THE NEW WORLD ORDER' A Critique and Chronology By Dennis L. Cuddy, Ph.D. To stem Saddam Hu

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THE NEW WORLD ORDER' A Critique and Chronology By Dennis L. Cuddy, Ph.D. To stem Saddam Husseins aggression in the Persian Gulf, the United States in late 1990 put together an unprecedented alliance of more than 20 nations under the aegis of the United Nations. Supporters hailed it as a possible precursor to a "New World Order". In urging Congress to commit American forces to battle in Desert Storm, President Bush described the Gulf crisis as a "rare opportunity to move toward an historic period of cooperation. Out of these troubled times...a new world order can emerge". The term New World Order seemed to imply that the collective will of the nations of the world, exercised through the U.N., would be imposed to uphold international law - by force if necessary. Before Americans embrace the concept of a New World Order, however, a number of questions should be asked and answered. Who would determine just how, when and where U.N. forces would be deployed? For example, would the New World Order be invoked to liberate Croatia from Serbian-dominated Yugoslavia ? What if the New World Order decreed that a Palestinian state be carved out of Israel, regardless of Israeli objections ? And what if the New World Order declared that China should be attacked because of its human rights violations ? Or that a pre-emptive strike against North Korea be ordered to destroy its emerging nuclear weapons capability? International cooperation for peace and security is to be welcomed, of course. NATO - the North Atlantic Treaty Organization - has provided a successful example of regional cooperation without the loss of identity by any of its 16 member nations. But would a New World Order mean relinquishing U.S. sovereignty to a supra-national authority, placing at risk our universally acclaimed institutions of freedom an democratic principles ? VARIOUS ideas for a New World Order have been advanced many times before in this century and for a variety of reasons, as highlighted in the following chronology. 1910 - The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace is formed. - Its original stated purpose was "to hasten the abolition of international war." The endowment now works closely with the U.N. and its agencies, as well as other groups espousing world government. 1912 - Edward Mandel House publishes Philip Dru: Administrator. - This work, in the author's words, promotes "Socialism as dreamed of by Karl Marx" and describes a "conspiracy" in which events are manipulated behind the scenes to overthrow existing governments and establish socialist regimes in their place. House conceded that the novel's hero "was all that he himself would like to be." As President Woodrow Wilson"s most trusted advisor, "Colonel" House later served on the U.S. delegation to the Versailles Peace Conference after World War 1, and was instrumental in planning the League of Nations. 1913 - Woodrow Wilson in his book The New Freedom. "Since I entered politics, I have chiefly had men"s views confided to me privately. Some of the biggest men in the U.S., in the field of commerce and manufacturing, are afraid of somebody, are afraid of something. They know that there is a power somewhere so organized, so subtle, so watchful, so interlocked, so complete, so pervasive, that they had better not speak above their breath when they speak in condemnation of it. " 1917 - United States enters the First World War. - American voters reelect President Woodrow Wilson, in part because he had kept America out of the war. Once in the war, Wilson took a leading role in planning for a post-war world. The establishment of the League of Nations would be an integral part of his plan. 1918 - Russia "Points The Way." - In the January 13th issue of the New York World, William Boyce Thompson (Federal Reserve bank director and founding member of the Council on Foreign Relations) stated: "Russia is pointing the way to great and sweeping world changes It is not in Russia alone that the old order is passing. There is a lot of the old order in America, and that is going too.... I'm glad it is so. When I sat and watched those democratic conclaves in Russia, I felt that I would welcome a similar scene in the United States." 1919 - A Social History of the American Family, Vol. 3, by Arthur Calhoun, appears as part of a series of social service textbooks. - Volume 3 included the following: "The new view is that the higher and more obligatory relation is to society rather than to the family; the family goes back to the age of savagery while the state belongs to the age of civilization. The modern individual is a world citizen, served by the world, and home interests can no longer be supreme...." - May 30: Prominent British and American personalities agree to establish the Royal Institute of International Affairs in England and the Institute of International Affairs in the U.S. The accord takes place at a meeting arranged by Col. House and attended by various Fabians, including the noted economist, John Maynard Keynes. Two years later, Col. House reorganized the Institute of International Affairs as the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). 1920 - March 19: Congress for the second time votes against U.S. membership in the League of Nations. 1922 - December 15: CFR endorses World Govemment. - Philip Kerr, writing for CFR's magazine Foreign Affairs, states: "Obviously there is going to be no peace or prosperity for mankind as long as (the earth) remains divided into 50 or 60 independent states...until some kind of international system is created which will put an end to the diplomatic struggles incident to the attempt of every nation to make it self secure.... The real problem today is that of the world government." 1923 - Col. House comments on war and internationalism. Writing for Foreign Affairs, House states: "if war had not come in 1914 in fierce and exaggerated form, the idea of an association of nations would probably have remained dormant, for great reforms seldom materialize except during great human upheavals.... If law and order are good within states, there can be no reason why they should not be good between states." 1928 - The Open Conspiracy: Blue Prints for a World Revolution by H. G. Wells is published. - A Fabian Socialist, Wells writes: "The political world of the Open Conspiracy must weaken, efface, incorporate and supersede existing governments....The Open Conspiracy is the natural inheritor of socialist and communist enthusiasms; it may be in control of Moscow before it is in control of New York.... The character of the Open Conspiracy will now be plainly displayed.... It will be a world religion. This large loose assimilatory mass of groups and societies will be definitely and obviously attempting to swallow up the entire population of the world and become the new human community...." 1931 - Communists predict peace movement will entrap the West. - Addressing the Komintern in Moscow, party theoretician Dimitry Manuilski states: " One day we shall start to spread the most theatrical peace movement the world has ever seen. The capitalist countries, stupid and decadent... will fall into the trap offered by the possibility of making new friends....Our day will come in 30-40 years or so.... The bourgeoisie must be lulled into a feeling of security. " 1932 - New books urge World Order. - Toward Soviet America by William Z. Foster. Head of the Communist Party USA, Foster indicates that a Nabonal Department of Education would be one of the means used to develop a new socialist society in the U. S. - The New World Order by F. S. Marvin: Marvin describes the League of Nations as the first attempt at a New World Order and says "nationality must rank below the claims of mankind as a whole. " - Braue New World by Aldous Huxley, the renowned English novelist and essayist. In the famous work, Huxley satirized the mechanical world of the future, in which technology replaces much of the everyday activities of humans. 1933 - The first Humanist Manifesto is published. - Co-author John Dewey, the noted philosopher and educator, calls for a synthesizing of all religions and "a socialized and cooperative economic order." - The Shape of Things to Come by H.G. Wells: Wells predicts a Second World War will begin in or about 1940, originating from a German-Polish dispute. After 1945 there would be an increasing lack of public safety in "criminally infected" areas. The plan for the "Modern World-State" would succeed on its third attempt (about 1980), and come out of something that occurred in Basra, Iraq. At this point, the book states, "Russia is ready to assimilate. Is eager to assimilate." Although the world government "had been plainly coming for some years, although it had been endlessly feared and murmured against, it found no opposition prepared anywhere." 1934 - More works on the New World Order. - In The Externalization of the Hierarchy by Alice Bailey, the occultist (who used the phrase "points of light" in connection with a "New Group of World Servers,") claims that 1934 marks the beginning of "the organizing of the men and women... group work of a new order... (with) progress defined by service... the work of the Brotherhood ... the Forces of Light... (and) out of the spoliation of all existing culture and civilization, the new world order must be built." The work is published by the Lucis Trust, formerly Lucifer Publishing Company. - Experiment in Autobiography by H.G. Wells. The author states that "The organization of this that I call the Open Conspiracy... which will ultimately supply teaching, coercive and directive public services to the whole world, is the immediate task before all rational people... a planned world-state is appearing at a thousand points.... When accident finally precipitates it, its coming is likely to happen very quickly....Sometimes I feel that generations of propaganda and education may have to precede it.... Plans for political synthesis seem to grow bolder and more extensive.... There must be a common faith and law for mankind....The main battle is an educational battle." - In a published statement by Willard Givens, later to become Executive Secretary of the National Education Association, he says "A dying laissez- faire must be completely destroyed and all of us, including the "owners,"must be subjected to a large degree of social control.... An equitable distribution of income will be sought.... And the major function of the school is the social orientation of the individual. It must seek to give him understanding of the transition to a new social order." 1939 - New World Order proclaimed in numerous publications. - Hitler Speaks by Hermann Rauschning: The author states that Hitler personally confided to him that "with the notion of race, National Socialism (Nazism) will use its own revolution for the establishing of a new world order." peace News: In the May 19 issue, this London publication prints "Plans for an Unarmed World Federation, Democratic, Non-Military and AII-Inclusive" by the American Campaign for World Government. Address by John Foster Dulles, later to become U.S. Secretary of State. On October 28, Dulles proposed that America lead the transition to a new order of less independent, semi-sovereign states bound together by a league or federal union. Address by Pope Pius XII: On December 24, the Pope delivers an address outlining five points considered essential for setting up a new world order. World Order (Civitas Dei) by Lionel Curtis: The 985-page work has been called the foundation of all thought on the design of a new order. The work examines human society and concludes that a working system must mean the organization of all human society into one commonwealth. 1940 - More works popularize the concept of New World Order. The New World Order by H.G. Wells: Wells proposes a "collectivist one-world state" or "new world order" comprised of "socialist democracies." He advocates "universal conscription for service" and declares that "nationalist the world's disease. " He continues: "The manifest necessity for some collective world control to eliminate warfare and the less generally admitted necessity for a collective control of the economic and biological life of mankind, are aspects of one and the same process." He proposes that this be accomplished through "universal law" and propaganda (or education). " The New World Order, published by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace: This work contains a select list of references on regional and world federation, together with some special plans for world order after the war. The New World Order: A Japanese View:This article by Iwao Ayusawa, is published in the July edition of Contemporary Japan. The Congressional Record: On December 12, in an article entitled "A New World Order," John G. Alexander calls for a world federation. 1941 Still more works on the New World Order. -The City of Man: A Declaration on World Democracy: Co-authored by social philosopher Lewis Mumford, theologian Reinhold Niebuhr and others, the work declares: "Universal peace can be founded only on the unity of man under one law and one government.... All states, deflated and disciplined, must align themselves under the law of the world-state... the new order... when the heresy of nationalism is conquered and the absurd architecture of the present world is finally dismantled.... And there must be a common creed... or ethico-religious purpose". - "The New World Order": An article, by M. J. Bonn, in the July edition of The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science states that "national planning means deliberate international anarchy.... I doubt if the world order of tomorrow will be capitalist or socialist. It probably will be both and neither.... The genius of History does not march through the ages with the solemn goose-step.... But all the time he keeps moving, and with every move a step toward a new world order is taken." - The Journal for Negro Education issue for July contains Ralph Bunche's reference to "Hitler's projected new world order" The issue also contains Marxist W.E.B. Dubois "Neuropa", Hitler's New World Order" and Doxey Wilkerson's "Russia's Proposed New World Order of Socialism". - December 5: Fabian Socialist Sir Julian Huxley said that he hoped America and Japan would be at war "next week" The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor occurred two days later. 1945 - October 24: U. N. Charter becomes effective. - Also on October 24, Senator Glen Taylor (D-Idaho), introduces Senate Resolution 183 calling upon the U S. Senate to go on record as favoring the creation of a world republic including an international police force. 1946 - Alger Hiss elected President of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. - Hiss holds this office until 1949. Early in 1950, he is convicted of perjury and sentenced to prison after a sensational trial and Congressional hearing in which Whittaker Chambers, a former senior editor of Time, testifies that Hiss was a member of his Communist Party cell. 1947 - New Groups call for World Federal Government. - American Education Fellowship: Formerly the Progressive Education Association, organized by John Dewey, this body addresses the teachers of the nation, calling for "the establishment of a genuine world order, an order in which national sovereignty is subordinate to the world authority... an order in which "world citizenship" thus assumes at last equal status with national citizenship.... The task is to experiment with techniques of learning which look toward intelligent social consensus.... The school should become a center of experimentation in attaining communities of uncoerced persuasion. - United World Federalists: This organization coordinates efforts of like- minded organizations in promoting world federal government. Among its founding organizations is World Federalists of North Carolina, with board member Terry Sanford, now a U. S. Senator. 1948 - Britain's Sir Harold Butler, in the July issue of Foreign Affairs, sees "A New World Order" taking shape. Butler states: "How far can the life of nations, which for centuries have thought of themselves as distinct and unique, be merged with the life of other nations? How far are they prepared to sacrifice a part of their sovereignty without which there can be no effective economic or political union?...Out of the prevailing confusion a new world is taking shape... which may point the way toward the new order.... The breath of a new spirit is beginning to reanimate it.... It will abjure war except in the defense of freedom itself. That will be the beginning of a real United Nations, no longer crippled by a split personality, but held together by a common faith. - UNESCO president and Fabian Socialist, Sir Julian Huxley, calls for a radical eugenic policy in UNESCO, its Purpose and its Philosophy. He states: "Thus even though it is quite true that any radical eugenic policy of controlled human breeding will be for many years politically and psychologically impossible, it will be important for UNESCO to see that the eugenic problem is examined with the greatest care, and that the public mind is informed of the issues at stake that much that is now unthinkable may at least become thinkable. - Preliminary Draft of a World Constitution is published by U.S. educators Robert Hutchins, Mortimer Adler, Rexford Tugwell and others, advocating regional federation on the way toward world federation or government, with England incorporated into a European federation. The Constitution provides for a "World Council" along with a "Chamber of Guardians" to enforce world law. Also included is a "Preamble" calling upon nations to surrender their arms to the world government, and including the right of this "Federal Republic of the World" to seize private property for federal use. 1949 - George Orwell publishes 1984. In his classic work, Orwell describes a "Newspeak" language and "doublethink" They were exemplified in the slogans of "the Party" which were "War is peace. Freedom is slavery. Ignorance is strength" Orwell explains that "Newspeak had been devised to meet the ideological needs of INGSOC, or English Socialism" and "Big Brother" represents neither the failed German Nazis nor the Russian Communists who also will fail, but rather "the Party" which will control men's minds. The leading character OBrien says, "The Party seeks power entirely for its own sake.... If you want a picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face - forever". July 26: Eighteen members of the U. S. Senate sponsor Senate Concurrent Resolution 56, calling for the United Nations to be restructured as a world federation. 1950 - Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee considers World Government. February 9: A Foreign Relations Subcommittee introduces Senate Concurrent Resolution 66 which begins: "Whereas, in order to achieve universal peace and justice, the present Charter of the United Nations should be changed to provide a true world government constitution".The document was prepared by Hutchins, Adler, Tugwell and others, and the resolution was first introduced in the Senate on September 13, 1949 by Senator Glen Taylor (D-Idaho). Senator Alexander Wiley (R-Wisconsin) called it "a consummation devoutly to be wished for" and said, "I understand your proposition is either change the United Nations, or change or create, by a separate convention, a world order" Senator Taylor later stated, "We would have to sacrifice considerable sovereignty to the world organization to enable them to levy taxes in their own right to support themselves". February 17: CFR member James P. Warburg, co-founder of the United World Federalists and son of Federal Reserve banker Paul Warburg tells the Subcommittee that "...studies led me, ten years ago, to the conclusion that the great question of our time is not whether or not one world can be achieved, but whether or not one world can be achieved by peaceful means. We shall have world government, whether or not we like it. The question is only whether world government will be achieved by consent or by conquest". April 7: "The Report of the Secretaries of State and Defense on "United States Objectives and Programs for National Security", (NSC-68) was issued. It included this language: "...We must with our to create a world society based on the principle of consent.... In "containment" it is desirable to exert pressure in a fashion which wilI avoid so far as possible directly challenging Soviet prestige, to keep open the possibility for the U.S.S.R. to retreat before pressure with a minimum loss of face... " April 12, President Harry Truman wrote a letter to the National Security Council requesting "further information on the implication of the Conclusions", and later said "It is my desire that no publicity be given to this report or its contents without my approval". 1952 - April 12: John Foster Dulles (later to become Secretary of State) said that "treaty laws can override the Constitution". A Senate amendment, proposed by GOP Senator John Bricker, would have provided that no treaty could supersede the Constitution, but it failed to pass by one vote. 1954 - The Bilderbergers are established by Prince Dernhard of The Netherlands, husband of Queen Juliana of The Netherlands. She is among the first endorsers of "Planetary Citizens" in the 1970's. Numerous leading Americans have been "Bilderbergers" including Dean Acheson, Christian Herter, Dean Rusk, Robert McNamara, George Ball, Henry Kissinger and Gerald Ford. 1959 - CFR calls for New Intemational Order. "Study Number 7" issued on November 25, advocated "a new international order (which) must be responsive to world aspirations for peace, for social and economic international order... including states labeling themselves as 'socialist' (communist)". The West in Crisis is published: Author James Warburg proclaims that "a world order without world law is an anachronism...a world which fails to establish the rule of law over the nation-states cannot long continue to exist. We are living in a perilous period of transition from the era of the fully sovereign nation-state to the era of world govemment...(and) a deliberate search for methods and means by which American children may best be educated into...responsible citizens not merely of the United States but of the world". - The World Peace Foundation launches a series of seven booklets titled, Studies in Citizen Participation in Internatianal Relations, which analyzed and described how to change the attitudes of nearly every group in the nation. According to columnist Edith Roosevelt, "... A reading of the foundation's quarterly, International Organization, shows that a primary objective is the meshing of U.S. and Soviet policy in international organizations with the State Department's Bureau for International Organization Affairs coordinating the effort". 1960 - "The Technical Problems of Arms Control" is published. - The study is sponsored by the Institute for Intermational Order and authored by, among others, Jerome Wiesner (CFR member who would become President Kennedy's top aide on science), Brock Chisholm (former head of the World Health Organization) and Arthur Larsen (director of the World Rule of Law Center and law professor at Duke University). Wiesner recommended that to insure compliance with official disarmament arrangements, an "international intelligence network" be developed which could "recruit and train competent secret agents" to find any resistance. In addition, those conducting the study recommended that an arms control inspection system be developed into "a system of enforced world law". - September 9: President Eisenhower signs Senate Joint Resolution 170 promoting the concept of a federal Atlantic Union. Pollster and Atlantic Union Committee treasurer, Elmo Roper, later delivers an address titled, "The Goal Is Government of All the World", in which he states: "For it becomes clear that the first step toward World Government cannot be completed until we have advanced on the four fronts: the economic, the military, the political and the social. By chance, the economic came first, and this was a very positive step. The military has now come next, and that is a necessary defensive step. The political must come next, and the social will follow the political organization". 1961 - State Department issues plan to disarm all nations and arm the U. N. State Department Document Number 7277 is entitled "Freedom From War: The U.S. Program for General and Complete Disarmament in a Peaceful World." It details a three-stage plan to disarm all narions and arm the U. N., with the final stage in which "no state would have the military power to challenge the progressively strengthened U. N. Peace Force". 1962 - New Calls for World Federalism. - In a study titled, "A World Effectively Controlled by the United Nations." CFR member Lincoln Bloomfield states: "...if the communist dynamic was greatly abated, the West might lose whatever incentive it has for world government." - The Future of Federalism: Author Nelson Rockefeller, one-time Governor of New York, claims that current events compellingly demand "a new world order" as the old order is crumbling, and there is "a new and free order struggling to be born". Rockefeller continues, There is a "fever of nationalism... (but) the nation-state is becoming less and less competent to perform its international political tasks.... These are some of the reasons pressing us to lead vigorously toward the true building of a new world order... (with) voluntary service... and our dedicated faith in the brotherhood of all mankind.... Sooner perhaps than we may realize... there will evolve the bases for a federal structure of the free world." 1967 - Richard Nixon calls for New World Order. - In "Asia after Vietnam" in the October issue of Foreign Affairs Nixon writes of nations "disposition" to evolve regional approaches to development needs and to the evolution of a new world order!" - In To Seek A Newer World, by Robert Kennedy, former U.S. Attorney General, he proclaims that "all of us will ultimatly be judged.. on the effort we have contributed to building a new world society." 1968 - Richard Gardner, former U. S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of State, calls for an end to national sovereignty. - In a speech entitled "The United Nations and Alternative Formulations. The Hard Road to World Order", Gardner states: "In short, we are likely to do better by building our "house of world order" from the bottom up rather than from the top down. It will look like a great, booming, buzzing confusion to use William James famous description of reality, but an end run around national sovereignty, eroding it piece by piece, is likely to get us to world order faster than the old-fashioned frontal attack". (Gardner makes the same statement in a later article, "The Hard Road to World Order" appearing in the April 1974 issue of Foreign Affairs. - U. S. Disarmament Agency issues a document titled, "Arms Control and National Security" which stated: "Since 1959, the agreed ultimate goal of the negotiations has been general and complete disarmament, i.e., the total elimination of all armed forces and armaments except those needed to maintain internal order within states and to furnish the United Nations with peace forces.... While reductions were taking place, a U. N. peace force would be established and developed, and, by the time the plan was completed, it would be so strong that no nation could challenge it" (The U.S.Disarmament Agency was established in September 1961; but the CFR "Study No. 7" mentioned earlier was published in 1959.) - July 26: Nelson Rockefeller pledges support of New World Order. In an Associated Press report, Rockefeller pledges that "as President, he would work toward international creation of a new world order". 1969 - Dccember 2: Congressman George Bush introduces Atlantic Union rcsolution. - In part, the resolution states that: "Whereas a joining together for such purposes of the democratic nations of the Atlantic community to create an Atlantic Union within the framework of the United Nations would reduce the cost of a common defense, provide a stable currency... a declaration that the goal of their people is to transform their present alliance into a federal union". 1970 - Education and Mass Media to promote World Order. - In "Thinking About A New World Order for the Decade 1990" author lan Baldwin, Jr. asserts that "the World Law Fund has begun a worldwide research and educational program that will introduce a new, emerging discipline - world order - into educational curricula throughout the world... and to concentrate some of its energies on bringing basic world order concepts into the mass media, again on a worldwide level". This article appears in the January edition of War/Peace Report published by the Center for War/Peace Studies. 1972 - Fresident Nixon visits China. - In his toast to Chinese Premier Chou En-lai, former CFR member and now President, Richard Nixon, expresses "the hope that each of us has to build a new world order:' - Nixon official calls for end to Individual Sovereignty. In speaking of the coming of world government, on May 18, Roy M. Ash, director of the Office of Management and Budget, declares that "within two decades the institutional framework for a world economic community will be in place...(and) aspects of individual sovereignty will be given over to a supernational authority". 1973 - Trilateral Commission established. Banker David Rockefeller organizes this new private body. Rockefeller chooses Zbigniew Brzezinski, later to become National Security Advisor, as the Commission's first director and invites Jimmy Carter to become a founding member. - Humanist Manifesto II is published: "The next century can be and should be the humanistic century... we stand at the dawn of a new age... a secular society on a planetary scale.... As non-theists, we begin with humans not God, nature not deity... we deplore the division of humankind on nationalistic grounds.... Thus we look to the development of a system of world law and a world order based upon transnational federal government.... The true revolution is occurring". 1974 - Religious conference calls for New World Order. A report by Douglas Roche entitled "We Can Achieve a New World Order", is presented at the World Conference of Religion for Peace, held in Louvain, Belgium. Writing for the Toronto Star, Dr. Ernest Howse describes the conference as "possibly... one small step on the pathway to one world", - U.N. calls for wealth redistribution: In a report entitled "New International Economic Order", the U.N. General Assembly outlines a plan to redistribute the wealth from the rich to the poor nations. 1975 - New World Order recognized in diverse publications. A study titled, "A New World Order" is published by the Center of International Studies, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Studies, Princeton University. In The New York Times, CFR member and Times editor James Reston writes that President Ford and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev should "forget the past and work together for a new world order." U. S. Congress: 32 Senators and 92 Representatives sign "A Declaration of Interdependence" written by historian Henry Steele Commager. The Declaration states that "we must join with others to bring forth a new world order.... Narrow notions of national sovereignty must not be permitted to curtail that obligation" Congress-woman Marjorie Holt refuses to sign the Declaration, saying: "It calls for the surrender of our national sovereignty to international organizations. It declares that our economy should be regulated by international authorities. IT proposes that we enter a 'new world order' that would redistribute the wealth created by the American people". Rockefeller Foundation: In the Foundation's annual report, President John Knowles states: "The web of interdependence is tightening. We are one world and there will be one future - for better or for worse - for us all. Central to the new ethic of making less more is controlled economic growth which... provides equitable distribution of income and wealth. It is also necessary to control fertility rates at the replacement level and to achieve zero population growth as rapidly as possible." - Retired Navy Admiral Chester Ward, former Judge Advocate General of the U.S. Navy and former CFR member, in a critique writes that the goal of the CFR is the "submergence of U.S. sovereignty and national independence into an all-powerful one-world government.... Once the ruling members of the CFR have decided that the U. S. Government should adopt a parricular policy, the very substantial research facilities of the CFR are put to work to develop arguments, intellectual and emotional, to support the new policy, and to confound and discredit, intellectually and politically, any opposition". 1977 - President Carter appoints New World Order proponents to key positions. - Brzezinski becomes National Security Adviser and Richard Gardner becomes U.S. Ambassador to Italy. The Third Try at World Order is published. Author Harlan Cleveland of the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies calls for "changing Americans attitudes and institutions", for "complete disarmament (except for international soldiers)" for "fairer distribution of worldly goods through a new International Economic Order", and for "international standards for individual entitlement to food, health and education". - Imperial Brain Trust by Laurence Shoup and William Minter is published. The book takes a critical look at the Council on Foreign Relations with chapter titles, "Shaping a New World Order: The Council's Blueprint for Global Hegemony, 1939-1944" and "Toward the 1980's: The Council's Plans for a New World Order". 1979 - Barry Goldwater, retiring Republican Senator from Arizona, publishes autobiography, With No Apologies. - Goldwater writes: "In my view The Trilateral Commission represents a skillful, coordinated effort to seize control and consolidate the four centers of power - political, monetary, intellectual, and ecclesiastical. All this is to be done in the interest of creating a more peaceful, more productive world community. What the Trilateralists truly intend is the creation of a worldwide economic power superior to the political governments of the nation-states involved. They believe the abundant materialism they propose to create will overwhelm existing differences. As managers and creators of the system they will rule the future". 1980 - U. N. plans New International Economic Order - A special session of the U. N. General Assembly attempts to lay the groundwork for a New International Economic Order. 1983 - The Hidden Dangers of the Rainbow is published. - Author Constance Cumbey's work exposes the New Age Movement which she describes as "a movement that includes many thousands of organizations networking throughout every corner of our globe with the intent of bringing about a New World Order". 1984 - KGB defector Anatoliy Golitsyn wrote in his 1984 book New Lies for Old, regarding information he had conveyed to the CIA as early as the 1970's. - He related there were to be Soviet strategies such as "the introduction of the false liberalization in Eastern Europe and, probably, in the Soviet Union and the exhibition of spurious independence on the part of the regimes in Romania, Czechoslovakia, and Poland.... The KGB would be 'reformed'.... Dissolution of the Warsaw Pact would have little effect on the coordination of the communist bloc.... The pressure on the United States for concessions on disarmament and accommodation with the Soviets will increase. During this period there might be an extensive display of the fictional struggle for power in the Soviet leader-ship". 1985 - World Governmentt called inevitable. - Norman Cousins, honorary chairman of Planetary Citizens, quoted in Human Events, the Washington weekly: "World government is coming, in fact, it is inevitable. No arguments for or against it can change that fact". Cousins also was president of the World Federalist Association, an affiliate of the World Association for World Federation (WAWF), headquartered in Amsterdam. WAWF is a leading force for world federal government and is accredited by the U. N. as a Non-Governmental Organization. 1986 - International meeting in Seoul, South Korea, promotes New World Order. - Finance ministers from around the world hear the New World Order praised. According to William Safire, writing in the New York Times magazine, Treasury Secretary James Baker lectured countries that "attempt to go it alone", and the Peruvian Minister of Finance, Alva Castro, responded with a plea for a New World Order to replace the International Monetary Fund and assume the debt of Third World countries. 1987 - Perestroika by Mikhail Gorbachev is published in which he reveals. "The essence of perestroika lies in the fact that it unites socialism with democracy and revives the Leninist concept of socialist construction both in theory and in practice.... We want more socialism..." 1988 - New World Order to replace Cold War. - Former Under Secretary of State and CFR member George Ball in a January 24 interview in the New York Times says, "The Cold War should no longer be the kind of obsessive concern that it is. Neither side is going to attack the other deliberately.... If we could internationalize by using the U.N. in conjunction with the Soviet Union, because we now no longer have to fear, in most cases, a Soviet veto, then we could begin to transform the shape of the world and might get the U.N. back to doing something useful.... Sooner or later we are going to have to face restructuring our institutions so that they are not confined merely to the nation-states. Start first on a regional and ultimately you could move to a world basis". December 7: In an address to the U. N., Mikhail Gorbachev calls for mutual consensus: "World progress is only possible through a search for universal human consensus as we move forward to a new world order". 1989 - President Bush invites Soviets to join World Order. Speaking to the graduating class at Texas A&M University on May 12, Mr. Bush states that the United States is ready to welcome the Soviet Union "back into the world order". 1990 - The Gulf War and the progress of the New World Order. Mikhail Gorbachev, in an address at Stanford University says, "... All of us have felt how much we need the United Nations if we really are to move toward a new world, and new kinds of relationships in the world in the interest of all countries.... The Soviet Union and the United States have more than enough reasons to be partners in building it, in shaping new security structures in Europe and in the Asian Pacific region. And also in the making of a truly global economy, indeed, and the creation of a new civilization". - World Federalist Association faults American press: Writing in the Summer/Fall newsletter, Deputy Director Eric Cox describes world events over the past year or two and declares: "It's sad but true that the slow-witted American press has not grasped the significance of most of these developments. But most federalists know what is happening.... And they are not frightened by the old bug-a-boo of sovereignty". - President Bush calls Gulf War opportunity for New World Order: In a September 11 address to Congress entitled "Toward a New World Order" Mr. Bush says, "the crisis in the Persian Gulf offers a rare opportunity to move toward an historic period of cooperation. Out of these troubled times... a new world order can emerge, in which the nations of the world, east and west, north and south, can prosper and live in harmony.... Today the new world is struggling to be born". And in a U.N. address, on October 1, the President speaks of the "collective strength of the world community expressed by the U.N.... a historic movement towards a new world order... a new partnership of nations... a time when humankind came into its own... to bring about a revolution of the spirit and the mind and begin a journey into a... new age". - Soviets link Gulf Crisis to New World Order: In a September 25 address to the U. N., Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze describes Iraq's invasion of Kuwait as "an act of terrorism (that) has been perpetrated against the emerging New World Order". On December 31, Gorbachev declares that the New World Order would be ushered in by the Gulf Crisis. - Thatcher Resigns: November 23, Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher of Great Britain is forced to resign in part due to her opposition to Britain's prospective economic union with Europe. Mrs. Thatcher contends it would adversely impact upon British sovereignty. 1991 - New World Order praised in State of Union Message. - "What is at stake" says President Bush, "is more than one small country, it is a big idea - a new world order... to achieve the universal aspirations of mankind... based on shared principles and the rule of law.... The illumination of a thousand points of light.... The winds of change are with us now". - February 6: President Bush tells the Economic Club of New York: "My vision of a new world order foresees a United Nations with a revitalized peacekeeping function". - A Lone voice of Dissent: Speaking before a Conservative convention in Washington, D.C., February 7-9, Senator Jesse Helms (R-N.C.), says he believes and hopes it would be a "long time before a 'new world order' and that there could never be one based on atheistic materialism". - Bush Praised: In an article entitled "Toward a Federative Principle" appearing in the Washington Times, author Max Lerner states: "Mr. Bush has wisely pointed America's resulting world leadership toward the objective of a new world order, In doing so, he has gone beyond the rhetoric of 'national interest' that still narrowly dominated conventional thinking... " - "Rethinking America's Security: Beyond Cold War to New World Order": In June the Council on Foreign Relations co-sponsored an assembly attended by 65 prestigious members of government, labor, academia, the media, military, and the professions from nine countries. The conference explored what was called "the changing global role of the U. S. in the 1990's": Major topics included: "An International Liberal Community", the "Growing Role of International Law "'The Unipolar Movement", "Practical Internationalism" and "The End of American History: American Security, the National Purpose, and the New World Order".Helping to fund the undertaking were the Ford Foundation, The Pew Charitable Trust, Rockefeller Family Fund, Inc., Xerox Foundation and Citibank. Later, several of the conference participants joined some 100 other world leaders for another closeddoor meeting of the Bilderberg Society in Baden-Baden, Germany. The Bilderbergers also exert considerable clout in determining the foreign policies of their respective governments. - June 18: Secretary of State James Baker, addressing the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies in Berlin, describes "a Euro-Atlantic community that extends east from Vancouver to Vladivostok.... To me, the trans-Atlantic relationship stands for certain Enlightenment ideals of universal applicability.... Our structures need to promote Euro-Atlantic political and economic values, the ideals of the Enlightenment". - Southeastern World Affairs Institute discusses the New World Order: In a July 26-28 program, topics include: "Legal Structures for a New World Order" and "The United Nations: From its Conception to a New World Order". Participants include a former director of the U.N.s General Legal Division, and a former Secretary General of International Planned Parenthood. - In late July: On a Cable News Network program, CFR member and former CLA director Stansfield Turner, when asked about Iraq, responded: "We have a much bigger objective. We've got to look at the long run here. This is an example - the situation between the United Nations and Iraq - where the United Nations is deliberately intruding into the sovereignty of a sovereign nation.... Now this is a marvelous precedent (to be used in) all countries of the world..." - October 24: Op-Ed article in the Wall Street ]ournnl by Deputy Features Editor Amity Shlaes says U. N. Secretariat headquartered in New York City remains under domination of old-line communists and Third World ideologues. Rather than becoming "the cornerstone in President Bush's oft-mentioned 'new world order,'" reports Ms. Shlaes, "many of those working within the Secretariat, or at its missions in its vicinity, argue that communism left a legacy.... "lt works like a scorpion's stinger," says one U. N. professional. "The scorpion - East Bloc socialism - dies. But the stinger remains poisonous, and strikes new victims, " According to correspondent Shlaes, "Westerners who worked at the U. N., ...found themselves surrounded by what many have called a communist mafia". Chief Soviet holdover is Vasily Safronchuk, who heads the U.N.s influential Department of Political and Security Council Affairs. In 1978-9, before coming to the U. N., Safronchuk helped supervise Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. - October 26: In a lengthy letter published in the New York Times, Douglas Mattern of San Francisco president of the Association of World Citizens, proposes that Mikhail Gorbachev be named new U. N. Secretary General "to help bring about world unity." - October 21: David Funderburk, former U. S. Ambassador to Romania, tells a North Carolina audience: "George Bush has been surrounding himself with people who believe in one-world government. They believe that the Soviet system and the American system are converging," The vehicle to bring this about, said Funderburk, is the United Nations, "the majority of whose 166 member states are socialist, atheist, and anti-American." Funderburk served as ambassador in Bucharest from 1981 to 1985 when he resigned in frustration over U. S. support of the oppressive regime of the late Romanian dictator, Nicolae Ceausescu. - October 30: President Gorbachev at the Middle East Peace Talks in Madrid states: "We are beginning to see practical support. And this is a very significant sign of the movement towards a new era, a new age.... We see both in our country and elsewhere... ghosts of the old thinking.... When we rid ourselves of their presence, we will be better able to move toward a new world order... relying on the relevant mechanisms of the United Nations:'Elsewhere, in Alexandria, Virginia, Elena Lenskaya, Counsellor to the Minister of Education of Russia, delivers the keynote address for a program titled, "Education for a New World Order:" ****** - In a discordant and war-weary world, the dream of a peaceful and ordered family of nations has understandable appeal. President Bush apparently envisages a larger and more influential role for the United Nations, with major powers, including the United States, retaining their sovereignty while acting jointly under the U. N.'s aegis to enforce world peace. In much of today's world, however, newly-independent populations are fiercely defending their age-old nationalist and ethnic origins and geopolitical frontiers against all outsiders. Examples currently are found in Central and Eastern Europe, in Yugoslavia, and in the disintegrating Soviet Union itself. - While the motives of some internationalists may appear well-meaning, there is cause for serious misgivings over the objectives of "one-worlders." Among the skeptics is Robert Morris, the geopolitical authority and chairman of America's Future. "The term, "new world order," has a nice ring to it, says Morris, "but there are caveats. Experience tells us that instead of entrusting our foreign policy to a U. N. dominated by enemies of freedom, we should maintain and strengthen the traditional values and principles that have made our independent nation the beacon of hope for oppressed peoples everywhere." ABOUT THE AUTHOR DENNIS LAURENCE CUDDY received a Ph.D. from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (major in American History, minor in Political Science), and taught in the public school system and at the university level. Dr. Cuddy also was a political risk analyst for an international consulting firm; authored or edited four books on American foreign relations and immigration; authored numerous articles, and served as a Senior Associate with the U. S. Department of Education in Washington, D.C. A book, Now Is the Dawning of the New Age New World Order, by Dr. Cuddy is tentatively scheduled for publication in January 1992 by Hearthstone Publishing Ltd., P. 0. Box 815, Oklahoma City, OK 73101. Phone: 1-800- 652-1144. Distributed by America's Future, Inc., P. 0. Box 1625, Milford, PA 18337 Current Affairs Pamphlets Available From America's Future America's Future, Inc. publishes this and other pamphlets as a public service. The titles listed below can be obtained in small or large quantities - in any combination. American Freedom-The Next 200 Years by Allan C. Brownfeld Castro's Cuba: Soviet Bastion in the Americas by Philip C. 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