sand, leave the nest, and go off into the scrub to find food for themselves. They do not stay around to watch their father's activities, and yet when the males grow up, they carry out the same procedures. (See Scott, pp. 271-273). Clairvoyants can see a part of reality that material scientists cannot see, and thus clairvoyants can provide information concerning the source of the wisdom of the animals that the material scientists are puzzled about. According to clairvoyants, each animal has an individual spirit. Clairvoyants agree with material scientists that the animal spirits do not have developed thinking and problem-solving powers. Clairvoyants also see, however, that an archangel is associated with each species or tribe of animals. The archangel of the species is connected to each member of the species by means of a silver chord composed of material from the World of Thought. Through this silver chord, the archangel can send commands to the animal as to what it should do in any given circumstance. The archangel is in touch with cosmic wisdom, and thus can set up patterns of behavior which embody wisdom for the animals in its charge. It is the archangel in charge of the spiders who guides the spiders to build and operate their "clever" webs. It is the archangel in charge of sea otters who guides them to use the stone for cracking the shells of the mussels. It is the archangel in charge of amoebas who guides them in their catching of prey. It is the archangel in charge of indigo buntings who helps them to determine what direction to fly by observing the stars. it is the archangel in charge of the mallee fowls who guides them in building and caring for their nests. [PAGE 4182] The archangel of each species of animal designed the patterns of action for that species in order to promote the well-being of that species. Sometimes individuals of a species will encounter unusual circumstances that the general pattern of response does not fit. Then the individuals may need to learn specialized responses. If an individual animal eats a particular thing that gives it an unpleasant reaction, that individual animal will learn to stay away from that particular food. The guidance of the archangels does not hinder or obviate the necessity for individual learning of animals. An interesting illustration of the individual learning that animals engage in has been obtained from observation of the jackdaw, a crowlike bird. An inexperienced jackdaw fashioning its first nest initially collects almost anything, including pieces of ice, light bulbs, and unsuitable twigs. A jackdaw with a potential nest item tries to push the object into the other materials already gathered. If it is unable to wedge the object in, it discards it. Types of materials that have been discarded once are no longer collected. Most jackdaws eventually become specialists, collecting twigs from only one species of tree that happens to produce espeically "good" nest material. (See John Alcock, "Animal Behavior," pp. 135-137). A young child needs the care of its parents to ensure that it obtains the necessities of life and keeps out of harm. But during the years of parental care, the child is growing, developing its own skills, and learning about the world so that in time it will be able to care for itself. Likewise, during the ages in which the animals are directed by the archangels, the animals are also evolving their skills and abilities, so that in time they will outgrow the need for the direction of the archangels. Clairvoyants can see that animal spirits are no different, in essence, than human spirits. The animals spirits are just less evolved. Animals are thus, in truth, our younger "brothers," and are deserving of our respect and compassion. REFERENCES Alcock, John. "Animal Behavior" Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer, 1975 Scott, John Paul. "Animal Behavior" Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1962 Washburn, Margaret F. "The Animal Mind" New York: Macmillan, 1926 Continued with file "RC1116.TXT" End of File

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