Subject: Victories and Losses I heard on one of the news programs last night that Hulk Hog

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From: dougm@kuhub.cc.ukans.edu Subject: Victories and Losses I heard on one of the news programs last night that Hulk Hogan has been implicated in an alleged scheme to purchase steroids. The doctor (whose name I don't remember) who sold it to him and other prominent professional wrestlers has been charged. The reporter mentioned that Hogan has been a drug propaganda warrior, although I was not aware he had been so busy. The government and those who have built Hogan up as an anti-drug hero must be experiencing some real tight anal sphincter muscles just about now. In other blows to the WOD, another Escobar brother has entered semi- retirement at their new country estate. It's Club Med Cartel. The government announced it had eliminated another competitor when it allegedly busted the largest heroin shipment in U.S. history. The confiscated material is some of that S.E. Asian stuff. Not that CIA approved Afghan product. When ReichFuhrerSS Martinez remarked the other day that he was winning the WOD, I realized he wasn't lying. Indeed, from his perspective, it must be a triumph. There are more people in jail than ever. Citizen's rights are being increasingly curtailed, while the powers of the police grow daily. These are the victories of the drug war. I do not believe the WOD has significantly reduced drug use. The Dept. of State admitted recently that while more drugs have been captured more drugs than ever before have entered the country. Someone must be using up all these drugs. When you think of it, RFSS Martinez is in a difficult position. As a multi-billion dollar industry, the drug market keeps a lot of people employed. It keeps a lot of enforcement people employed, as well. Face it, if everyone really did stop using just the illicite drugs, we would see, at least in the short term, a major economic debacle that would put the S&L crisis to shame. On the other hand, letting the market and the war continue supplies ready tactical and strategic victories on other fronts. I'd say the American people need at least another five to ten years of WOD before they'll be satisfied, but another 20 might not be enough. We'll be lucky if the U.S. doesn't resemble Kuwait at the end of it all. ============================================================================= AMERICAN FREEDOMS AND RIGHTS ============================================ ^ * * * * * * * * * ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^ * * * * * * * * ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^ * * * * * * * * * ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^ * * * * * * * * ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^ * * * * * * * * * ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ /\ /\ / \ / \ \ \ \ / \ \ || \ /+-||---+_ \/ | |*\ | +-+ | WAR | | ON | | DRUGS | | | ~~~~~~~~~~ ============================================================================= From: tbetz@panix.com (Tom Betz) Newsgroups: misc.legal Subject: Re: The latest in drug seizures In <1991Jul10.034552.4743@jato.jpl.nasa.gov> eldred@rrunner.jpl.nasa.gov (Dan Eldred) writes: >The following is taken from the LA Times, 8/9/91, in the Valley/ >Metro section: >"Lack of Work Ends Drug Unit at Burbank Airport" >< stuff deleted> >" The arrest was of a man who was carrying less than an >ounce of cocaine, officials said. The other five cases involved >seizures--under federal civil procedures--of cash from travelers >who could not properly account for its source. No arrests came >from these cases." >" The cash seizures, from $2500 to $10,000 each, were >believed to be profits from drug transactions. If federal courts >rule that the seizures were proper, the money will be divided >among the agencies contributing personnel to the airport unit, >officials said." >< more stuff deleted> > Maybe I missed something, but it sounds to me that the >government is now confiscating cash from travelers at random >without even having to prove that it was obtained illegally. Yup, it's been going on for some time now. All they need to do is have a dog sniff the money. If it detects cocaine, the money may be seized. No charges need ever be brought against you. It's common practice around the country; two years ago, WWOR-TV in New Jersey videotaped the state troopers stopping black people (and >only< black people) on the NJ Turnpike, stripping their cars, and seizing their cash. One poor woman had just come from her bank, and was on the way to put down a down payment on her new business. A couple years ago, the Christian Science Monitor ran a test with a drug sniffing dog. They got a hundred-odd bills from their bank, and the dog detected cocaine in all but three, which happened to be brand-new, uncirculated bills. So, you see, the law now permits your money to be seized from you at any time on a dog's say-so. Welcome to the New World Order. -- Tom Betz -- 114 Woodworth Avenue - Yonkers, NY 10701-2509 -- (914) 375-1510 tbetz@panix.com | marob!upaya!tbetz@phri.nyu.edu | upaya!tbetz@panix.com --------- "I wouldn't say it if I didn't know it wasn't true." -- Emmanuel Transmission ============================================================================= From: cmg0788@uxa.cso.uiuc.edu (Christopher Masiewicz) Newsgroups: alt.drugs Subject: Hight Times in Texas Message-ID: <1991Jul12.004238.526@ux1.cso.uiuc.edu> I found this in another group. I just had to cross-post it here. From: gallo@cs.albany.edu (Andrew Gallo) I saw this on Digital's internal Deadhead BBS and I had to copy it. Its good for a laugh... * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * This is copied from a New England newspaper via a friend. Probably a New Hampshire paper, it's called the "Sun", but the cutout I got doesn't say what town....anyway, copied without permission, but worth it anyway: ENTIRE TOWN GETS HIGH AS COPS BURN MARIJUANA - by John Coffin February 19, 1991 RESIDENTS OF a Texas town had a high time for a day when the wind shifted as sheriff's deputies burned 500 pounds of confiscated marijuana in a nearby field. "It was weird, but it was great," says Deputy Wilson Vernon. "everyone was mellow. The only problem we had was controlling the rush on the diner and the convenience stores." Some residents of the town of Moses Rose, especially business people, have asked the board of supervisors to make the burning of marijuana an annual event. "It was wonderful for business," says Harry Grogan, manager of the local supermarket. "People got the munchies and there was a run on almost everything from chocolate chip cookies to ice cream. A lot of people couldn't wait to get through the checkout line. They ate as they waited." Belle Nolan, owner of Belle's Diner, says: "It was a madhouse. We ran out of hamburger meat in an hour. I had to send a waitress to the supermarket to restock on ice cream -- but there wasn't much left by that time." The only local businesses to suffer were the two bars and a liquor store. Deputy Vernon says the large cache of marijuana had been confiscated over the previous 12 months. "Some of the farmers supplement their regular crops with marijuana," he says. "They grow it between rows of corn, where it's hard to spot. Usually, we just go in and rip up the plants and store them in garbage bags as evidence." Once the growers have been convicted and fined, the bags are held until there's enough for a large burning. "Normally, we pick a day to burn when the wind isn't blowing. This year, however, the wind picked up out of the Gulf and sent heavy clouds of smoke over Moses Rose," Vernon explains. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Well *I* thought it was funny... >-----------------------------------------------------------------------------< > Andy Gallo | State University of | "If six, turned out to be < > gallo@cs.albany.edu | New York at Albany | nine, I don't mind..." 8-) < >-----------------------------------------------------------------------------< ============================================================================= From: johnson@mot.com ("Johnson") Newsgroups: talk.politics.misc,talk.politics.drugs,alt.drugs Subject: Better police powers for a Better Police State Just read this in the Chicago Tribune and, frankly, I'm scared. LET'S FIGHT CRIME AS CHINESE DO, MARTIN SAYS Chicago Police Supt. LeRoy Martin has returned from Chine with a modest proposal for the war on crime: The suspension of certain constitutional rights and emulation of the Chinese prison system. "The sanitary facilities are a bucket. The prisoners are given a bowl of rice and a thermos bottle of tea. And then they're locked down," said Martin Thursday of his recent tour of Chinese prisons. "I know we're a democracy, but you know, I don't think everything the Communists do can't be copied. ...And I think there are some things they do that are better than what we do." [...] He noted that drug dealers were sentenced to execution by firing squad, adding: "We give drug dealers I-bonds here, and what do they do? They go back out and sell more drugs." [...] "We need to look at [the Consitution] and maybe from time to time we should curtail some of those rights," Martin said. [...] "You would see thzat a lot of people would be in favor of the kind of things that I am talking about," Martin said. Reminded that Adolf Hitler's ideas were also popular in Nazi Germany, the superindendent replied: "And they had a very low crime rate then." [...] Martin recognized that his proposals would violate the Constitution, which he suggested should be altered. [...] --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Anyone know where I can go to join the Libertarian Party? -- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | "Johnson" | Disclaimer: I wasn't even BORN when that happened! | | johnson@mot.com | | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ============================================================================= From: aldis@peg.UUCP Subject: Europe's Drug/HIV War /* Written 11:28 am Jun 27, 1991 by support in peg:drugs.foreign */ /* ---------- "Europe's Drug/HIV War" ---------- */ Subject: Europe's Drug/HIV War /* Written 11:36 am Jun 26, 1991 by pacificnews in peg:pacnews.samples */ /* ---------- "Europe's Drug/HIV War" ---------- */ COPYRIGHT PACIFIC NEWS SERVICE 450 Mission Street, Room 506 San Francisco, CA 94105 415-243-4364 NEWS ANALYSIS -- 1245 WORDS EUROPE'S DRUG WAR TARGETS MORE DEADLY MENACE THAN NARCOTICS EDITOR'S NOTE: Flush with victory from the Gulf war, America finds itself still very much embroiled in the war that never seems to end, the one on drugs. Yet Europe is increasingly going its own way on drug policy, spurred by fears of an enemy more deadly than any narcotic: AIDS. Its approach, known as "harm reduction," is saving lives. PNS correspondent David Beers recently visited European cities that have pioneered this approach in recent years. Beers is a senior editor of Mother Jones, where his lengthier look at harm reduction appears. BY DAVID BEERS, PACIFIC NEWS SERVICE The drug control buzzword in Europe these days is "Harm Reduction," a logic that spurns legalization but also abandons the U.S. metaphor of war. Its success is declared by police and health workers alike because it draws drug users above ground while keeping in check a far more deadly menace than any narcotic -- AIDS transmitted by dirty needles. In harm reduction embracing Holland, government figures show the nation's addict population, smaller per capita than the U.S.'s, is aging and not growing. HIV rates among injectors in the big cities levelled off at 20 percent three years ago. (In New York the HIV rate among junkies is around 60 percent.) In England's Liverpool, a harm reduction pioneer hard hit by heroin, that rate is now 1.6 percent. Harm reduction approaches take sometimes startling shape, as a recent visit to The Netherlands and Liverpool revealed: * Aggressive needle exchange. Backed by a well-endowed national health system, 40 Dutch cities have syringe exchange programs. Amsterdam alone swaps nearly a million syringes a year through clinics and vans that crisscross the city, dispensing the heroin substitute methadone, clean needles and AIDS advice. The mobile approach reaches skittish users and also defuses citizens' "not in my neighborhood" attitudes toward permanent clinics. In Rotterdam the health department has installed vending machines to serve needle users when clinics are closed. Pop a used needle in the syringe-shaped slot, and out slides a wrapped, sterile replacement. In Liverpool, the government-funded needle exchange got started in 1986 by swapping bags of used needles with a major dealer. The state issues plastic boxes to heavy users and even sellers, so they can transport dozens of dirty needles safely back to the clinic, and get more. * Health centers for on-going addicts. "Drug services in this country have been aimed at people who want to stop," says Allan Parry, a founder of Liverpool's Maryland Center. "Now, because of AIDS, we have to reach drug users who want to carry on. And that means we have to change our services to suit their lifestyle." So his health clinic sends savvy workers out to find drug users and not only swap needles and hand out condoms, but teach them less dangerous ways of injecting. The Center first attracts addicts by offering syringes, then ends up treating abscesses and other conditions they would rarely have revealed to the regular health care system. *A Junky "Union." The Dutch government pays drug addicts to fight for their rights, giving nearly $100,000 a year to the Amsterdam Junkybund (Junky Union) ensconced in an old canalside office. Headed by non-drug using Rene Mol, addicts press for late-night needle exchanges and less police harassment. The Junkybund also advises the government on its drug programs and helped work the bugs out of the needle vending machine. * Public places where drug use is allowed. In Rotterdam, Father Hans Visser makes a spacious lavatory in the basement of his church available to addicts, and refuses to speculate on what goes on in the stalls. His logic is that "it is better than doing it out on the streets," and gives a chance to reach drug users with treatment and AIDS information, as well as religion. Motivated by similar logic, Switzerland allows addicts to shoot up openly in a city park. Holland's famed "coffee shops," where technically illegal cannabis can be bought and smoked, are sanctioned refuges because, as Dutch officials explain, they "split the market" so that a marijuana buyer won't be urged to try more dangerous stuff. Coffee shops caught purveying harder drugs, like cocaine or heroin, are promptly shut down. * "Flexible" drug enforcement. Holland's "drug czar" Eddy Engelsman, perhaps Europe's leading harm reduction proponent, argues that severely criminalizing drug use just drives it underground, making health and crime problems worse. The best approach, says Engelsman, is nuanced, pragmatic, businesslike -- zakelyk is the Dutch word for all three rolled into one. Holland's drug laws carry stiff penalties for users and sellers, but police and judges are given wide latitude in how they are enforced; the official goal is that the punishment should never outweigh the harm that drug taking itself causes. The Netherlands inverts the U.S. drug budget ratio, funnelling the bulk of its funds into prevention, treatment and research, funding a wide range of rehabilitation programs, and a curriculum that teaches kids the risks of all intoxicants. For fear of glamorizing illegal drug taking's outlaw appeal, "We keep a low profile," says Engelsman. "No mass media campaigns. No policemen into the school. No fingers pointing, saying you shouldn't do this and that. Reduce the problem, control the problem and don't make a moral issue of it." * Prescribed drugs for addicts. From his bland offices in the town of Widness just outside Liverpool, psychiatrist John Marks carries out the most controversial of all harm reduction approaches. He writes out dozens of prescriptions for heroin, crack-style cocaine and amphetamines for local addicts who declare no intention of quitting. It has been British policy since 1924 that the best way to treat addicts is to wean them off drugs, but if that can't be done, to prescribe whatever the doctor thinks they need. Marks is one of the few doctors with the stomach to prescribe hard stuff, though. He reminds that heroin addicts finance their habits by buying more than they need, cutting it with "something nice and heavy, like brick dust," pushing that to new recruits, thus expanding the industry. Marks asserts that his prescriptions have undermined that criminal pyramid scheme. "Nobody's going to pay a fortune to gangsters to get rubbish and perhaps be threatened, when they can get pure, excellent stuff from me for free." Given a way out of the black market hustle, Marks argues, his clients might now be able to imagine a future beyond the next fix, and if that leads them to decide they do want to kick, Marks is there to guide them into one of many free rehab programs. His willingness to cooperate with police -- he turns in patients he knows are committing drug crimes -- plus the fact that heroin street sales and drug-related crime has dropped in the Widness area, has the powers-that-be on his side, says Marks. While harm reduction methods can set an American's ethical compass tumbling, so can the increasingly skewed casualty figures from this country's own war on drugs. Although 80 percent of U.S. drug users are white, the majority arrested are black. (Drug prosecutions of white juveniles actually dropped 15 percent between 1985 and 1988, while jumping 88 percent for minority youth.) The U.S. now incarcerates its citizens at a higher rate than any other nation, and three quarters of the new $10 billion drug war budget continues to go to policing and prisons instead of education and treatment. Middle-class cocaine use is down, but inner-city crack and heroin use is on the rise and the HIV virus spread via dirty needles is today the number one source of AIDS in the United States, hitting minority groups especially hard. Dr. Arnold Trebach, who teaches criminology at American University in Washington D.C. and heads the nearby private Drug Policy Foundation, argues that it is time this country began experimenting with harm reduction techniques, for the simple reason that they save more lives. "What the English and Dutch have taught me," he says, "is that you can disapprove of drug use, but you don't have to hate users." (06261991) **** END **** COPYRIGHT PNS / ============================================================================= From: seward@CCVAX1.NCSU.EDU (Bill Seward) Subject: Search and seizure in the Drug Wars Message-ID: <0094CF54.E5C9FEC0@CCVAX1.NCSU.EDU> An interesting story in the Sunday paper. Datelined Pittsburgh by the Associated Press, The Pittsburugh Press has documented 510 cases from across the country in which innocent people (or those possessing very small amounts of drugs) have had their possessions seized by anti-drug 'crusaders'. These seizures occured over an 18 monther period ending last December. I'll direct quote the two really good cases they write about: "One of them was Willie Jones of Nashville, Tenn. The gardening contractor bundled up $9,600 from last year's profits in February and headed for Houston to buy flowers and shrubs. He makes the trip twice a year. As he waited at an airport gate, two officers who searched him seized his money. They beleived he was buying or selling drugs, the newspaper reported. The police let Jones go, gave him a receipt and kept his money. No evidence of wrong doing was produced, and no charges were filed. The money was never returned, The Press reported." "For example, in April 1989 deputies in Jefferson Davis Parish, La. seized $23,000 in cash and a truck belonging to Johnny Sotello, saying a space in the truck could have been used to hide drugs. Sotello said he was carrying the cash because he was on his way to an auction. He was never charged." The article goes on to say what the seized property is used for--yes, you guessed it, it goes to fund further drug investigations. OK, let's stipulate that these two cases as presented are in fact true. What we have here is scary. First, we are now guilty until proven innocent. Second, it is no longer necessary to go through due process to seize property-- it isn't even necessary to charge anyone, more or less prove their guilt. Third, while the article doesn't specifically say so, it would seem, on the face of it, that there was no probable cause in even searching these people in the first place. So let's see. If this is true, we can toss out the Fourth and Fifth Amednments and possible, depending on interpretation, the Sixth and Seventh as well. Keep at 'em boys, only 7 Articles and 24 Amendments to go. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Bill Seward Cutaneous Pharmacology & Toxicology Center, NC State University SEWARD@NCSUVAX.BITNET SEWARD@CCVAX1.CC.NCSU.EDU ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ============================================================================= Subject: Search and Seizure for Pay! [CAPS mine for emphasis] ----------------------------------------------------------------- Informants can win share of seized assets (The Plain Dealer, Thursday, August 15, 1991-Page 1B) PITTSBURGH--Information about crime is paying big for police informants who are promised part of the proceeds if their tips lead to forfeiture of assets. The Pittsburgh Press reported the recent boom in forfeiture led informants to begin snitching in exchange for a share of the government's take. The U.S. Justice Department's Asset Forfeiture Fund last year gave $24 million to informants as their share of forfeited items. It has $22 million budgeted for informants this year. The informants come from all walks of life, including clerks for package services and a Hell's Angels club member whose testimony across the country made him a millionaire. Police affidavits and court testimony in several cities show clerks for large package handlers, including air freight companies, open suspicious packages and alert police to what they find, the newspaper said. TO DO THE SAME THING, POLICE WOULD NEED A SEARCH WARRANT. Under federal and most states' laws, forfeiture proceeds return to the law enforcement agency that builds the case. Those agencies also control rewards to informants. The arrangement means police and informants now have a financial incentive to seize a person's goods--a mix that may be too intoxicating, said Lt. Norbert Kowalski, director of the Pittsburgh airport's anti-drug team. "Obviously, we want all the help we can get in stopping these drug traffickers," Kowalski said. ============================================================================= Subject: Pawn shop seized Keywords: forfeiture law, owner allowed to BUY it back This is in today's (Aug. 28, 1991) issue of the Rocky Mountain News. On May 17, authorities from Jefferson County and the city of Edgewater, Colorado seized a pawn shop owned by a Dean Porter. The reason: suspicion of improper report filing (the idea is that by filling out reports properly, it would cut down on the possibility of fencing by theives). In three years, some 40,000 reports had been filed with a "very small percentage" of them in error. The authorities could find no evidence of any fencing activity after all, so they told Porter that they would let him have his business back -- if HE PAID THEM $50,000 AND AGREED NOT TO SUE. ============================================================================= From: hagerp@iuvax.cs.indiana.edu (Paul Hager) Subject: For your perusal -- U.S. Surgeon General's Actuarial info The following is a list of deaths by substance for 1990. Tobacco . . . . . . . . . . . . 360,000 [legal] Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . 130,000 [legal] Prescribed drugs . . . . . . . 18,675 [legal] Caffeine . . . . . . . . . . . 5,800 [legal] Cocaine . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,390 [illegal] Heroin . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,147 [illegal] Aspirin . . . . . . . . . . . . 986 [legal] Marijuana . . . . . . . . . . . 0 [illegal] Apropos of the above, a couple of days ago, I received a referral from outside Indiana requesting information/assistance about a drug testing problem. A person was in a bit of a bind because, although self-employed, was going to be faced with taking a piss test. The problem was that this person needed health insurance and could find no company that did not require a piss test. I was unable to offer any assistance with this problem -- I don't know which insurance companies have this requirement and which don't. We had a brief chat in which we mused on the actuarial risks associated with marijuana use. Subsequently, I found this info. What does an insurance company do if a positive for marijuana is obtained from a test -- lower rates? Just joking. The Drug War witch hunt continues. -- paul hager hagerp@iuvax.cs.indiana.edu _Abstainer_, n. A weak person who yields to the temptation of denying himself a pleasure. A total abstainter is one who abstains from everything but abstention, and especially from activity in the affairs of others. from _The Devil's Dictionary_ by Ambrose Bierce ============================================================================= From: hagerp@iuvax.cs.indiana.edu (Paul Hager) Subject: Editorial on drug testing and subway accident Keywords: metabolite, drug test, impairment test Following is an editorial I am submitting to the Bloomington Herald-Times. I've tried to get the essential message across in less than 750 words. ----------------------------cut here-------------------------- Drug Testing not the Answer to Subway Tragedy by Paul Hager [Paul Hager is a computer consultant and BCLU V.P. for Drug Policy] The tragic subway accident in New York City has prompted some to call for an expansion of random drug testing. Ironically, the accident has actually demonstrated what critics have claimed all along: that current drug testing methods are fatally flawed and protect no one. The New York transit authorities already had a drug testing program in place. In fact, this particular driver had passed two previous drug tests. Given these facts, it is proper to ask by what reasoning process more drug testing can be justified. Why did drug testing, which has been heavily promoted by the Reagan and Bush Administrations, fail to prevent this accident? The answer is simple: drug testing, despite what people have been misled into believing, does not detect the presence of intoxicating drugs; it only detects leftover residues or metabolites. There is very little overlap between the period of intoxication and the period when the metabolite can be detected. Consequently, whether the result of a drug test is positive or negative, it bears no relationship to current intoxication on the part of an individual. In other words, drug testing has nothing to do with safety. This subway accident, with its injuries and loss of life, was preventable. Had the transit authorities been using computer controlled devices called impairment testers instead of drug testing, this accident would have never happened. The reason for this is that impairment testers directly measure a person's performance, objectively and reliably. Currently, these devices are already being used by several companies around the nation. Several of these companies are reporting impressive reductions in accidents and workers' compensation claims (see Business Week, June 3, 1991, p. 36). The most popular impairment tester on the market is the commercialized version of technology developed over 30 years ago for the Air Force and NASA to test pilot performance. The device tests a person's ability to track a randomly moving stimulus, which is actually a blinking cursor on a computer screen. In the three decades that this system has been in used, it has been tested and refined and shown to be highly reliable as a measure of impaired performance. Current models are based on the popular IBM line of personal computers, so they are small, cheap and easy to use. Besides their reliability, impairment testers cost much less than drug testing. A recent evaluation of the Federal Government's drug testing program conducted by the Civil Service Subcommittee showed that it cost $385 per person per year. In contrast, the commercial impairment tester costs less than half as much. Also, the impairment tester is designed to be used on a daily basis. For maximum safety, the device could be used twice each day for each worker: at the beginning and end of the shift. Attempting to do the same thing with drug testing would probably cost in excess of $10,000 per worker per day -- a ridiculous sum. Impairment testing detects degraded performance, no matter what the cause. This is a very important fact. Studies have shown that lack of sleep is as important as alcohol as a cause of accidents (see "Drowsy America", Time Magazine, December 17, 1990). No drug test will ever detect sleep deprivation; the impairment detector will. We can learn something from this accident and greatly reduce the likelihood that it will be repeated. Had impairment testing been used by the transit authority, the driver's reduced capacity would have been detected and he would not have been allowed to drive the subway train. The time has come to put an end to the expensive and ineffective drug test and replace it with something that will really work. Readers interested in more information on this topic are urged to contact the Indiana Civil Liberties Union at (317) 635- 4059. -- paul hager hagerp@iuvax.cs.indiana.edu "If there be any among us who would wish to dissolve this Union or to change its republican form, let them stand undisturbed as monuments of the safety with which error of opinion may be tolerated where reason is left free to combat it." --Thomas Jefferson, 1st Inaugural, 4-Mar-1801

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