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WARNING: The Cult Awareness Network was destroyed by the Scientology crime syndicate in court and, when CAN went bankrupt, the Scientology criminal enterprise acquired the use and title of the Cult Awareness network. Now, if you call CAN, you will find yourself talking to the Scientology crime syndicate! This gross injustice was due to a massive frame up concocted by Scientology to destroy CAN and it worked, prompting a Judge to order all of CAN's records handed over to the very same criminal enterprise that most people contacted the real CAN to complain about and to acquire help fighting. Spread the word that the new Cult Awareness Network is now a Scientology crime syndicate front! - flr, feb 2003 浜様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様 INDEPENDENT COMPUTER INFORMATION XCHANGE Bulletin Directory 麺様僕様様様様様様様様様様様様様曜様様僕様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様 1 ICIX Message Base Tips 9 Brainwashing / Sandburg 麺様陵様様様様様様様様様様様様様洋様様陵様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様 2 PASSWORD Protection Info. 10 Cult Problem / Crisis 麺様陵様様様様様様様様様様様様様洋様様陵様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様 3 ICIX Turbo/HOTKey Options 11 Cult /Coersive techniques 麺様陵様様様様様様様様様様様様様洋様様陵様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様 4 Privacy act re: Messages 12 Who's Vulnerable? 麺様陵様様様様様様様様様様様様様洋様様陵様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様 5 I.C.I.X. BBS Disclaimer 13 Lifton (chapter 22) Summary 麺様陵様様様様様様様様様様様様様洋様様陵様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様 6 Just who are we? 14 Bibilography (1961-1984) 麺様陵様様様様様様様様様様様様様洋様様陵様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様 7 Galactic Warzone Info 15 Suggested Reading (NEW) 麺様陵様様様様様様様様様様様様様洋様様陵様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様 8 Today In History 16 Book Review 藩様瞥様様様様様様様様様様様様様擁様様瞥様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様様 [6] WHO ARE WE AT I.C.I.X.? Since we ask you to tell us a little about yourself, we felt you may want to know a few things about us............ I.C.I.X. (Independent Computer Information X-Change) is a family run BBS. We have been "fooling around" with the idea since about November, 1987. We got serious enough to open the BBS "formally" on July 4, 1989 (INDEPENDENCE DAY) Because we have had a family experience with cults, we have dedicated the "serious" side of I.C.I.X. to providing information in the form of a bibliograpy and text files relating to this subject. We also encourage dialogue in the message base. Even though we feel we have been successful (and lucky) in resolving our family problem, we also find that 1) we are not alone ...there are many families being subjected to this trauma 2) with easy access to accurate information, a great many of cult related problems can be avoided. Because we have a family that enjoys computers, we have dedicated the "not-so- serious" side of I.C.I.X. to providing callers access to a variety of files, Utilities, Entertainment, Graphics, Doors, etc....for use and/or for download. Also, the Message Base is great for meeting new people!! We hope you understand our position, but most of all we hope you have a good time here often and........ refer lots of people [9] ____________B R A I N W A S H I N G________________ Repeat and repeat till they say what you are saying Repeat and repeat till they are helpless before your repetitions. Say it over and over till their brains can hold only what you are saying. Speak it soft, yell it and yell it, change to a whisper, always in repeats. Come back to it day on day, hour after hour. Till they say what you tell them to say. To wash A B C out of a brain and replace it with X Y Z---- This is it. - - Carl Sandburg [10] THE CULT CRISIS -- HERE IS THE PROBLEM....... Thousands of families have been rudely awakened to the fact that cults are recruiting people of all ages despite Jonestown and all of its ominous warnings. There are approximately 3,000 cults in the United States. Destructive cults, high pressure therapy groups and extremist movements are as much a part of the contemporary American landscape as teenage pregnancy or drug abuse. A destructive cult is a group of people under the control of an authoritarian leader who uses deception and psychological manipulation to enhance his/her power, wealth or vanity. The impact of the cult phenomenon is not limited to individuals and families. In the past twenty years, destructive cult groups have been responsible for actions which include mass suicide, human sacrifice, murder, child abuse, involuntary servitude, entrapment, charities fraud, obstruction of justice and a whole range of activities and behaviors which can best be described as the unethical use of influence. A destructive cult may be disguised as a religion, a Bible fellowship, a self-improvement group, a business or a political party. Their followers are usually very bright, loving, accepting, concerned for others, and from all age groups. They are unaware that they are in a cult and are being manipulated by their leader. Their sincerity and dedication is usually genuine. A cult recruiter's goal is to bring potential members to a group meeting, Bible study, seminar, etc... There the recruit is subject to subtle mind control techniques which are not easily recognizable. These techniques may be part of seemingly innocent activities; e.g. participating in long periods of praying or chanting, unusual rituals, unfamiliar games, or group confessions. A skilled lecturer can use these methods to alter feelings and behavior patterns of unsuspecting recruits to be enticed to stay on or return for additional sessions. The cult phenomenon in all of its ramifications constitutes a major social issue. Because destructive cults pose problems to families, health care professionals and government, THERE IS A COMPELLING NEED FOR CULT AWARENESS EDUCATION. ---------------------------------------------------------------- This information is from THE CULT CRISIS, a brochure circulated by CAN (Cult Awareness Network) of Illinois ---------------------------------------------------------------- As always we invite you to dialogue in our Message Base... We welcome your comments and opinions..... Thank You, Your SysOp [11] CULT TECHNIQUES OF COERCIVE PERSUASION LEARN TO RECOGNIZE THEM! ISOLATION: Recruits are isolated from society and from contact with opposing points of view to prevent critical judgement. PEER GROUP PRESSURE: Recruits doubt their own convictions when everyone around them acts totally convinced of other beliefs. LOVE BOMBING: A beguiling sense of belonging is contrived through flattery, touching, hugging. REMOVAL OF PRIVACY: One is never left alone to think through and sort out these confusing new experiences. SLEEP DEPRIVATION AND FATIGUE: Adequate sleep is prevented, work hours are excessive over long periods of time, making members vulnerable and disoriented. GAMES: Playing strenuous games with confusing rules builds increasing dependence on group leaders for correct answers, thus undermining the member's decision-making skills. INDOCTRINATION: Members are conditioned to stop thinking and to accept without question the 'revealed truths' from the 'master'. Fatigue prevents the members from seeing the contradictions. CONFESSION: Recruits are maneuvered into sharing innermost secrets. This helps destroy personal egos, induces them to buy the new 'truths'. Later any escape possibilities are compromised by the knowledge that these exaggerated secrets may be revealed. CHANGE OF DIET: Omission of nutrients increases susceptibility to manipulation of one's emotional 'highs' and 'lows'. GUILT: Guilt is used endlessly to force members to work harder and without relief. Guilt about mankind's sorry state and the member's personal 'sins' is used as a lever to force acceptance of 'holier' beliefs. FEAR: Physical and spiritual fear is constantly injected to maintain group loyalty. The slightest negative thought is held to be soul threatening. Tragic consequences for self and family are prophecied for anyone leaving the group. CHANTING AND SINGING: Constant repetition of mind-narrowing chants block rational thought and induces a quasi-hypnotic state of susceptibility. CHILDLIKE DEPENDENCE is promoted by denying opportunities for normal decision making. NO QUESTIONS are allowed. Blind acceptance is mandatory. DRESS: Conformity in dress removes one's individuality and promotes disorientation. ELITISM: Only the group is righteous; everyone else is satanic, or at best, misguided. REPLACEMENT OF RELATIONSHIPS is promoted by sabotaging commun ication between members and families. Cult-arranged marriages further disrupt previous ties. REJECTION OF OLD VALUES: Old life values are constantly denounced to make them seem worse than they were. FINANCIAL COMMITMENT: Members burn their bridges to the real world by donating earnings, savings, cars to the cult, thereby limiting escape possibilities for lack of money to start over again. ----------------------------------------------------------------- Do ALL cults use ALL of these techniques? NO. Are these techniques ALL inherently evil? Not necessarily, but their power is being destructively used by cults to entrap, to coercively persuade, thus denying the very freedom of choice and religion which the Constitution of the United States was meant to protect. ----------------------------------------------------------------- ........As always, we invite you to dialogue in our Message Base ....we welcome your comments and opinions.............. Thank You, Your SysOp [12] ---------------------------------------------------------------- THOUGHT REFORM AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF TOTALISM A Study of "Brainwashing" in China by Robert Jay Lifton Chapter 22 has been used as an accurate criteria to gauge the level of environmental control in destructive cults. If the person coming out of such a group can come to understand the control methods used, they have the beginning tools to recovery. ARE CULTS REALLY HARMFUL? Dr. John Clark of Weston, Mass. has noted the following effects on those who have remained within the strict confines of a cult for even a short time.... .....Loss of free will and control of one's life .....Reduced use of irony, abstractions, and metaphors .....Diminished intellectual ability, vocabulary and sense of humor .....Reduced capacity to form flexible and intimate relationships .....De facto slavery .....Poor judgement .....Physical deterioration .....Malnutrition .....Hallucinations, panic, guilt, identity diffusion and paranoia .....Neurotic, psychotic or suicidal tendencies ----------------------------------------------------------------- WHO IS VULNERABLE? "We don't realize how vulnerable we ALL are to being influenced without knowing it. Most of us are such trusting souls," says Dr. Margaret T. Singer, Professor of Psychology. She is an expert on brainwashing techniques, having interviewed our repatriated American prisoners after the Korean War, former members of Jonestown's People's Temple, Patty Hearst and many ex-cultists. "We don't realize the sophistication of methods used by many cults to recruit new members." -------------------------------------------------------------- Please feel free to leave comments and opinions on the message base.......As always, we welcome your input! Thank You, Your SysOp [13] THOUGHT REFORM AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF TOTALISM by: Robert J. Lifton (W.W. Norton Co., NY) CHAPTER 22: Ideological Totalism Any ideology - that is, any set of emotionally - charged convictions about man and his relationship to the natural or supernatural world - may be carried by its adherents in a totalistic direction. But this is most likely to occur with those ideologies which are most sweeping in their content and most ambitious - or messianic - in their claims, whether religious, political or even a scientific organization. And where totalism exists, a religion, a political movement, or even a scientific organization becomes little more than an exclusive cult. Here you will find a set of criteria..eight psychological themes against which any environment may be judged...In combination, they create an atmosphere which may temporarily energize or exhilarate, but which at the same time pose the gravest of human threats... 1. Milieu Control 2. Mystical Manipulation 3. The Demand For Purity 4. The Cult Of Confession 5. The "Sacred Science" 6. Loading The Language 7. Doctrine Over Person 8. The Dispensing Of Existence 1. MILIEU CONTROL.....the most basic feature of the thought reform environment, the control of human communication..the totalist environment seeks to establish domain over not only the individual's communication with the outside..but also with creates an atmosphere reminiscent of Orwell's 1984..Totalist administrators look upon milieu control as a just and necessary the center of this self-beatification is their assumption of omniscience, their conviction that reality is their exclusive possession..thus there is a disruption of balance between self and the outside world..a personal closure.0 2. MYSTICAL MANIPULATION.....the next step is extensive personal manipulation. Initiated from above, it seeks to provoke specific patterns of behavior and emotion in such a way that these will appear to have arisen spontaneously from within the environment. The totalists create a mystical aura around the manipulating institutions, party, Government, Organization..they are the agents chosen by history, by God or some supernatural force, to carry out the mystical imperative..The individual then develops the psychology of the pawn, participates actively in the manipulation of others. 3. THE DAMAND FOR PURITY.....The experiential world is sharply divided into the pure and the impure, the absolutely good and the absolutely evil..There is an ethics of continuous reform..Since ideological totalists become the ultimate judges of good and evil within their world, they are able to use these universal tendencies toward guilt and shame as emotional levers for their controlling and manipulative influences... Moreover, once an individual has experienced the totalist polarization of good/evil he has great difficulty in regaining a more balanced inner sensitivity to the complexities of human morality 4. THE CULT OF CONFESSION.....Confession is carried beyond its ordinary religious, legal and therapeutic expressions to the point of becoming a cult in itself...The purging milieu enhances the totalist's hold upon existential guilt. Second, it is an act of symbolic self-surrender...Third, it is a means of maintaining an ethos of total exposure...Finally, it makes it virtually impossible to attain a reasonable balance between worth and humility. 5. THE SACRED SCIENCE.....The totalist milieu maintains an aura of sacredness around its basic dogma holding it as an ultimate moral vision for the ordering of human existence. This sacredness is evident in the prohibition against the questioning of basic assumptions and in the reverence which is demanded for the originators of the word, the present bearers of the word and the word itself...The assumption here is not so much that man can be God, but that man's ideas can be God. 6. LOADING THE LANGUAGE.....The language of the totalist environment is characterized by the thought-terminating cliche. The most far-reaching and complex of human problems are compressed into brief, highly reductive, definitive sounding phrases, easily memorized and easily expressed...Totalist language is repetitiously centered on all-encompassing jargon, prematurely abstract, highly categorical, relentlessly judging, and to anyone but its most devoted advocate, deadly dull: in Lionel Trilling's phrase, "The Language of Non-Thought". 7. DOCTRINE OVER PERSON.....This sterile language reflects another feature of totalism, the subordination of human experience to the claims of doctrine. The underlying assumption is that doctrine - including its mythological elements - is ultimately more valid, true and real than any aspect of actual human character or human experience.. The will to orthodoxy requires that man be modified in order to reaffirm the myth. 8. THE DISPENSING OF EXISTENCE.....The totalist environment draws a sharp line between those whose right to existence can be recognized and those who possess no such right...Totalists feel themselves compelled to destroy all possibilities of false existence as a means of furthering the great plan of true existence to which they are committed...Existence comes to depend upon creed...(I believe, therefore I am)...upon submission...(I obey, therefore I am)...and beyond these upon a sense of total merger with the ideological movement. Ideological totalism may offer man an intense peak experience, a sense of transcending all that is ordinary and prosaic of freeing himself, entering a sphere of truth, reality, trust, sincerity and embeddedness. -------------------------------------------------------------- Please feel free to leave comments and opinions on the message base.......As always, we welcome your input! Thank You, Your SysOp [14] BIBLIOGRAPHY-- * Alexander, Brooks et al. THE GOD MEN: WITNESS LEE AND 'THE LOCAL CHURCH.'Berkeley, CA: The Spiritual Counterfeits Project, 1977. Allen, Steve. BELOVED SON. A STORY OF THE JESUS CULTS. Indianapolis and New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., 1982. * Appel, Willa. CULTS IN AMERICA: PROGRAMMED FOR PARADISE. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1983. Barron, Bruce. IF YOU REALLY WANT TO FOLLOW JESUS. Sycamore, IL 60178: Partners Press, 1984 (Shepherding) Barrs, Jerram. SHEPHERDS AND SHEEP: A BIBLICAL VIEW OF LEADING AND FOLLOWING. Downers Grove, IL 60515: Inter Varsity Press, 1983 Belfrage, Sally. FLOWERS OF EMPTINESS: REFLECTIONS ON AN ASHRAM. Dial Press, 1981 (Rajneesh) Biemiller, Lawrence. "CAMPUSES TRYING TO CONTROL RELIGIOUS CULTS." The Chronicle of Higher Education, April 6, 1983. B'nai Brith Cult Education Project. THE MAGNETISM OF CULTS. Washington, D.C. 20036: B'nai B;'rith, 1640 Rhode Island Avenue, NW, 1983 (Videotape: $60 rent, $75 purchase) * Boettcher, Robert B. GIFTS OF DECEIT. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1980. Breeze, Dave. KNOW THE MARKS OF THE CULTS. Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1977. * Burtner, Rev. Wm. Kent. COPING WITH CULTS: HOW THEY WORK IN AMERICA. Kansas City, MO 64040: N.C.R. Cassettes, Box 281, 1980. Audiocassettes, 3 1/2 hours, $29.95. * Bussell, Harold L. UNHOLY DEVOTION: WHY CULTS LURE CHRISTIANS. Grand Rapids, MI: The Zondervan Publishing House, 1983. Clark, John G. Jr., MD, et al. DESTRUCTIVE CULT CONVERSIONS: THEORY, RESEARCH, AND TREATMENT. Weston, MA 02193: Center on Destructive Cultism, P.O. Box 336, 1981. * Congressional Information Meeting on "THE CULT PHENOMENON IN THE UNITED STATES." Weston, MA 02193: American Family Foundation, Box 336. 161 pages, $17.00. February 5, 1979. * Conway, Flo and Jim Siegelman. SNAPPING: AMERICA'S EPIDEMIC OF SUDDEN PERSONALITY CHANGE. New York: J.B. Lippincott Company (Also Dell Publishing), 1978. Conway, Flo and Jim Siegelman. "INFORMATION DISEASE: HAVE CULTS CREATED A NEW MENTAL ILLNESS?" Science Digest, January 1982,86ff. Daner, Francine Jeane. THE AMERICAN CHILDREN OF KRISHNA: A STUDY OF THE HARE KRISHNA MOVEMENT. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1976. * Davis, Deborah Berg. THE CHILDREN OF GOD: THE INSIDE STORY. Grand Rapids, MI: The Zondervan Publishing House, 1984. * Delgado, Richard. "RELIGIOUS TOTALISM: GENTLE AND UNGENTLE PERSUASION UNDER THE FIRST AMENDMENT." Southern California Law Review, Volume 51, Number 1, 1977. * Edwards, Christopher, CRAZY FOR GOD: THE NIGHTMARE OF CULT LIFE. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1979. * Enroth, Ronald. YOUTH, BRAINWASHING, AND THE EXTREMIST CULTS. Grand Rapids, MI: The Zondervan Publishing House, 1977. * Enroth, Ronald. A GUIDE TO CULTS AND NEW RELIGIONS. Downers Grove, IL 60515: Inter Varsity Press, 1984. * Freed, Josh. MOONWEBS: JOURNEY INTO THE MIND OF A CULT. Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5W 1C2: Canada Wide Feature Services, Ltd., Box 345, Station A, 1980. Gerstel, David U. PARADISE INCORPORATED: SYNANON. Novata, CA: Presidio Press, 1982. Goldberg, Lorna and William. "GROUP WORK WITH FORMER CULTISTS." Social Work, March 1982. Hefley, James C. THE YOUTH NAPPERS. Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1977. * Heller, R.K. DEPROGRAMMING FOR DO-IT-YOURSELFERS. Medina, OH 44258: The Gentle Press, Box 47, 1982. * Horowitz, Irving Louis, Editor. SCIENCE, SIN, AND SCHOLARSHIP; THE POLITICS OF REVEREND MOON AND THE UNIFICATION CHURCH. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1978. Kaslow, Florence and Marvin Sussman. "CULTS AND THE FAMILY." Marriage and Family Review, Vol. 4, Numbers 3/4. New York: The Haworth Press, 1982. * Kemperman, Steve. LORD OF THE SECOND ADVENT: A RARE LOOK INSIDE THE TERRIFYING WORLD OF THE MOONIES. Ventura, CA: Regal Books, 1981. Lane, David Christopher. THE MAKING OF A SPIRITUAL MOVEMENT-THE UNTOLD STORY OF PAUL TWITCHELL AND ECKANKAR. Del Mar, CA: Del Mar Press, 1983. Larson, Bob. LARSON'S BOOK OF CULTS. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 1982. * Lifton, Robert J. THOUGHT REFORM AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF TOTALISM-A STUDY OF "BRAINWASHING" IN CHINA. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1961. (See Chapter 22) * MacCollam, Joel A. CARNIVAL OF SOULS (1978) and WEEKEND THAT NEVER ENDS (1977). New York: Seabury Services/Episcopal Church Ministries. Martin, Rachel. ESCAPE Denver, CO 80215: Accent B/P Publications, Box 15337, 1979 (Brother Evangelist/"Garbage Eaters") Martin, Walter. THE NEW CULTS. Santa Ana, CAL: Vision House, 1980. McManus, Una. NOT FOR A MILLION DOLLARS. Author's account of her years in Children of God. Nashville, TN: Impact Books, 1980. * Mehta, Gita. KARMA COLA--MARKETING THE MYSTIC EAST. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979. Methvin, Eugene H. SCIENTOLOGY: ANATOMY OF A FRIGHTENING CULT (May 1980) and SCIENTOLOGY; THE SICKNESS SPREADS (September, 1981). Pleasantville, NY: The Readers Digest. Mills, Jeanne. SIX YEARS WITH GOD--LIFE INSIDE REV. JIM JONES'S PEOPLES TEMPLE. New York: A & W Publishers, Inc. 1979. * Mitchell, Dave and Kathy and Richard Ofshe. THE LIGHT ON SYNANON. New York:Seaview Books, 1980. Patrick, Ted and Tom Dulack. LET OUR CHILDREN GO! New York: E.P. Dutton and Company, Inc., 1976. Reiterman, Tim and Jacobs, John. RAVEN: THE UNTOLD STORY OF THE REV. JIM JONES AND HIS PEOPLE. New York: E.P. Dutton and Company, Inc., $17.95, 1982. * Ruden, James and Marcia. PRISON OR PARADISE. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1980. * Sargent, William. BATTLE FOR THE MIND: THE PHYSIOLOGY OF CONVERSION AND BRAINWASHING. New York: Harper and Row, 1971. Sargent, William. THE MIND POSSESSED. New York: Penguin Books,Inc., 1975. * Schwartz, Alan. THE WAY INTERNATIONAL. New York 10017: Anti-Defamation League, 823 United Nations Plaza, 1982. * Singer, Margaret T. "COMING OUT OF THE CULTS." Psychology Today, January 1979. Singer, Margaret T. and Louis J. West. "CULTS, QUACKS, AND NON- PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOTHERAPIES," COMPREHENSIVE TEXTBOOK OF PSYCHIATRY,III Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1980. Sklar, Dusty. GODS AND BEASTS: THE NAZIS AND THE OCCULT. New York, Harper and Row, 1977. Sparks, Jack. THE MIND BENDERS. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, Publishers, 1977. * Stoner, Carroll and Jo Anne Parke. ALL GOD'S CHILDREN: THE CULT EXPERIENCE--SALVATION OR SLAVERY? New York: Penguin Books, 1979. * Underwood, Barbara and Betty. HOSTAGE TO HEAVEN: FOUR YEARS IN THE UNIFICATION CHURCH BY AN EX-MOONIE AND THE MOTHER WHO FOUGHT TO FREE HER. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1979. Verdier, Paul A. BRAINWASHING AND THE CULTS: AN EXPOSE' ON CAPTURING THE HUMAN MIND. Los Angeles: Wilshire Publishers, 1977. * Wallenstein, Herbert J. FINAL REPORT ON THE ACTIVITIES OF THE CHILDREN OF GOD TO HONORABLE LOUIS J. LEFKOWITZ, ATTORNEY GENERAL OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK. Charity Frauds Bureau, September 30, 1974. Wallis, Roy. ROAD TO TOTAL FREEDOM: A SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF SCIENTOLOGY. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977. West, L.J. and Richard Delgado: "PSYCHING OUT THE CULTS' CO'LLECTIVE MANIA." Los Angeles Times, October 26, 1978. White, Mel. DECEIVED: THE JONESTOWN TRAGEDY. Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revel Company, Spire Books, 1979. * Williams, J.L. VICTOR PAUL WIERWILLE AND THE WAY INTERNATIONAL. Chicago: Moody Press, 1979. Wood, Allen Tate with Jack Vitek. MOONSTRUCK: A MEMOIR OF MY LIFE IN A CULT. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1979. Wooden, Kenneth. THE CHILDREN OF JONESTOWN. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981. * Yamamoto, J. Isamu. THE PUPPET MASTER: A BIBLICAL PERSPECTIVE AND INQUIRY INTO SUN MYUNG MOON. Downers Grove, IL 60515: Inter Varsity Press, 1980. * Yanoff, Morris. WHERE IS JOEY? LOST AMONG THE HARE KRISHNAS. Athens, OH Ohio University Press, Swallow Press, 1981. Zimbardo, Philip G. and Susan M. Andersen. "RESISTING MIND CONTROL". USA Today, November 1980. * BEST BET --------------------------------------------------------------------------- These books do not necessarily represent the views of ICIX BBS --------------------------------------------------------------------------- This list represents most of the best books available, a few may be out of print. We encourage you to ask for them at your library. As always, we invite you to dialogue in our Message Base... We welcome your reviews, comments and opinions...... Thank you, Your SysOp [15] ASK AT YOUR LIBRARY FOR: THE DEVILS WEB by Pat Pulling "An exploration of the influences of the occult on children, from fantasy role playing games to heavy metal music to dabbling with satanism, with useful appendices for resource aids." THE FAITH HEALERS by James Randi "Expose of the intrigue and corruption behind the scenes of America's prominent evangalists and faith healers." LYNDON LaROUCHE AND THE NEW AMERICAN FACISM by Dennis King "The complete, unadulterated story of a political fanatic and his mission - Lyndon LaRouche and his vision of a Facist America." AN EXPOSITION OF A.L. WILLIAMS: CULT OR CRUSADE? by R. Michael "The only book written which exposes this huge commercial cult." L.RON HUBBARD: MESSIAH OR MADMAN? by Bent Corydon "A true inside view of Scientology and it's founder that exposes the corruption and mind control within the movement." CULTS & CONSEQUENCES: THE DEFINITIVE HANDBOOK Edited by Rachel Andres and James R. Lane "Contains invaluable information which could prevent someone from joining a cult or help those who are dealing with a cult problem." CULTS: WHAT PARENTS SHOULD KNOW By Joan Carl Ross, Ed.M. & Michael D. Langone, Ph.D. "An excellent study about cult involvement from the perspective of the family and the cult member." CULTS IN AMERICA: PROGRAMMED FOR PARADISE by Willa Appel "An engrossing account of the origins, purposes and techniques of destructive cults in America." COMBATTING CULT MIND CONTROL by Steven Hassan "MUST reading for anyone who has been touched by the cult phenomena, their friends and loved ones, and all those concerned with preserving freedom in our society." MONKEY ON A STICK by John Hubner and Lindsey Gruson "A story of the Hare Krishnas infused with horror and suspense and informed by exhaustive research." THOUGHT REFORM AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF TOTALISM by Dr. Robt J Lifton "A newly re-issued edition of a classic textbook and case study on victims of thought reform and the elements of thought reform programs." NOT FOR SALE by David Racer Jr. "A personal look at how the American Freedom Coalition is controlled by the Unification Church of Sun Myung Moon and the influence this organization exerts on the conservative Right." SPIRITUAL WARFARE by Sara Diamond "A penetrating study of the interwoven relationship between cults and the Christian Right, with a special emphasis on shepherding movements." UNHOLY DEVOTION: WHY CULTS LURE CHRISTIANS by Harold Bussell "A book for Christians on why they are especially vulnerable to some types of cults and how they can recognize when this vulnerability is being exploited." THE DECIPLING DILEMMA by Dr Flavil R. Yeakley, Jr.,ed. "An examination by Christian ministers of the Boston Church of Christ/Multiplying Ministries movement based on extensive inter views with members, leaders and ex-members." EASILY FOOLED by Bob Fellows "A 36-page booklet geared for teachers and parents who wish to help their children resist manipulation, and for those who do public speaking on cults." CULTS, SECTS, AND THE NEW AGE by Rev J LeBar (Rev K Burtner, Rev J McGuire) "A Catholic perspective on why people are recruited into cults and how the Catholic Church should respond." THE NEW AGE RAGE by Karen Hoyt "A detailed review from a Christian perspective of all the aspects of the New Age movement--its origins, identifying beliefs and lifestyle." CHILDREN OF DARKNESS by Ruth Gordon "The true story of a woman's search for love, and how she joined and ultimately escaped from 'The Children of God'." ----------------------------------------------------------------- THESE BOOKS DO NOT NECESSARILY REPRESENT THE VIEWS OF I.C.I.X. ----------------------------------------------------------------- This list reflects some of the most current books available. We encourage you to ask for them at your library. Your reviews and comments are welcome! -- Use the Message Base Thank You, Your SysOp [16] CULTS, Faith, Healing, and Coercion by Mark Galanter New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. 230 pages, $22.95. REVIEWED BY: Margaret T. Singer, Ph.D Adjunct Professor, Dept.of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley THE AUTHOR AND HIS GOAL: Marc Galanter is a professor of psychiatry and Director of the Division of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse at the New York University School of Medicine. Galanter's book, CULTS: FAITH, HEALING AND COERCION, appears at a time when scholars and the general public are searching for quality research and insight into cults, but it is unfortunate that this book fails in its purposes. It is marred by major defects. First Galanter equates highly diverse groups on the basis of a single feature which he terms charisma; he then relies on a markedly restricted and outdated list of references; and finally he analyzes cult membership only after a person has joined a group, ignoring until late in the book the active agency of cults in recruiting members. He views most cult members as distressed seekers who find "relief by joining" a group, thus adding to the literature on victim blaming. Galanter writes that his "purpose is to convey a psychological understanding of the charismatic group...A charismatic group consists of a dozen or more members, even hundreds of thousands...Members (1) have shared belief system, (2) sustain a high level of social cohesiveness, (3) are strongly influenced by the group's behavioral norms, and (4) impute charismatic (or sometimes divine) power to the group or its leadership." (p.5) He further writes, "Among these groups are cults and zealous religious sects; some highly cohesive self-improvement groups; and certain political action movements, among them some terrorist groups." Soon Galanter views cults, Alcoholics Anonymous and Ayatollah Khomeini under the rubric of charismatic groups. He is aware that the Ayatollah sent to the Iran-Iraq war- front "youth twelve to seventeen years,...unarmed...often bound together by ropes in groups of 20 to prevent the faint of heart from deserting" (p.194) Few persons familiar with Alcoholics Anonymous and its ono-coercive, non-violent, independence promoting methods would attempt to explain its conduct in the same category with the Ayatollahs and many modern cults. TWO QUAGMIRES: Galanter's two major reasoning problems are: He equates groups with extremely diverse conduct as similar by the very fact that he labels them charismatic--a single attribute is allowed to override their vast differences. He then offers a retrograde explanation of affiliation with a sect (read cult) after membership has occurred, neglecting to take into account the active recruiting tactics of the groups. These two tactics-- calling diverse groups charismatic but ignoring their vast differences in conduct, and beginning his explanations about membership only after a person has become involved with a group, keep him in logical binds throughout the volume. ONE SIMILARITY DOES NOT EQUATE DIVERSE GROUPS: One common attribution (charismatic) among myriads of characteristics on which groups such as cults, the Ayatollah, and Alcoholics Anonymous differ, is not logically the most important characteristic in understanding their conduct. For example, elephants, lions and sheep all breathe oxygen. However, elephants are herbivores with no natural predators; lions are carnivores with no natural predators and sheep are herbivores who get preyed on a lot. It is their differences that are paramount in explaining their conduct. Their differences tell more about the conduct of these animals than the fact that all these organisms metabolize oxygen. Once Galanter has committed himself to the idea that cults, terrorists and Alcoholics Anonymous are charismatic groups (never defining charismatic) and then adopts the premise that he is going to reason about membership only after affiliation with a group has occurred, he has many problems. THEORIES AND ATTEMPTED EXPLANATIONS: Galanter attempts to equate and analyze these diverse groups by applying concepts from systems theory, ethology, sociobiology, social psychology, and studies of altered states of consciousness. Yet in the end, he fails to meet his own goal of conveying "a psychological understanding of the charismatic group." In spite of forays into many theories of human behavior, and his awareness that group pressures, influence and many psychological issues exist, he does not convey that he grasps how social influence, social and psychological coercion work upon any one human psyche. A reader expects a psychiatrist to offer an explanation of the inner mental states that result from the transactions between the mind of the new member and the conduct of the charismatic group. However, Galanter avoids dealing early on in the book with group recruitment practices, even though later he writes of subterfuge and deception in recruiting practices. The author does not achieve any synthesis among his many notions about sect-cult-charismatic group memberships because he uses parts of many models to partially explain bits and pieces of members' behavior. A reader is never offered a unified conceptual framework. Galanter's assumptions are: (1) Distressed people experience relief on joining charismatic groups. (2) This "relief effect" keeps the member in the group and the group rewards conformity and acceptance, thus reinforcing the person's desire to remain. (3) Leaving the group produces distress. He then jumps from this perspective, to "a different scientific perspective--a systems approach..In looking at a system, we do not first ask what motivates an individual member to act. Instead we say, How are the group needs met by the overall behavior observed in its membership?" It is jumps in reasoning like this which leave a reader with a smorgasbord of bits and pieces of theories and the feeling that Galanter does not consistently analyze his material, especially as he hesitates early on in the book to deal with the known, active recruiting tactics of the groups he has studied. THE BIBLIOGRAPHY AND BOOK INDEX: Before commenting on his efforts to apply many theories without truly seeming to understand how social influence actually operates, and offering little or no grasp of its "psychology" which he contends is his goal in the book, it is well to inspect his "bibliography" (which actually is a reference list). The citings are relatively outdated. Eighty percent were published before 1980. This is a real defect since the fields he purports to draw upon (systems theory, sociobiology, drug and alcohol abuse, and cult and terrorist studies) are each fast developing fields with vast literatures accruing since 1980. Beyond being outdated, the references reflect a narrow and selective coverage of the fields. He cites only one reference on terrorists and fails to include a single work written by an ex-member of any cult. Further, from the vast array of books about cults, he notes only Conway and Siegelman. Thus his references are dated, narrow and non-representative of the areas he purports to consider. In analyzing his premises and theses, one comes to see that in order to apply his selected ideas from theoretical fields, he had to avoid acknowledging a vast literature or he would have had quite a different book. The index contains no headings labeled "cults, coercion, faith, or healing" the terms in the book title. In the text he applies the term cult only to small groups with little threat power, (the Word of God, p.108) writes of cults in the abstract, or labels now defunct groups such as the Peoples Temple, MOVE,the Manson Family, and Black Jesus as cults. (p.192) Knowing the threat power of some of the large groups he terms sects, almost any author and publisher today attempts to avoid pre- and post- publication legal harassments. Perhaps now the terms sect or even charismatic group will become touchy ones. AWARENESS OF PRESSURES AND INFLUENCE TECHNIQUES: Galanter writes in the preface that he found the study of "contemporary charismatic groups" compelling "because of the remarkable ability of these groups to exert influence on the thought and behavior of their members, often greater than our most potent treatments. An understanding of the 'cult' phenomenon might offer valuable insights in areas as diverse as the treatment of mental illness and the understanding of group violence." He then outlines the various theories and paradigms he used in his work, such as systems theory, sociobiology, and ethology. TRANSACTIONAL THEORIES AND PROCESS: Each of the above theories is based on a process-oriented, transactional vantage point. In studying a process, it is essential to heed the time, the circumstances, and the context in which any transaction between persons or systems occurs. A researcher must remain aware of where in an ongoing process he/she begins observing. Each theory Galanter relies on assumes a researcher is aware that he/she is cutting into an ongoing transactional process in which the researcher must take into account the prior states of the components of the system and the interaction process that begins upon contact. Sociobiology, systems theory, etc. each assumes a researcher has accurately noted the process between components at the point the researcher begins his observations and deals with the interaction effects one upon the other among the components. Once committed to his notion of the "relief effect," Galanter absolves the group from any active part in getting the member into the group. Thus, to Galanter, the new member was a distressed seeker who found a group. Let us look at an analogy. Assume a woman is home watching television. The doorbell rings and an encyclopedia salesman introduces himself and his wares. Assume further that the salesman is able to sell a set of encyclopedias to the woman. Any analysis of this transaction or process, be it by the man next door, a systems theorist, a sociobiologist, etc., each will note the salesman initiated the transaction. The woman did not go out seeking an encyclopedia salesman. Yet Galanter begins most of his analyses of membership in "charasmatic groups" after a person has affiliated with a group--after the salesman has left so to speak. He would reason the woman in the apartment was a distressed seeker of encyclopedias. For most of his book, in spite of his forays into theory, he reasons on the basis of a simple "distressed seeker looking for a group." The author, in spite of later noting in his book that groups actively seek out new members, primarily uses a "seeker looking for a charasmatic group" explanation of membership. He then unidirectionally attributes motivations. CAUGHT IN TRAP OF WHO IS THE SEEKER: Initially he uses a one-way attribution to explain membership (seekers were looking for, approached and voluntarily affiliated with a group.) Later in the volume, Galanter reveals he is not unaware of the subterfuge, deception and other practices that by this point in history many thousands of observers and former members have revealed about many of the groups Galanter describes. He says of the Unification Church: "Discussions with church members from different parts of the country indicated that during the peak recruitment years of the early 1970's about half the new members were brought into the sect by deceptive means."(p.135) "In the San Francisco Bay area, the major source of recruits for the sect, the process was generally surreptitious."(p.133) Having written of the "induction by subterfuge,"(p.134), and the "covert recruitment techniques" (p.135), Galanter describes in a workshop he observed "communication was regulated...conversations and ideas that did not bear on the themes under discussion were discouraged...the balance between active members and nonmember recruits during small group discussions also assured control by the leaders over was possible to suppress deviant points of view, often before they were expressed. Potential converts were therefore engaged throughout the two days in an organized agenda determined by the leadership, and designed to discourage ideas contrary to the group's perspective."(p.137) PUZZLING REMARKS BY THE AUTHOR: The book contains a number of statements that are to say the least puzzling, for example: "A member's decision to leave the Unification Church reflects malfunction in the monitoring of the church."(p.161) He reports that group has "a center for the management of disturbed members"(p.172) after strongly positing that group members produces a "relief effect." Of his research methods, he writes that members "answered a structured questionaire anonymously and sent their responses to me for computer coding."(p.174) Then (p.175) he writes: "To learn more about the role of coercion in relation to member's attitudes, I arranged to have the project team designate which respondents had been deprogramed based on their knowledge of each one."(p.175) A reader wonders how Galanter defines "anonymous" if his project team knew who the participants were and had in fact located the subjects for him. Both his follow-up study and his earlier current member study brings to awareness the many criticisms made by other researchers that "there are no secrets in the group. "Thus when a member of a high control group is asked to be a study subject that member knows the rules and the consequences of violating them. Such a person often is dependent in all areas of life on the group, knows that deviance monitoring is central and ever-present, and knows that noncompliance has serious social, emotional, financial and other consequences. When management administers a questionaire, how "spontaneous" and "truthful" can answers be? How can anonymity be assured especially in groups where members have themselves monitored mail, phone calls, and know that a "party line" has to be expressed to outsiders. Such persons are patently aware of the penalties for deviance from these prescribed attitudes. Answers to questionnaires administered and collected by management under conditions in which there is knowledge that deviation in not tolerated causes those evaluating such research to ask how much credence can be given the answers. Perhaps some of Galanter's own findings help to access this, especially his contention that joining a charismatic group reduces distress, but later when ex-members fill out questionaires, they reveal that distress was present during their membership. THERE ARE MANY FORMS OF COERSION: The writer never really defines coercion but alludes to it as if there is only physical coercion. At the same time, he writes confusingly about Robert Lifton's seminal studies of thought reform. He refers (p.64) to Lifton's work as being about " prison camps" citing Lifton's 1961 book which assiduously uses the term thought reform and was not about prisoner of war "prison camps" but about Chinese and western civilians thought reformed both inside prisons and in non-prison settings. Elsewhere after describing the system of social controls in the Oneida community, many of which he has cited as used presently in the charismatic groups, he writes: "These techniques stand in sharp contrast to the crude, coercive ones described by Lifton and others in their studies of brainwashing by the Chinese Communists."(p.40) Since Lifton wrote eloquently about social and psychological pressures, it is difficult to know what "crude" methods Galanter has in mind. His writings sugges the does not understand the power and effectiveness of social and psychological coercion. This leaves him with a limited notion that only physical brutality and physical force coercion exist. He eventually finds himself in a logical morass when he writes (p.64) about the sects he has studied explaining that: "Involuntary conversions contact must be maintained in a subtle (or deceptive) way, without forcing the individual to comply with the group's views." How voluntary is a conversion induced through deception? And how noncoercive and legitimate in our society is deception? Is not deception a way of forcing compliance? Another amazing statement is "Members of charismatic groups are remarkably compliant in filling out long questionaires, so long as it is sanctioned by their leadership. I have found, however, that more independent sorts in less zealous groups can give an investigator no end of trouble."(p.32) A reader can conclude that Galanter finds dealing with the subservient, the controlled, the totally obedient members of totalistic groups preferable to dealing with free and independent subjects. ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS: This section is Galanter's clearest and most useful chapter. Perhaps that results from his drawing upon his training as a psychiatrist. Here he gets closest to explaining the transactional interplay between psychological and social influence processes operating in a group and individual responses to group process. For most of the book he has left his fields of expertise--psychiatry, drug and alcohol abuse--and attempted to look at "group" features without actually providing transactional links between group activities and individual reactions. However, in this chapter he has made an attempt to relate altered consciousness, group process and individual reactions. He reports observing or knowing of altered states of consciousness in members of the Divine Light Mission, TM, Deutsch's Baba group,the Unification Church and "est." He writes of Erhard Seminars Training that: "Certain alterations of consciousness and subjective state within this large group context are apparently used to promote this conversionlike experience. Workshop members are subjected to a variety of unsettling circumstances for long hours at a stretch that act to peel away those layers of psychological stability that normally bolster their usual state of consciousness."(p.8081) DISTRESS BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER MEMBERSHIP: Galanter claims that joining a charismatic group reduces emotional distress. Yet when writing about Transcendental Meditation he notes: "One senior editor at a New York publishing house had mild hallucinations if she exceeded the prescribed forty minutes per day" of TM meditation.(p.70) Elsewhere he devotes attention to a number of persons who had major psychological problems while in charismatic groups and makes no effort to reconcile his theory that joining produces a "relief effect." At points he states that leaving a charismatic group, especially if at the urging of family, is the cause of any distress he detects. He is hard put to deal with the known distress reported by and seen in members of charismatic groups whether he saw the persons or dealt with responses from them on questionaires. For example, in a followup study of 66 who left the Unification Church , he writes (p.174) "36% reported that they had experienced 'serious emotional problems' after leaving...24% had 'sought out professional help' for these problems and two had been hospitalized." A reader cannot tell if the 36% includes the others or if one is to add 36%, 24% and 3% for a total of 63% with "serious emotional problems after leaving." At various points in the book he attempts to explain that distress reported by ex-members was caused by their "leaving" and does not consider the role of their experiences while in the group as possibly relating to their states after leaving. FINAL COMMENTS: This book falls far short of what is expected from a person who was the editor of the American Psychiatric Association's official report on cults and new religious movements. It reveals the writer has had only brief clinical experience with members of only a limited number of groups, and most of that from paper and pencil questionaires or talks with management personnel in the groups, and a few persons seen in consultation. There is little or no indication that he has had long-term therapeutic or other contact with former members of even the groups he studied via questionaires. This combined with his reference list which has already been described as narrow and non-representative of the available literature leaves a reader wary about expressing enthusiasm about this book or recommending it broadly. The book does have some interesting sections about the roles of altered states of consciousness in priming and altering attitudes. The book contents suggest the author has not had enough hands-on experience with a large variety of sects and cults, nor experience with truly studying and analyzing the effects of various group practices on members' psychological and psychiatric status. He has left his role of a clinical psychiatrist and ventured into efforts at social surveys and group data gathering. On the whole the author is protective of "sects" he has studied. He is aware that cult-sects-charismatic groups have the potentials for harm to individuals, and depending on their behavior can present problems to the general society. The epilogue and the appendix appear caveats encouraged by editors or reviewers. In those eight pages Galanter briefly comments on the down-side of the groups he calls charismatic: "Agression sometimes flows from the zeal of charismatic religious sects and domestic political movements gone awry; this combination has fueled the growth of international terrorism."(p.191) He then refers to "religious cults," naming Charles Manson, Jim Jones, Lindberg Sanders and "political charismatic groups," naming only the Weathermen and the Order in his comments on terrorism. Since he has not cited any of the vast literature on violence by cults, and only one reference on terrorists, this epilogue and added warning about violence from cultic groups is rather pale and "tacked on." He wavers between purporting an awareness that not all is well in the "sects" and being an apologist for them. An example of the latter occurs when he attempts to "explain away" the conformity of 5,150 members of one of the mass Unification Church weddings: "When the day of the ceremony arrived, members who were to be married dressed in identical outfits, as if to flaunt their conformity before those who insisted that the church made automatons of its members. The 2,075 brides all wore Simplicity Pattern #8392 with the neckline raised two inches to preserve their modesty; the grooms wore dark blue suits and maroon ties. "(p.153) A reader has to ask, if Galanter likes the conformity of the members when they fill out questionaires for him, how can he here attribute to them that utter conformity is a sign of humorous flair on their part--2,075 women and 2,075 men all agreeing spontaneously! Were they earlier, just kidding when they filled out his questionaires? ----------------------------------------------------------------- Margaret Thaler Singer, Ph.D., has been affiliated with the University of Colorado School of Medicine, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in Washington, D.C., the Adult Psychiatry Branch of the National Institute of Mental Health, and the University of California at San Francisco and at Berkeley. Currently she is an adjunct professor in the psychology department at the University of California, Berkeley and in private practice. She has received national awards for her research from the American Psychiatric Association, the American College of Psychiatrists, the National Mental Health Association, and the American Family Therapy Association. She is the recipient of the National Institute of Mental Health Research Scientist award, and for her research on cults the Leo J. Ryan Memorial Award. ----------------------------------------------------------------- SOURCE; CAN (Cult Awareness Network) News, August, 1989 ---------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------- As always we welcome all comments and opinions.....please express your views by using the message base........Thank you -----------------------------------------------------------------


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