CE [Conversion Era]: 6: Herod Archelaus deposed by Augustus of Rome; Samaria, Judea and Id

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CE [Conversion Era]: 6: Herod Archelaus deposed by Augustus of Rome; Samaria, Judea and Idumea annexed as province Iudaea under direct Roman administration, cap. Caesarea 6-9: Coponius, Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea) 6: Quirinius, new governor of Syria, orders first Roman tax census of Iudaea 6: Judas of Galilee crucified for anti-census rebellion (Josephus:JA18.1.1) 7-26: brief period of peace, free of revolt and bloodshed in Iudaea & Galilee 9: Hillel, b.30BCE, "Do not unto others what you would not have done unto you" 9-12?: M. Ambivius, Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea) 12-15?: Annius Rufus, Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea) 14-37: Tiberius, Roman emperor, b. 42BCE 15-26: Valerius Gratus, Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea) 17: Livy, b. 59BCE, Roman historian 18-36: Caiaphas, high priest of Herod's Temple 18: Ovid, b. 43BCE, Roman poet, wrote "Ars Amatoria" (see 2BCE) 22-220: Later (Eastern) Han dynasty in China 24?: Strabo, b. 63BCE?, Greek geographer, wrote "Geography" 26-36: Pontius Pilate, Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea) 27-29?: John the Baptist begins ministry [Luke 3:1-2: 15th year of Tiberius] 27-34?: Jesus bathed in Jordan to remove sins by John the Baptist [Mk1:4-11] 33-34?: John the Baptist arrested/killed by Herod Antipas [Lk3:19-20,Josephus] 33-36?: Jesus' ministry, foundation years of Christianity, "But after John was handed over to the authorities, Jesus went to Galilee, proclaiming the good word of God and saying, 'The time has come and the kingdom of God is approaching. Repent and trust in the good word.'"-Mk1:14-15(Gaus) || Mt4:12, 17,Lk4:14-15, cf. Jn4:1-3,43-46; "And he goes up the mountain and calls the ones he wanted to him, and they went to him. And he settled on twelve of them to be with him, and to be sent out by him to spread the word, and to have authority to throw out demons. And he gave Simon the name "Rock" {Aramaic: Kephas; Greek: Petros} [{1}"Peter"] {a fisherman from Bathesda; first Pope? (see 67); surname: Aramaic: bar-Yonah: Johnson [Mt16:17,Jn1:42]; also called Satan! [Mk8:31-33 || Mt16:21-23]} and he gave {2}James the son of Zebedee and his brother {3}John {more fishermen, was John the disciple Jesus loved? writer of Gospel of John and only eyewitness recorder?, later John the Elder? (see 120)} the name of Boanerges {Aramaic: b'nai-Rogez?: angry sons?}, which means "the Thunder Brothers"; plus {4}Andrew {a Greek name, brother of Peter}, {5}Philip {a Greek name, from Bathesda}, {6}Bartholomew {Aramaic: bar Ptolemaios?}, {7}Matthew {a Tax Collector! [Mt10:3], Gospel of Matthew?}, {8}Thomas {Gospel of Thomas?, a Gnostic?}, {9}James son of Alpheus, {10}Thaddeus {Theodotus?}, {11}Simon the Canaanite {a Canaanite? from Cana? a Zealot? [Greek is vague]}, and {12}Judas Iscariot {a devil! [Jn6:70]}, who betrayed him." -Mk3:13-19(Gaus) || Mt10:1-4,Lk6:12-16 36?: Jesus betrayed by one of his own disciples: Judas son of Simon Iscariot 36?: Jesus denied 3 times by one of his own disciples: Simon Peter the "Rock" 36?: Jesus crucified, Friday, Nisan 14th, March 30th, [Ref: John, Unauthorized Version/Fox] "And at three o'clock, Jesus cried out in a loud voice, 'Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani,' {Aramaic} which translates to "My God, my God, why did you desert {sacrifice?} me?" -Mk15:34(Gaus). Last Supper would have been Thursday evening. [7Apr30 & 3Apr33 possible Fri/14/Nisan crucifixion dates] 36-37: Marcellus, Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea) 36-80?: period of oral tradition in Christianity between Jesus and the Gospel of Matthew, the era of Paul of Tarsus, recorded in Acts: [Simon] Peter{1} as leader? [first Pope?], John{3}, James{2}, Andrew{4}, Philip{5}, Thomas{8}, Bartholomew{6}, Matthew{7}, James{9} son of Alpheus, Simon{11?} the Revolutionary [or Zealot], Jude son of James, Mary the mother of Jesus, Jesus' brothers and sisters and various other women [Ac1:13-14]; {What happened to Thaddeus?} only about 120 initial believers? [Ac1:15], Judas{12} the betrayer commits "suicide" [Ac1:18-19], Matthias voted in as his replacement [Ac1:23-26], 3000 new converts in one day??? [Ac2:41], Peter and John jailed for one night for causing riots, number of converts increases to 5000??? [Ac3], Ananias and Sapphira die under mysterious circumstances after not giving *all* their possessions to Christianity [Ac5], Aramaic [Ac1:19] and Greek [Ac6:1] in use early on, 7 Greeks added to 12 Apostles: Stephen, Philip, Prochorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas, Nicolaus [Ac6], initially there is only one Christian "church" [Greek ekklesia:G1577 most likely just an assembly rather than a formal church], in Jerusalem, Paul [Saul] of Tarsus, prior to his conversion, has Stephen martyred and the Jerusalem "church" destroyed, the original Christians disperse throughout Judea and Samaria [Ac8:1ff], Paul of Tarsus converts to "Apostle to the Gentiles" and the main activity of Christianity shifts from the Hellenic-Jewish-Christians of Judea Samaria, and Galilee [Nazarenes "of Nazareth" and Ebionites "poor ones"] to the Gentile-Christians led by Paul and centered in the church of Corinth ... Nazarenes [nazoraios:G3480]:Mt2:23,Ac24:5; The Way [hodos:G3598]:Ac9:2,18:25 -26,19:9,23,24:14,22; Christians [christianos:G5546]:Ac11:26,26:28,1Pt4:16 37-41: Gaius Caligula, b. 12, emperor of Rome, declared himself God ... 37-41: Marullus, Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea) 37-40: Herod Agrippa I, king of tetrarchies of Philip and Lysanias 37: Paul of Tarsus' conversion, [Acts9], (a Roman citizen & tentmaker) 38: anti-Jewish riots in Alexandria [Philo Flaccus 41-54, E-to-G 132-137] 39-40: anti-Jewish riots in Antioch [Malalas Chronographia 10.315] 39: Herod Antipas exiled to Gaul on charges of secret alliance with Parthians 40: Paul goes to Jerusalem to get aquainted [consult?] with Peter [Gal1:18-20] 40: first (?) Christian Church: erected at Corinth (center of Gentile faith) 40: Caligula adds tetrarchy of Herod Antipas (Galilee) to Herod Agrippa I 41-54: Claudius, emperor of Rome 41-44: Claudius adds Judea and Samaria to kingdom of Herod Agrippa I 41-48: Herod of Chalcis (brother of Herod Agrippa I), king of Chalcis 44: James brother of John executed by Herod Agrippa I [Acts12:1-3] 44-46: C. Cuspius Fadus, Roman Procurator of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, Idumea) 44: Fadus beheads Theudas for magically parting the Jordan R.[Josephus/Ac5:36] 45?: Fadus crucifies Jacob & Simon, sons of Judah of Gamala (a Zealot founder) 45: Philo Judaeus of Alexandria, b. 30BCE, Jewish philosopher and Hellenizer 46-48: Tiberius Julius Alexander, Roman Procurator of Iudaea, an apostate Jew 47: James and Simon sons of Judas of Galilee (6) crucified [Josephus:JA20.5.2] 47-48: Paul and Barnabas on Cyprus [Acts13:4-12] 48-52: Ventidius Cumanus, Roman Procurator of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, Idumea) 48-93: Agrippa II, king of Judea, ruled from Chalcis 48-52 and Iturea 52-93 48-49: Council of Apostles and Elders, 1st Christian council?, [Ac15/Gal2.1f?] also Incident at Antioch [Gal2.11-18] where Paul publicly condemned Peter 48-62: Pauline Letters: Gl(48-55),1Th(51),Rm(56-58),1Cr(56),2Cr(57),Ph(55-62) 49-50: Paul in Corinth, the center of his mission to the Gentiles [Acts18] 50: Jewish riot in Jerusalem, 20-30,000 killed [Josephus:JA20.5.3,JW2.12.1] 50: Christian Church erected at Philippi in northern Greece 50?: Peshitta begun, a translation of Hebrew Scriptures to Syrian Aramaic 52-60: M. Antonius Felix, Roman Procurator of Iudaea, a Greek freedman 54-68: Nero, b.37, (Claudius poisoned by his wife Agrippina), emperor of Rome 55?: Felix kills Egyptian prophet planning to take Jerusalem [Josephus/Ac21] 57: Paul's last visit to Jerusalem [Acts21] 58?: Felix crushes Jewish revolt in Caesarea 58: Paul arrested, imprisoned in Caesarea [Acts25:4ff] 58: Ming-Ti, emperor of China, introduces Buddhism to China 59: Nero kills his mother Agrippina 60-62: Porcius Festus, Roman Procurator of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, Idumea) 60: Paul imprisoned in Rome [Acts28:16ff] 62: Paul martyred for treason in Rome 62: "James, brother of Jesus who is called Christ, stoned to death" [Josephus] 62: Jesus the Rustic, proclaims "... a voice against Jerusalem ..." [Josephus] 62: Nero kills wife Octavia, marries Poppaea Sabina 62-64: Lucceius Albinus, Roman Procurator of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, Idumea) 64: 1st recorded Roman persecution of Christians (as a distinct sect by name) 64-66: Gessius Florus, Roman Procurator of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, Idumea), a Greek from Asia Minor, raids Temple, sets off Jewish rebellion of 66-70 65-70: Gospel of Mark, Peter's interpreter? [1Pt5:13], written in Rome? 65-70?: Q?, (German: Quelle: Source), hypothetical source used in Matt & Luke 66-70: Roman-Jewish War, final destruction of Second Temple, (Herod's Temple) 67: Peter, 1st Pope?, bishop of Antioch & Rome?, martyred (crucified?) in Rome 67-78: Linus becomes second (first?) Pope [2Tm4:21?] 68: Nero commits suicide 68: Qumran (Essenes?) community destroyed, see 200BCE 69: Galba(6/68-1/69), Otho(1-4), Vitellius(6-12), emperors in series of Rome 69-79: Vespasian, emperor of Rome 70-150: Gospel redaction and compilation stage of Christianity, post-Paul, center of Christianity shifts from Corinth to Rome: "New Babylon" [1Pt5:13] 71?: "The Jewish War", [JW], by Josephus (100), written in Greek 73: Jewish fortress at Masada falls to Rome, residents commit mass suicide 79: Pliny the Elder, b.23, died in Vesuvius erupt., wrote a history of Essenes 79-81: Titus, emperor of Rome 79-91: Pope Anacletus, "blameless?", Titus 1:7? 80: Gospel of Matthew, most popular in early church, based on Mark and Q? 80?: Council of Jamnia said to have canonized Jewish Scripture, discredited 81-96: Domitian, emperor of Rome 90: Gospel of Luke, based on Mark and Q?, also Acts (same author,style of LXX) 90?: Josephus claims exactly 22 Jewish books: 5 Law, 13 History, 4 Hymns 91-101: Pope Clement I, Phil 4:3?, "Letters of Clement" 94: "Jewish Antiquities", by Josephus in Aramaic, trans. to Grk., Testimonium Flavianum: "At this time there appeared Jesus, a wise man. For he was a doer of startling deeds, a teacher of people who receive the truth with pleasure. And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many of Greek ori- gin. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him previously did not cease to do so. And up until this very day the tribe of Christians (named after him) has not died out." [JA18.3.3 redacted: Marginal Jew, Meier, p.61] 96-98: Nerva, emperor of Rome 98-116: Trajan, emperor of Rome, Roman empire reaches maximum size 100: Fourth Ezra written, claims 24 Jewish books 100: Gospel of John, only eyewitness account? by the disciple Jesus loved? 100: Romans build aqueduct using Roman Arch (semicircle) at Segovia, Spain 100?: Flavius Josephus, b. 37, Jewish general, turncoat, historian, Hellenist 101-109-116-125: Pope Evaristus, Pope Alexander I, Pope Sixtus I 110: Letters of Ignatius, bishop of Antioch, attracts many Christian fakes 112: Pliny the Younger, b. 61, Roman consul and author, Letter 10.96 114: "The Golden Ass", Apuleius, Roman satirist 115: Lucian of Samosata, "The Passing of Peregrinus" - satire of Christianity 117-138: Hadrian, emperor of Rome, builds wall across Britain 118: Tacitus, Publius Cornelius, b. 55?, Roman historian, "Annals": "There- fore, to squelch the rumor {that Nero had started the Great Fire of Rome}, Nero created scapegoats and subjected to the most refined tortures those whom the common people called "Christians," [a group] hated for their abomi- nable crimes. Their name comes from Christ, who, during the reign of Tiberi- us, had been executed by the procurator Pontius Pilate. Suppressed for the moment, the deadly superstition broke out again, not only in Judea, the land which originated this evil, but also in the city of Rome, where all sorts of horrendous and shameful practices from every part of the world converge and are fervently cultivated." [Ref: A15.44, Marginal Jew, Meier, p.89-90] 120?: The Unknown Gospel, published 1935 120-200?: The Egerton Gospel fragments, pub. 1935, 1987, written in Palestine 120-138: Papias, bishop of Hierapolis, claims that John the Elder, a disciple of Jesus, told him that Mark "was the interpreter of Peter and wrote down carefully what he remembered of what had been said or done by the Lord, but not in the right order." Also claims that "Matthew composed the sayings in Hebrew [more likely Aramaic] and each one translated them as he could." [Ref: Eusebius' Ecc. His. 3.39.15, Unauthorized Version, Fox, p.126-127] 120: Plutarch, b.47, Greek historian 125: earliest existing fragment of NT, papyrus fragment P52 of Gospel of John 125-136: Pope Telesphorus, martyred 130: Gospel of Basilides (lost), 24 book commentary? 132: Akiva ben Joseph, b. 50?, Jewish religious leader 132-135: Bar Kokhbah revolt, final Jewish revolt, Judea and Jerusalem erased from maps, all of southern Syria renamed Palestine [coined by Herodotus] 138-161: Antoninus Pius, emperor of Rome 138-142-155-166: Pope Hyginus, Pope Pius I, Pope Anicetus 138?: Suetonius, b.69?, Roman historian, "Claudius25.4", "Lives of 12 Caesars" 140: Letters of Marcion, heavily edits Gospels to suit theology based on Luke 150?: Didache or Teachings of the Twelve Apostles, early Christian teachings 150?: Gospel of Thomas, based on Q? (65-70), pub. 1959, Greek originals: POxy1,654-5; 'Jesus said, "If your leaders say to you, 'Look, the imperial rule is in the sky,' then the birds of the sky will precede you. If they say to you, 'It is in the sea,' then the fish will precede you. Rather, the imperial rule is within you and it is outside you. When you know yourselves, then you will be known, and you will understand that you are children of the living Father. But if you do not know yourselves, then you live in poverty, and you are the poverty."' -Th3(SV), cf. Mk13:21-23; Mt24:23-28;Lk17:20-25;Jb28:12-14,20-22(LXX);Bar3:29-32,35-37;Dt30:11-14(LXX) ;Sir1:1-3 'His disciples said to him, "When will the rest for the dead take place, and when will the new world come?" He said to them, "What you are looking forward to has come, but you don't know it."' -Th51(SV), cf. Mt11:28 -29;DSav65-68;Sir51:26-27,6:23-31;Lk17:20-21;Mk9:12-13;Mt17:11;2Tm2:17-18 'His disciples said to him, "When will the imperial rule come?" "It will not come by watching for it. It will not be said, 'Look, here!' or 'Look, there!' Rather, the Father's imperial rule is spread out upon the earth, and people don't see it."' -Th113(SV) || Lk17:20-21; cf. Mary4:4-5; Mk13:21;Mt24:23;Lk17:23 [Ref: The Complete Gospels, ISBN:0-944344-30-5] 150?: Secret Book of James,Dialogue o/t Savior,Gospel of Mary,Gospel of Peter 150?: Infancy Gospel of Thomas, Infancy Gospel of James 150?: The Secret Gospel (of Mark) fragments, pub. 1973, written in Alexandria 150?: Justin Martyr's (165) "Dialogue with Trypho", a Christian-Jewish debate 150-350?: "Jewish-Christian Gospels": (fragments only) Gospel of the Nazarenes is an Aramaic paraphrase (targum) of Matthew, 7 fragments of Gospel of the Ebionites in Greek, 7 fragments of Gospel of the Hebrews in Greek 150?: Claudius Ptolemy of Alexandria, Greek astronomer and geographer 161-180: Marcus Aurelius, emperor of Rome 164-180: Great Plague in Roman empire 165: Letters of Justin Martyr, cites "Acts of Pilate", debates Trypho the Jew 166-174: Pope Soter, moved Easter from Nisan 14 (Passover) to following Sunday 170: Letters of Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, claims Christians were changing and faking his own letters just as [he knew] they had changed the Gospels 170: Letters of Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons 170: a Christian claims 25 Jewish (OT) books from Palestinian informants 170: Tatian produces "Harmony," a blending of the four Gospels into one 170: Christian council on Montanist sect in Asia Minor 174-189: Pope Eleutherius 178: Celsus writes "True Discourse", a pro-Pagan/anti-Christian polemic, lost 180-192: Commodus, emperor of Rome 189-198: Pope Victor I, first Latin Pope, excommunicated Eastern churches that continued to observe Easter on Nisan 14 "Quartodeciman", (see 166, 190) 190: Christian council to determine official date of Easter 193-211: Septimius Severus, emperor of Rome 198-217-222-230: Pope Zephyrinus, Pope Callistus I, Pope Urban I 200: Mishnah, Torah teachings, from Halakhah Oral Law, Hillel/Akiva/Meir/Judah 200: Bishop of Antioch writes: Gospel of Peter (150?) being used in Cilicia 200: period of Neo-Platonism, developed in Alex., last of Greek philosophies 201?: Claudius Galen, b. 130?, Greek anatomist, physician and author 212-217: Geta then Caracalla, emperor of Rome 212: "Civis Romanus sum!", Roman citizenship for every free born subject 215: Letters of Clement, bishop of Alexandria, b. 150, cites Gospel of the Egyptians and Secret Gospel of Mark (150), wrote "Stromateis" ... 217: Judah Ha-Nasi, "Rabbi", codified Mishnah (200) 217-236: Letters of Hippolytus, anti-Pope, bishop of Rome, "Logos" sect 218-222: Heliogabalus, emperor of Rome 220: Letters of Tertullian, "De spectaculis 30.6:" Jesus son of prostitute 220: Goths invade Asia Minor and Balkans 222-235: Alexander Severus, emperor of Rome 230-236-237-250: Pope Pontian, Pope Anterus, Pope Fabian 230-250: Christian council of Rome, Demetrius bishop of Alex. condemns Origen 236-238: Maximinus, emperor of Rome, ends Christian schism in Rome by deport- ing Pope Pontian and anti-Pope Hippolytus to Sardinia where they soon die 238-244: Gordian I, II, Balbinus, Pupienus, Gordian III, emperors of Rome 240-250: Christian council of Carthage 244-249: Philip the Arabian, emperor of Rome 248: Origen (254) writes "Contra Celsus", against Celsus' lost work of 178, cites a rumor recorded by Celsus: "Jesus fabricated the account of his birth from a virgin. In reality, Jesus' mother was driven out by the carpenter husband to whom she was betrothed because she had committed adultery with a [Roman] soldier named Panthera [thus the ben Pantere of Jewish sources]. Left poor and homeless, she gave birth to Jesus in secret. Jesus later spent time in Egypt, where he hired himself out as a laborer, learned magic, and so came to claim the title of God." [CC1.28-32, Marginal Jew, Meier, p. 223] 248: Rome celebrates 1,000th anniversary, see 753BCE 249-251: Decius, emperor of Rome 250: Chester Beatty Papyrus (P45), early Bible of "Caesarean" text-type 250: Letters of Methodius, bishop of Olympus 250: Rome steps up persecution of Christians, martyrs revered as saints 250: Diophantus of Alexandria, first book of algebra 250?: Letters of Pistis Sophia, Porphyry Tyrius? 251-253: Gallus, emperor of Rome 251-253-254: Pope Cornelius, Pope Lucius I 251-258: Letters of Novatian, anti-Pope and founder of Novatianists who taught that there was no forgiveness for serious sins after baptism 253-260: Valerian, emperor of Rome, executes all Bishops, Priests and Deacons 254-257: Pope Stephen I, major schism over rebaptizing heretics and apostates 254: Letters of Origen, b.185?, coined "homoousios" or Jesus and God of one substance, adopted at Council of Nicaea in 325, compiled "Hexapla", Eusebius (340) writes (EH6.8.1-3): Origen castrated himself for Christ due to Mt19:12 257-258: Pope Sixtus II, martyred 257: Visigoths and Ostrogoths invade Black Sea area, Franks invade Spain 258: Letters of Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, claims Christian letter faking 260-268: Gallienus, emperor of Rome, reverses Valerian, restores Roman church 260-268: Pope Dionysius, rebuilds Roman church after Valerian's massacre 264-268: Christian council on Paul of Samosata, bishop of Antioch, founder of Adoptionism: Jesus was human until Holy Spirit descended at his baptism 264: Letters of Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria 268: Goths sack Athens, Sparta, Corinth 268-270: Claudius II, emperor of Rome 269-274: Pope Felix I 270-275: Aurelian, emperor of Rome, "restitutor orbis" 271: compass invented in China 275-283: Pope Eutychian, decreed that only beans and grapes be blessed at Mass 276-282: Marcus Aurelius Probus, emperor of Rome 276: Mani, b.215, crucified, founder of Manichaean Christian sect in Persia 282-283: Marcus Aurelius Carus, emperor of Rome 283-296: Pope Gaius 284-305: Diocletian, emperor of Rome, notorious persecutor of Christians 285: Roman empire partitioned into western and eastern empires 285: Pappus of Alex. describes 5 machines: cogwheel/lever/pulley/screw/wedge 296-304: Pope Marcellinus, apostate, offered pagan sacrifice for Diocletian 303-311: last persecution of Christians in Rome 304: Letters of Victor, bishop of Pettau 306-337: Constantine the Great, reunites empire in 312, Christian convert 306-312: Maxentius, emperor of Western Roman Empire 306-308: Pope Marcellus I, tried removing prior Pope Marcellinus from official records for apostasy, exiled from Rome by Maxentius for disturbing the peace 310: Pope Eusebius, deported to Sicily with anti-Pope Heraclius by Maxentius 311-314: Pope Miltiades, Constantine gives Fausta's palace as papal residence 312: Constantine defeats Maxentius at Milvian Bridge, reunites Roman Empire 313: Edict of Milan, Constantine establishes toleration of Christianity 313: Miltiades excommunicates Donatus for requiring rebaptism of apostates 314-335: Pope Silvester I 314: Council of Arles, called by Constantine against Donatist (Donatus) schism 317: Letters of Lactantius 321: Constantine decrees Sunday as official Roman-Christian day of rest 325: Council of Nicaea, called by Constantine against Arianism (336), called "first great Christian council" by Jerome, 1st ecumenical,318 bishops attend 325-900: Teotihuacan, ancient Mexican city 331: seat of Roman empire moved to Constantinople (former Greek Byzantium) 336-337-352-366: Pope Mark, Pope Julius I, Pope Liberius 336: Arius, Greek theologian, b.256?, Arianism: Jesus was a created being 337-350: Roman Empire splits again: Constans emperor of West until 350 337-361: Roman Empire splits again: Constantius II emperor of East until 361 338: Jewish calender modified with different year lengths to correct to Solar 340?: Eusebius of Caesarea, b. 260?, "Eccles. History", theologian, historian 350: Codex Sinaiticus (S or 'Aleph'), Codex Vaticanus (B), earliest Christian Bibles, known as the "Alexandrian Text": considered most accurate text-type 355-365: anti-Pope Felix II, Arianism (336), supported by Constantius II 360: Huns invade Europe, scrolls begin to be replaced by books (Codex) 361-363: Emperor Julian the Apostate [catchy name] attempts to revive Paganism 366-384: Pope Damasus I, hires thugs to massacre rival Ursinians (Liberians) 366-367: anti-Pope Ursinus, leader of supporters of former Pope Liberius 367: Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria cites exactly 27 books of NT 370: Epiphanius, bishop of Salamis, Cyprus; cites 27 NT b. + Wisdom of Solomon 375: Parable of the Adulterous Woman, Jn7:53-8:11, added to Bible 379-395: Theodosius the Great, last emperor of united empire, stops Olympics 380: 27Feb, Christianity declared official state religion by Theodosius 381: Council of Theodosius at Const., 2nd ecumenical,Jesus had true human soul 383: Roman legions begin to evacuate Britain 384-399-401: Pope Siricius, (criticized Jerome); Pope Anastasius I 390: Apollinaris of Laodicea, b. 310, Jesus had human body but divine spirit 393,397: Augustine's [see 430] Councils, cites exactly 27 books of NT 396: Alaric, king of the Visigoths, plunders Athens 400: Vulgate Bible (Hebrew OT->Latin, Greek NT->Latin), by Jerome (340?-420?), Vulgate Latin Text becomes standard Western Christian Bible 400: Palestinian Talmud [Mishnah and Gemara (Mishnah commentary)] 400-600: Era of 'aggressive forgeries' in Christian texts 401-417: Pope Innocent I, decreed Roman custom the norm for Christianity 401: Visigoths invade Italy 410: Alaric, king of the Visigoths, sacks Rome 410: beginnings of Alchemy 416: Visigoths take Spain 417-418-422-432: Pope Zosimus, Pope Boniface I, Pope Celestine I 418-419: anti-Pope Eulalius 418: Franks take Gaul 429: Picts and Scots expelled from southern England by Anglo-Saxon-Jutes 430: Augustine, b. 354, origin of "Original Sin," church father & philosopher 431: Council of Ephesus;3rd ecumenical;declared Mary:Mother of God [Theotokos] 432-440-461-468: Pope Sixtus III, Pope Leo I, Pope Hilarus 432: St. Patrick begins mission in Ireland 433-453: Attila the Hun, b. 406?, "Scourge of the Gods" 439: Codex Theodosianus, a compilation of Roman Law 450: Mark's Resurrection of Jesus, v.16:9-20 added to Bible 450: Codex Alexandrinus (A), early Christian Bible of Alexandrian text-type 450: Codex Bezae (D), early Christian Bible in Greek and Latin, Codex Washing- tonianus(W) in Greek, both of "Western" text-type: "fondness for paraphrase" 451: Council of Chalcedon, 4th ecumenical, declared Jesus is 2 natures, both human and divine, in one; a compromise solution of Jesus god/man schisms 451: Nestorius of Constantinople, Nestorians: Mary was *not* "Mother of God" 454: Eutyches of Constantinople, Monophysites: Jesus was divine but not human 455: Vandals sack Rome [it was becoming the thing to do] 457-474: Pope Leo I becomes emperor of remaining (eastern) Roman empire 468-483-492: Pope Simplicius, Pope Felix III 470: flowering of Mayan city culture in southern Mexico 474-491: Zeno, eastern Roman emperor 476: official end of western Roman empire, last emperor Romulus Augustulus 478: first Shinto shrines in Japan 483-492: Pope Felix III 484-519: Acacian schism over "Henoticon" divides Western and Eastern churches 489: Zeno destroys Nestorian(451) school at Edessa, erects Church of St.Simeon 491: Armenian Church secedes from East (Byzantium) and West (Rome) churches 491-518: Anastasius I, eastern Roman emperor 492-496-498: Pope Gelasius I [1st 'Vicar of Christ'], Pope Anastasius II 498: Nestorians (451) settle in Nisibis, Persia 498-514-523-526: Pope Symmachus, Pope Hormisdas, Pope John I 498-506: anti-Pope Lawrence, Lawrentian schism 500: incense introduced in Christian church service, first plans of Vatican 500: Tamo brings tea from India to China 502: Narsai of Mealletha, Syrian poet, heads Nestorian school in Nisibis(498) 518-527: Justin I, emperor of Byzantine (former eastern Roman) empire 525: Dionysius Exiguus, sets std. years (BC/AD), set Jesus' birth: 23Dec1CE 526-530-532-535: Pope Felix IV, Pope Boniface II, Pope John II 527-565: Justinian the Great, Byzantine emperor 529: Justinian closes 1000yr Athen's School of Philosophy, declared Paganistic 530: anti-Pope Dioscorus 533: N. Africa captured by Belisarius from Vandals, becomes Byzantine province 534-870: Malta becomes Byzantine province 535-536-537: Pope Agapitus I, Pope Silverius 537-555: Pope Vigilius, involved in death of Pope Silverius, conspired with Justinian and Theodora, excommunicated by N. African bishops in 550 ... 539-562: war between Byzantine Empire and Persia 542: plague in Constantinople from Egyptian and Syrian rats, spreads to Europe 543: Justinian condemns Origen (254), disastrous earthquakes hit the world 544: Justinian condemns the "3 Chapters" of Theodore of Mopsuestia (d.428) and other writings of "2-natures" Christology of Council of Chalcedon (451) 547: Pope Vigilius issues "Iudicatum" supporting Justinian's anti- "2-natures" 547: plague, medically described by Gildas, reaches Britain 550: Byzantine Greek Text, standard Eastern Bible, much smoothing, conflation 550: St. David converts Wales to Christianity, crucifix becomes Christian icon 552: Emperor Shotoko Taishi introduces Buddhism into Japan 552: Justinian sends Christian missionaries to China & Ceylon to get silkworm 553: silk industry monopoly established in Byzantine empire 555: 2nd Council of Constantinople, 5th ecumenical, called by Justinian 556-561: Pope Pelagius I, selected by Justianian, endorsed "Iudicatum" (547) 561-574: Pope John III, authorized by Justianian 565-578: Justin II, Byzantine emperor 572-628: war between Byzantine Empire and Persia 575-579: Pope Benedict I, authorized by Justin II 578-582: Tiberius II, Byzantine emperor 579-590: Pope Pelagius II, died of plague 582-602: Maurice, Byzantine emperor 587: Visigoths of Spain converted to Christianity 589: Lombards of Italy converted to Christianity 590: plague in Rome 590-604: Pope Gregory I 594: end of plague which began in 542 and *halved* the population of Europe! 595: 1st authenticated record of decimal number system [0-9] appears in India 596: St. Augustine of Canterbury sent to convert Britain to Christianity 600: Babylonian Talmud [Mishnah and Gemara (Mishnah commentary)], Ashi 600: Antara ibn Shaddad, one of seven great Islamic poets 600: Pope Gregory "strives" to convert the Jews to Christianity 600: book printing in China 602-610: Phocas, kills Maurice, becomes Byzantine emperor 604-606-607-615: Popes Sabinian, Boniface III, Boniface IV, author. by Phocas 606: standard examinations for public office in China 609: Roman Pantheon (a Pagan Temple) renamed Church of Santa Maria Rotonda 610-641: Heraclius, kills Phocas, becomes Byzantine emperor 610: Muhammad's vision on Mount Hira 614: Persians take Damascus and Jerusalem and "Holy Cross of Christ" 615: earliest records of some of Muhammad's teachings 615-618: Pope Deusdedit 616: Persians take Egypt 619-625: Pope Boniface V, authorized by Heraclius 619: "Suan-Ching", ten classics, textbooks used for Chinese exams (606) 622: year one in Muslim calendar, The Hegira 622-680: Monothelite controversy, condemned at 6th Ecum. Council of Const. 624: Muhammad marries Aisha, daughter of Abu Bekr 625-638: Pope Honorius I 625: Paulinus of Rome comes to convert Northumbria to Christianity 625: Muhammad begins dictation of Qur'an (Koran) to his scribe 625: Brahmagupta, mathematician of India, teaches at Ujjain 626: King Edwin of Northumbria founds Edinburgh and begins Christianization 627: Byzantines defeat Persians at Nineveh, discover Indian sugar cane 628: Emperor Heraclius wins back "Cross of Christ" from Persians (614) 628: Muhammad captures Mecca & writes to rulers of the world explaining Islam 629: Heraclius recovers Jerusalem from Persians 629: Pope Honorius I sides with Emperor Heraclius and Monothelites (622) 632: East Anglia Christianized 632: Muhammad, b. 570?, Arab prophet and founder of Islam 632: Abu Bekr, first Islamic Caliph, seat at Medina 634: Omar I, second Caliph, takes Syria, Persia, Egypt; defeats Heraclius of Byzantium in "Holy War" 635: Christianization of Wessex 635-750: Damascus becomes capital of Islamic Caliphs 636: Southern Irish Church submits to Roman Catholicism 637: Jerusalem captured by Islam 638: Emp. Heraclius' "Ecthesis", decrees Christ of one nature: "Monothelites" 640: Pope Severinus 640: Library of Alexandria, "The Center of Western Culture," with 300,000 ancient papyrus scrolls, is completely destroyed. Since you got this far, here's another little factoid: BCE: 483: Heracleitus, b. 544, Greek philosopher, coined "logos" [word] as 3-fold: order creator; order sustainer; rationality expressed as written language

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