Karpov vs. DEEP THOUGHT Cambridge, Massachusetts Reported by Darren Bedwell, Compuserve 73
Karpov vs. DEEP THOUGHT
Reported by Darren Bedwell, Compuserve 73510,2300
On February 2, 1990, a crowd gathered in Memorial Hall at Harvard
University to witness a game between GM Anatoly Karpov, former world
chess champion, and DEEP THOUGHT, the world's top-ranked chess-playing
machine. The event was sponsored by the Harvard Chess Club, American
Chess Foundation, IBM Corporation, and Metrowest Chess Enterprises.
George Mirijanian served as arbiter. The time control was G/61.
Before the game, GM Karpov fielded questions from the audience:
Question: Have you played many games against computers?
Karpov: "I have played several programs, but mostly minicomputers like
Mephisto & Fidelity; also some Russian programs. I have played this
program before in simuls; I always beat it -- until now..."
Q: Do you think a computer will ever be world chess champion?
AK: "Only if the machine can calculate chess to the end."
Q: Will you discuss this match with Kasparov?
AK: "No, we don't talk between our matches."
Q: Does the computer have a weakness?
AK (laughs): "Sure!"
Q: I'll be playing in the simul (February 3) and I was wondering what
you'll play against the Modern Defense?
AK (laughing): "Depends where you sit!"
Karpov DEEP THOUGHT
1. e4 c6
2. d4 d5
3. Nd2 g6
4. c3 Bg7
5. e5 f6
6. f4 Nh6
7. Ngf3 O-O
8. Be2 fxe5
9. fxe5 c5
10. Nb3 cxd4
11. cxd4 Nc6
12. O-O Qb6
13. Kh1 a5
14. a4 Bf5
15. Bg5 Be4
16. Nc5 Qxb2
17. Nxe4 dxe4
18. Rb1 Qa3
19. Bc1 Qc3
20. Bd2 Qa3
21. Bc1 Qc3
22. Rb3 Qa1
23. Bc4+ Kh8
24. Bxh6 Qxd1
25. Bxg7+ Kxg7
26. Rxd1 exf3
27. gxf3 Ra7
28. Bd5 Rd8
29. Rb5 Ra6
30. Bc4 Ra7
31. Bd5 Ra6
32. Rc5 Rd7
33. Kg2 Rb6
34. Bxc6 bxc6
35. Kf2 Rd5
36. Rxd5 cxd5
37. Rc1 Rb4
38. Ke3 Rxa4
39. Rc5 e6
40. Rc7+ Kg8
41. Re7 Ra3+
42. Kf4 Rd3
43. Rxe6 Rxd4+
44. Kg5 Kf7
45. Ra6 a4
46. f4 h6+
47. Kg4 Rc4
48. h4 Rd4
49. Rf6+ Kg7
50. Ra6 Kf7
51. h5 gxh5+
52. Kf5 Kg7
53. Ra7+ Kf8
54. e6 Re4
55. Rd7 Rc4
56. Rxd5 h4
57. Rd3 Ke7
58. Rd7+ Kf8
59. Rh7 h5
60. Ke5 h3
61. f5 Kg8
62. Rxh5 a3
63. Rxh3 a2
64. Ra3 Rc5+
65. Kf6 resigns
The crowd gave the finish a standing ovation.
Up to move 12, Karpov had used a total of about 5 minutes to DEEP
THOUGHT's 9 minutes. By move 17, he had used 28 minutes. DEEP THOUGHT
took only a few seconds for those moves. By move 28, Karpov, the current
world Action Chess Champion, had only 10 minutes left on his clock. At
move 31, he had only 5 minutes left. According to the arbiter, Karpov had
"well over half a minute on his clock; in fact, probably over a minute--
plenty of time" (!?!) when the game ended. DEEP THOUGHT had over 30
minutes to spare when it resigned.
In the post-game analysis, IM Patrick Wolff described Karpov's
move 15 as "throwing down the tactical gauntlet", and that with 15. Bg5
Karpov was challenging DEEP THOUGHT where it was strongest. He then
declared the position after 27. .... Ra7? to be a technical win for
White. However, by move 38, DEEP THOUGHT had a forced draw available,
which it rejected. DEEP THOUGHT reduces positional and material
considerations to fractions of a pawn, and according to the design team,
has a "contempt factor" of 0.8 of a pawn, meaning that it will accept a
draw if it considers itself to be down by that amount or more. According
to Dr. Murray Campbell, "The machine has had a problem with connected
passed pawns in the past, and we're going to fix it."
DEEP THOUGHT takes the same amount of time to calculate every
move, even when it has only one move available. However, since it thinks
on the opponent's time as well, when the opponent makes the move it
expects, it responds immediately.
There were two display boards set up in the hall, and I was able
to keep a line score up to move 59, when the boardkeeper on my side of
the hall lost track of the moves during the time scramble! None of the
GMs and IMs present were able to keep track of the moves either, and by
the time the post-game analysis got to that point, the DEEP THOUGHT team
had shut down the modem link from their terminal! Heartfelt thanks to Ken
Ramaley of Providence, Rhode Island, who kept what may have been the only
complete score of the game outside of DEEP THOUGHT's memory banks.
I believe this is the most remarkable performance by a chess-
playing machine to date. To have available, and REJECT, a forced draw
against a former world champion, is simply incredible. Congratulations,
E-Mail Fredric L. Rice / The Skeptic Tank