L. Baron, M. Straus, and D. Jaffee in _Legitimate Violence, Violent Attitudes, and Rape: A

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L. Baron, M. Straus, and D. Jaffee in _Legitimate Violence, Violent Attitudes, and Rape: A Test of the Cultural Spillover Theory_ in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences vol 528 (1988). The spillover theory hypothesizes that a society which endorses the use of physical force in approved areas such as crime control, child control, and military power, will also show a higher incidence of violence in socially non-approved areas. Baron et al. quote other studies that tend to support this theory, such as the Lambert study, which shows that cultures with punitive Gods rely heavily on physical force in raising children. Archer, who found that cultural support for war leads to a higher murder rate (Newsweek also reported that murder rates in the US go up during wars). Shwed et al. report that cultures that support war also have higher rates of child abuse. For their own test Baron et al. created the Legitimate Violence Index (LVX). The higher the index rating the more legitimate violence. They applied the index to all 50 states, and found regional correlations. The indicators that make up the index are; subscription rates to violent magazines (Guns & Ammo, Easy Rider, etc.), Neilson ratings for the six most violent network shows, laws permitting corporal punishment in schools, per capita death row inmates, per capita executions, per capita number of college football players from the state, number of hunting licences, per capita enrolment in the National Guard, and per capita spending on the National Guard. They also created the Violence Approval Index (VAX). The indicators of this index were given as random surveys in all 50 states. The indicators are; support for military spending, support for the death penalty, opposition to gun permits, questions aimed at determining the acceptability of punching a stranger (i.e. is it OK to hit a stranger if physically assaulted, verbally assaulted, etc.), questions aimed at determining the acceptability of a police officer punching a stranger (i.e. is it OK to hit a stranger if physically assaulted, verbally assaulted, etc.) They found a nationwide 68% approval of the police using force against a person if the person called the officer a dirty name :-{ ). States with high LVX matched States with high VAX. The correlation was even stronger when broken down by region. They then matched by state and region the FBI rape statistics and found a high correlation between high reports of rape and high VAX and LVX. The West has the highest LVX and VAX as well as the highest reported rape rates. This is followed by the Southwest, South, Midwest, and Northeast.

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