Here's my latest BCE timeline update, see if you can spot the Greeks. BCE [Before Conversi

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From: pharvey@quack.kfu.com (Paul Harvey) Message-ID: Here's my latest BCE timeline update, see if you can spot the Greeks. BCE [Before Conversion Era]: 10,000: Neolithic Age, (domestication of plants and animals, the earth and even human beings, i.e. "civilized man"), begins in Mesopotamia, SE Asia, and Mexico; Ice Age glaciers retreat, Mediterranean climate, (dry summer), develops in Med/Cali/SW Aus/Chile/S.Af; deserts appear in subtropics 8000: Copper Age begins in Middle East, hybrid wheats develop 7000: Jericho first walled and tower built with flint tools 5000: copper extraction from ores in Persia and Afghanistan, earliest Mesopotamian cities, Egyptian calender of 12 months, 30 days each 4000: Bronze Age begins in Middle East, earliest Sumerian writing on clay, White pottery in Egypt, Multi-colored ceramics in Central Asia and China 3500: Egypt united under King Menes the Fighter, Egyptian numerals, Sumerian Cuneiform, Sumerian temple of Janna at Eridu, temple at Al Ubaid and tomb of Mes-Kalam-Dug near Ur of the Chaldees, White temple at Uruk, Linen 3000-2500: Semitic tribes occupy Assyria, Phoenicians at Tyre and Sidon, earliest settlements at Crete, height of Danubian culture, Chinese "Sage Kings", Mis-anni-padda King of Ur - first Mesopotamian ruler, Pepi's papyrus "Instructions to a Son", Earliest Egyptian Pharaohs, Troy, Cheops Pyramid and Great Sphinx at Gizeh, beginning of systematic astronomical observations in Egypt/Babylonia/India/China, Great Wall of Uruk, Sumerian base 6 and 12 numeral systems, Sumerian metal coins; wheel, horse, chariot developed in central Asia 2772: Egyptian 365 day calender without adjustments 2750: Gilgamesh king of Uruk, "Gilgamesh built the walls" - Epic of Gilgamesh 2500-2000: first Egyptian libraries, snake/bull cult in Minoan Crete, Isis and Osiris (resurrection) cult in Egypt, Ishtar in Babylonia, painted and black pottery in China, Chinese 5-tone music scale, Map of Babylonia, Chinese determine equinoxes and solstices and develop variable solar/lunar calender, foundation of Memphis, cotton cultivation in Peru 2500: date of iron tool found stuck in an Egyptian pyramid 2500-2300: Yao dynasty of China 2500-1500: Indus valley civilization in India: Mohenjo Daro, Harappa 2400-2350: Lugalzaggisi, king of Uruk, "King of the Countries" 2350-2100: Sargon, first Akkadian king, "King of the Four Quarters" 2300-2205: Shun dynasty of China 2300: earliest named author, woman Enheduana writes Sumerian temple hymns 2350: town of Ai destroyed and abandoned [Hebrew 'ay:H5857 implies 'a ruin'] 2200-1700: Egypt defeated and ruled by Hyksos, "Shepherd Kings" 2200-525: Dynasty of Pharaohs in Egypt 2200-1760: First Hsai dynasty of China 2000-1500: Hittite Empire of Asia Minor, Jomon people settle in Japan, Hammurabi king of Babylonia and law giver including fees for eye surgery, Cecrops first king of Attica Greece, Egyptian alphabet of 24 signs, oldest novel "Story of Sinuhe" in Egypt, Semitic alphabet, Marduk god of Babylon, Stonehenge, Egyptian Book of the Dead, Thutmose I builds first tomb in Valley of Kings in Egypt, Oldest Palace at Mycenae, First Palace of Minos at Cnossus Crete, Babylonian signs of the Zodiac, Egyptians use knotted ropes to make 3-4-5 and other right triangles, Cretan decimal system, polished marble water dam in India, Edwin Smith Papyrus describes medicine and surgery, four basic elements earth/air/fire/water in India 2000: horse riders appear from central Asia: Scythians, Centaurs, Satyrs 2000-600: first of seven periods of Chinese literature 1887-1849: Sesostris III of Egypt invades Canaan 1766-1122: China united in Shang dynasty 1750-550: Persian Empire 1570-1200: Amosis I (1570-45) liberates Egypt from Hyksos, begins "New Kingdom" 1500-1000: Phrygians migrate from Thrace to Asia Minor, Chiapa de Carzo in Mexico, Phoenicians reach Malta, King Shalmaneser I of Assyria founds Nimrud, Ethiopia becomes independent nation, Dorians conquer Peloponnesus, Medon first Archon abolishes monarchy in Athens, Rig-Veda of India, Early Greek alphabet Linear-B at Cnossus, Hittite library has tablets in eight languages, first Chinese dictionary, height of Mycenaean culture at Crete, Ganges civilization in India, "Cleopatra's Needle" obelisk, Mexican Sun Pyramid at Teotihuacan, Mexican Olmec culture, Mural in Thebes of female musicians, Egyptian water flow meter in tomb of Amenhotep III, Magic Squares & Permutations & right triangle formulas in China; Height of sun in relation to incline of polar axis measured in China, Kikkuli of Mitanni writes treatise on horse training and breeding, Corinth founded, Egypt regulates sale of beer, Silk in China, Phoenicians mine tin for Bronze in England 1500: iron age begun by Hittites near Black Sea,"metal from heaven": meteorites 1490-1436: Thutmosis III of Egypt, conquers and annexes Canaan and Syria 1439-1406: Amenophis II of Egypt, 3 military campaigns in Asia [Canaan & Syria] 1406-1398: Thutmosis IV of Egypt, "Conqueror of Haru [Canaan & Syria]" 1369-1353: Akhenaten of Egypt, first Monotheist, "Hymns to Aton", Ps118:22-23? 1353-1342: Tutankhamen of Egypt, Akhenaten's Monotheism is rejected 1308-1290: Seti I of Egypt, military campaigns into Canaan 1300: Lion Gate of Mycenae built, ancient site of Jericho abandoned 1300?: 1st wave of Hebrew invasion of Canaan from Kadesh-barnea by Joshua, Nm33 1290-1224: Rameses II of Egypt, time of the Hebrew [Egyptian: `Apiru?] Exodus? 1285: Battle of Kadesh, Egypt v. Hittites, Hittites advance south to Damascus 1269: peace treaty between Rameses II of Egypt and Hattusilis III the Hittite, Egyptian bases at Damascus and Sumur on coast, Hittites just north in Syria 1250-1200: Lachish, Kirjath-sepher/Debir, Eglon, Hazor, Bethel destroyed 1250?: 2nd wave of Hebrew invasion of Canaan from Kadesh-barnea by Leah tribes 1224-1214: Pharaoh Merneptah, plunders Canaan, defeats Askelon, captures Gezer, annihilates Yanoam, (a town just south of Lake Galilee): "Israel [male gender, a tribe not a land] is laid waste and his seed is not.", earliest known reference to Israel, [Unauthorized Version, Fox, p.225-226] 1220: Philistines (The Sea Peoples) attack Egyptian western Delta 1214-1198: period of anarchy in Egypt, perhaps invasion from north? Jg3:3-10? 1200: Epic of Gilgamesh written in Uruk, Babylon (see 2750) 1200: domestication of camel, fully nomadic Arabian desert tribes flourish 1200: Hittite empire mysteriously disappears [Philistines?] 1198-1166: Rameses III of Egypt, last period of Egyptian influence in Canaan 1187: Rameses III records battles against raiding Philistines in Canaan 1193: Troy 6 (Ilion) destroyed, (Homer's Trojan War?) (Philistines?) 1146-1123: Nebuchadnezzar I king of Babylon 1125?: Battle of Deborah, Israel v. Canaan, key battle for Hebrews, [Judg4,5] 1114-1076: Tiglath-pileser I of Assyria conquers Babylon but prevented from entering Syria by Arameans who control and occupy Syria at this time 1050?: Philistines settled in Gaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod, Gath and Ekron 1050?: Philistines defeat Hebrews in battle of Aphek, Shiloh sacked, [1S4 ...] 1006-1004: Saul first king of Israel [1Sm11:15], defeated by Philistines 1004-965: King David of united Israel, capital/fortress Jerusalem, Ark of Covenant, gains control of "King's Highway" trade route from Damascus to Edom, trades with Phoenicians at Tyre and Sidon, quells internal revolts ... 10th: Ionians exiled from Greece to Asia Minor where they found 12 cities including Miletus and Ephesus, Beijing China founded, Chinese script fully developed, Hebrew alphabet developed: Song of Deborah [Judges5], Song of Miriam [Exo15:1-18] and Song of Songs earliest Hebrew lit., Greek script based on old Semitic-Phoenician + vowels, Classical Greek Paganism, brush and ink painting in China, Temple of Hera in Olympia Greece, steel being made in India, India develops 360 day year with adjustment to true solar year, Chinese textbook of Math, Chaldeans use water filled cube to measure time, weight and length 965-928: King Solomon, builds Jerusalem Temple, height of Israeli culture, a reign of peace, establishes control of Via Maris 'Sea Road' trade route along coast through Philistia, builds leading trade state between Egypt and Asia Minor, marries daughter of Pharaoh, establishes spice trade with Queen of Sheba, sea route from Ezion-geber on Red Sea to Ophir Africa, mines ... 950: "Ten Commandments," or Decalogue written in Israel (Northern Kingdom) 945: Shishak of Egypt, hostile to Israel, harbors rebel Jeroboam & seeds split 928: united Israel splits into Israel and Judah; Ammon, Moab, Edom independent 928-917: Rehoboam I king of Judah (Southern Kingdom, 2 tribes: Judah/Benjamin) 928-907: Jeroboam I king of Israel (Northern Kingdom, 10 tribes) 923: Shishak of Egypt sacks 150 cities of Israel and Judah [1K14:25], Jerusalem spared after Rehoboam pays tribute of Temple and Palace treasures 917-908: Abijam king of Judah, son of Rehoboam, campaigns against N. Kingdom 908-867: Asa king of Judah 907-906: King Nadab of Northern Kingdom, son of Jeroboam 906-883: Baasha ben Ahijah kills entire Jeroboam family, king of N. Kingdom 884-859: Ashur-nasirpal II king of Assyria 883: Ben-hadad of Damascus sacks N. Kingdom for Asa king of Judah [1K15:17-20] 882-871: Omri king of Northern Kingdom, alliance with Judah and Tyre 879: Omri builds Samaria as capital of Northern Kingdom (Beth-Omri) 871-852: Ahab king of Northern Kingdom, son of Omri, regains King's Highway, marries Jezebel (daughter of king of Tyre) who introduces cult of Melqart the Baal of Tyre into Northern Kingdom, erects temple to Melqart in Samaria 859-824: Shalmaneser III king of Assyria 853: Battle of Qarqar, Assyria v. Syrian alliance which includes Ahab and wins 851-842: Jehoram king of Northern Kingdom, son of Ahab 850?: Homer, Greek epic poet, (probably pseudonym), Iliad and Odyssey 849,848,845: Assyria continues campaign agaist Syrian alliance 842: Jehu, a general, (aided by Elisha the prophet), king of N. Kingdom, kills Jehoram, Jezebel, Ahaziah king of Judah, all Ahab's offspring and all followers of Baal cult, destroys Baal temple in Samaria [2K9] 841: beginning of verified Chinese historical chronology 814: Hazael of Syria (Aram) takes Ammon/Moab/Edom; threatens Israel and Judah 814-800: Jehoahaz king of Northern Kingdom, son of Jehu 8th: Greeks settle on Spanish coast, found Messina and Syracuse in Sicily, Etruscans enter Italy, "Book of Songs" - Chinese poetry, Egyptian fable "Battle between Head and Belly", Syria adopts Aramaic, Greek poet Hesiod writes "Theogony" (creation story) "Works and Days" "Shield of Heracles" and names the nine Muses, a woman as high priest at Thebes, Apollo worshiped at Delphi, Spartan Laws of Lycurgus, Babylonian 5 and 7 tone scales, first Roman king Romulus develops 10 month calender, Chinese perfect art of precision bronze casting 798-769: Amaziah king of Judah, regains Edom, looses war with Israel, 2K14:7-21 796: Adad-nirara III (810-782) of Assyria sacks Damascus, Syria [2K13:5] 785: King Joash of N. Kingdom (800-784) sacks Jerusalem, raids Temple 2K14:7-21 784-748: Jeroboam II, son of Joash, last important ruler of Northern Kingdom 784-733: Uzziah, prince-regent then king of Judah, son of Amaziah [2Chr26] 776: first recorded Olympic Games, perhaps as early as 1350, women excluded 775: (E) Elowist source of Gn/Ex written in Northern Kingdom 775: first authenticated date in Chinese history, Solar eclipse on Sept 6th 753: Rome founded, year one in Roman calender: A.U.C. = ab urbe condita 750: Hosea, Amos, Micah; written in Northern Kingdom 750: (J) Yahwist source of Gn/Ex/Lv/Nm written in Judah, Gn2:5 ... 745-727: Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria, becomes dominant power in Near East 730-700: Hesiod, Greek poet, first Greek on origins of gods 732: Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria captures and occupies Damascus, Syria transformed into an Assyrian province, likewise Galilee becomes Magiddu 727-722: Shalmaneser V, king of Assyria, son of Tiglath-pileser III 727-698: Hezekiah king of Judah 722: Northern Kingdom Israel and capital Samaria fall to Shalmaneser V of Assyria. [2K17:3-6] All Jews are expelled and a new nation is formed called Samerina. These are the "lost tribes", "lost sheep" as Jesus later refers to. 720: Sargon of Assyria quells rebellion in Samaria, recaptures Syro-Palestine 715-672: Numa Pompilius 2nd king of Rome adds Jan/Feb to Romulus' 10mon calen. 705: Sargon killed in battle, mass rebellion throughout Assyrian empire 705-681: King Sennacherib of Assyria 702: Sennacherib of Assyria regains control of Babylon 701: Sennacherib sacks Jerusalem then quickly retreats [2K18:13-19:37,I36-37] 7th: core of Isaiah written, (Isaiah was 8th century Hebrew prophet), Indian Vedas completed, Greeks worship Apollo/Dionysus, golden age of divination in Assyria, first Doric columns in Peloponnesus, first Ionic columns on Samos, Athenian Acropolis begun, temple to Marduk (Tower of Babel?) begun in Babylon, King Assurbanipal builds famous library of 22,000 clay tablets, Glaucus of Chios invents soldering of iron, Pharaoh Nechos starts canal between Nile and Red Sea, King Sennacherib first recorded alpinist, coins in Lydia made of electrum: a gold-silver alloy 700-200: second period of Chinese literature 690-638: Manassseh king of Judah, sacrificed his son to Molech ... [2K21:2-7] 689: Sennacherib destroys Babylon, Euphrates diverted to flood site 681-669: Esarhaddon king of Assyria, son of Sennacherib 679: Esarhaddon defeats Tirhakah of Egypt in Philistia, regains coastal control 671: Esarhaddon conquers the Nile Delta region, controlled until 649 669-627: Ashurbanipal king of Assyria, son of Esarhaddon 650: Sappho of Lesbos, Greek poetess 638-609: Josiah king of Judah, institutes reforms [2K22-23,2Ch34] 627: Babylon revolts, neo-Babylonian (Chaldean) empire founded by Nabopolassar 622-621: Deuteronomy found in Temple, compiled 700-660?, [2K22-23,2Ch34] 620: Draco of Athens writes Draconian Laws 614: Medes of Persia sack city of Ashur, Assyria 612: Ninevah destroyed by Babylonians and Medes, end of Assyrian empire 610?: core of Book of Kings (I & II) written in Jerusalem 609: Pharaoh Necho dethrones Jehoahaz of Judah, installs Jehoiakim as king 605-562: Nebuchadnezzar II, King of Babylonia 605: Nebuchadnezzar II defeats Pharaoh Necho at battle of Carchemish 6th: Axis Era [Confucius, Lao Tzu, Buddha, Pythagoras, Deutero-Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) ...] called the zenith of human wisdom and achievement, Mayan civilization in Mexico, Rome declares republic, oldest extant Latin, Fables of Aesop, theater arts begin in Delphi, Age of Seven Wise Men of Greece: Thales, Pittacus, Bias, Solon, Cleobulus, Periander, Chilo; height of oracle at Delphi and its priestess, Mahavira Jina (Vardhamana) founds Jainism, Athens builds public libraries, Shwe Dagon Pagoda of Burma, Hecatompedon in Athens, Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, European La Tene culture, Temple of Apollo at Corinth, Temple of Olympian Zeus at Athens, Temple of Ceres at Paestum, Romans begin building with arched (semicircle) ceilings adopted from Etruscans, T. Priscus builds first Roman stone bridge, first record of circumnavigation of Africa, by Phoenicians for Pharaoh Necho, took three years; Cyrus of Persia establishes a pony express courier service, Persians adopt tight fitting leather clothes, Darius of Persia explores Indian coast ... 598: Nebuchadnezzar II dethrones Jehoiachin of Judah, installs Zedekiah as king 594: Pharaoh Necho dies, new Pharaoh Psammetichus II (594-589) 590: Zedekiah of Judah revolts against Babylon with Egyptian assistance 586: Judah, Jerusalem, Temple fall to Babylon. Jews and their scrolls and other Temple artifacts are exiled to Babylon, Temple destroyed [2K25] 585: Jeremiah, who fled to Egypt, dies there 580: Heraion, Greek temple of Hera the Queen of Heaven, island of Samos 575: (P) Priestly source of Gn/Ex/Lv/Nm written in Babylon, Gn 1-2:4 ... 560: (D) Deuteronomist source of Joshua to Kings written in Babylon 560: Solon, b.640, Athenian law giver and statesman 556-552: Nabonidus king of Babylon,literate,tried to elevate Sin the moon-god 553?: Zarathushtra, b. 630?, Persian Dualism, (Good/Evil), Zoroastrianism 564: Anaximander of Miletus, b.611, Greek philosopher 552-543: Bel-shar-usur (Belshazzar of Daniel) acting regent of Babylon 550-530: Cyrus the Great of Persia, restores various native religions 545: Thales of Miletus, b.624, Greek philosopher and mathematician, first known accurate prediction of solar eclipse in Europe 543-539: Nabonidus returns from Teima Arabia as king of Babylon 539: Babylon falls to Persia, Cyrus named "King of Babylon, King of the Lands" 538-530: Cyrus grants Temple rebuilding to Sheshbazzar and Zerubbabel, Ez1:1f in Hebrew, Ez6:3f in Babylonian Aramaic, work halted during Cambyses II reign 536: Milo of Crotona takes six crowns in Olympic Games 531?: Lao Tzu, b. 604?, (pseudonym?), Chinese philosopher, Tao Te Ching 530: Second Isaiah written in Babylon by Deutero-Isaiah, proclaims Cyrus as Jewish Messiah because of his decree to rebuild Temple, [I44:25-45:4] 530-522: Cambyses II king of Persian empire, defeats and becomes King of Egypt 526: Anaximenes of Miletus, b.586, Greek philosopher 522-483: Darius I king of Persian empire, creates 20 provinces (satrapies) 521: Buddha goes to the holy city Benares, first sermon in deer park 515: Second Jerusalem Temple construction completed during Darius I reign 510: Cleisthenes introduces sweeping democratic reforms in Athens 509: Romans complete Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus 500: Indian surgeon Susrata performs cataract operations 500-300: Attic Greek of Athens becomes standard Greek, height of Greek lit. 498: Temple of Saturn in Rome 497: Pythagoras, b. 570, inventor of Greek mathematics, musical octave 483-465: Xerses king of Persian empire, b. 519, decline of empire begins 464-424: Artaxerxes I king of Persian empire, Greeks aid Egyptians in revolt 465: Democracy in Syracuse 483: Heraclitus, b. 544, Greek philosopher, "Concerning Nature" 483?: Gautama Buddha, Siddhartha, b. 563?, Indian philosopher, Buddhism 479: K'ung Fu Tzu, Confucius, b. 551, Chinese philosopher, Confucianism 465: Sparta damaged by earthquakes 451: Three Roman senators sent to Athens to study Laws of Solon (see 560) 450: Torah (Pentateuch) compiled from E/J/P/D sources in Babylon 450: Roman Law codified as the Twelve Tables by the Decemvirs 445: Nehemiah comes from Babylon to aid in Temple rebuilding at Jerusalem 445-415: "30-year truce" between Athens and Sparta 431-404: Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta 431: Temple of Apollo in Rome 430: Ruth written 424-405: Darius II king of Persian empire 424: Herodotus, b.485, Greek "Father of History" 415: "real" war begins between Athens and Sparta 407: Rhodes built by Hippodamus of Miletus 406: Sophocles, b. 496?, Greek tragic dramatist 405-359: Artaxerxes II king of Persian empire 403: Tzu-ssu, b. 482, Chinese philosopher, "The Central Harmony" 400: Thucydides, b. 471, Greek historian 399: Socrates, b. 470?, Greek philosopher 398?: (458?) Ezra brings Torah to Jerusalem from Babylon 390: Gauls from northern Italy under Brennus sack Rome, "Vae victis" 380-343: 30th and last native dynasty in Egypt 377: City walls of Rome built 377?: Hippocrates, b. 460?, Greek "Father of Medicine" 366: Temple of Concordia in Rome 356: China begins building Great Wall against Huns 350: "The Chronicler" writes Chronicles, Ezra/Nehemiah?, probably in Jerusalem 350: Jonah, Job, Judith, Tobit written 350: Revolt of the Jews against Artaxerxes III 350: Indian epic Mahabharata (inc. Bhagavad Gita), recounts events 1400-800 BCE 350: Heraclides, disciple of Plato, teaches heliocentric system 350: Shuang Tzu, (Tzu means Master), Chinese philosopher 347: Plato, b. 427?, Greek philosopher 343: Persians reconquer Egypt 343: Aristotle begins teaching Alexander the Great the son of Zeus and a virgin 340: Praxagoras of Cos discovers difference between arteries and veins 338: Artaxerses III of Persia assassinated, Arses reigns 338: first Roman coins 336: Philip of Macedon assassinated at Aegae, Alexander reigns 336: Arses of Persia assassinated, Darius III Codomannus reigns 335: Aristotle returns to Athens and founds Peripatetic philosophy school 334-333: Alexander the Great of Macedon defeats Darius III at Granicus, Issus 332: Alexander the Great of Macedon (356-323) establishes Greek Empire 330: Darius III of Persia murdered 330: Greek explorer Pytheas of Massilia (Marseilles) reaches Britain 327: Alexander invades India to the Indus river but generals turn back 325: earliest extant Greek papyrus, "Persae of Timotheus of Miletus" 323: wars of the diadochs or 'successors' who fought over inheritance of Alex. 323: remaining Jews in Judea sent to Alexandria, Egypt by Ptolemy Soter 323: Euclid's "Elements", standard work on geometry 322: Aristotle, b. 384, Greek philosopher 320: Ptolemy Soter of Egypt (Ptolemaic Empire) invades Syria 319: Chandragupta Maurya (India) expells Macedonians, founds Mauryan dynasty 314: Syria-Mesopotamia (Seleucid Empire) rule Galilee/Samaria/Judea 312: Judea ruled by Antigonus I 312: Roman Censor Appius Claudius Caecus, Appian aqueduct, Appian Way 307: Museum and Library of Alexandria begun under Ptolemy Soter 301: Antigonus I killed, Ipsus Battle of Kings, Judea reverts to Ptolemaic rule 300: Atetello at Teotihuacan, Mexican sun temple 300-550CE: Koine (Common) Greek from Alexandria becomes standard Greek 300?: Euclid, Greek mathematician and physicist 285-246: Ptolemy II Philadelphos rules Egypt, including Judea/Samaria/Galilee 275: end of history of city of Babylon the Great 275: Manetho, Egyptian high priest, writes History of Egypt, in Greek 275: Colossus of Rhodes, destroyed by earthquake in 224 270: Epicurus, b. 342, Greek philosopher 270?: Zeno of Citium, b. 342?, founder of Greek Stoic philosophy 268: first appearance of Roman silver coin, the Denarius 264: Roman public gladiator combats 264-241: First Punic War 255: Septuagint LXX translation (Hebrew -> Greek) begun in Alexandria, Egypt 250: Ecclesiastes written by Jesus ben Sirach 250: Synagogues, places to study Torah, appear 250: Arcesilaus founds Second Academy of Athens 250: Asoka the Great, d.232, buddhist king of Magadha (273-232), unites India in "unity of diversity," erects columns 40ft high inscribed with Laws of Peaceful Nonviolence later picked up by Gandhi and Martin Luther King 247-221: Ptolemy III Euergetes, king of Egypt, includes Judea/Samaria/Galilee 239: Egyptians add leap year to calender 233: Sun Tzu, (Tzu means Master), Chinese philosopher, "The Art of War" 225: Quintus Fabius Pictor, first Roman historian 223-187: Antiochus III, Seleucid king of Syria-Mesopotamia 223-217: Judea/Samaria/Galilee under rule of Antiochus III 221: China standardizes weights and measures 219-201: Second Punic War 217: Antiochus III defeated by Ptolemy IV Philopator at Raphia, Judea/Samaria/Galilee revert to Ptolemaic rule until 198 200: Book of Esther written in Susa, Persia 200: Cato the Elder of Rome writes "De agricultura" 200?: Ma-wang-tui silks, oldest and complete Tao Te Ching (Taoism), Lao Tzu 200?: Targums begun, paraphrases of Hebrew Scriptures into Syrian Aramaic 200?: Aristophanes of Byzantium, librarian at Alexandria, invents vowel accents 200?-68CE: Qumran community, Dead Sea Scrolls (1949), Essene?, mostly Hebrew 198: Antiochus III of Syria takes Judea/Samaria/Galilee from Egypt, Seleucid (Greek Babylonian) Empire begins period of extreme missionary Hellenism 194: Eratosthenes, b.276, accurately calculates earth's circumference 182: Hannibal, Carthaginian general, crossed the Alps, b.246 180?: Wisdom of Ben Sira written in Jerusalem 179: Pons Aemilius, first stone bridge in Rome 175-163: Antiochus Epiphanes IV, Seleucid king of Syria, persecutes Jews 170: Jerusalem High Priest Jason builds gymnasium for Greek athletic games 170: Ennius the poet, b.239, "Father of Latin Literature" 168: Antiochus IV plunders and desecrates Jerusalem Temple, erects Zeus altar 167: Temple worship abolished in December by Antiochus IV 167-164: Maccabean Revolt, Judean response to above 164: Jerusalem Temple rededicated by Judas Maccabaeus 164: Daniel written in Jerusalem, 1/2 Aramaic, some basis in past: 280-180 160-144: Jonathan Maccabaeus, High Priest and King of Jerusalem 149-146: Third Punic War, Romans kill 450,000 at Carthage ... 149: Hu Shin produces Chinese dictionary of 10,000 characters 147: Greece under Roman rule 144: Jonathan Maccabaeus, who succeeded Judas, assassinated 144-135: Simon Maccabaeus rules Jerusalem, expels Syrians 133: Asia Minor annexed by Rome 135-104: John Hyrkanos I, Ethnarch and High Priest of Jerusalem, "age of expansion", annexes Transjordan, Samaria, Idumea. Forces Idumeans to convert to Hellenistic Judaism 130: 1 Maccabees, a Greek translation of lost Hebrew original 120: 2 Maccabees, a Greek text based on earlier Greek text now lost 112: Rise of Pharisees (a lay group) and Sadducees (Priests) in Judea 105: Jugurtha king of Numidia Africa defeated by Marius and Sulla of Rome 105: first College of Technology in Alexandria, founded by mathematician Heron 103: Aristobulus I, High Priest and King of Jerusalem, was a brute 102-75: Alexander Janneus, High Priest and King of Jerusalem, was cruel 100: Ossuaries, stone bone boxes, with Greek inscriptions appear in Jerusalem 100: tomb of Goliath family linked to Temple Priesthood, inscriptions in Greek 90: Vitruvius' "De architectura" 82: Alexander Polyhistor of Miletus writes a history of the Jews 78: Book of Esther translated into Greek in Jerusalem 75-69: Hyrcanus II, High Priest of Jerusalem 75-69: Salome Alexandra, Queen of Jerusalem, last independent Judean ruler 69: Hyrcanus II deposed, rise of House of Antipater in Jerusalem 69-63: Aristobulus II, High Priest and King of Jerusalem 63-41: Hyrcanus II is back as High Priest of Jerusalem 63: Pompey the Great (106-48) of Rome captures Jerusalem 55: Cicero's "De oratore", "De republica" in 54 54: erection of new (Julian) forum in Rome 51: Caesar's "De bello Gallico", account of Gallic War, "De bello civili" in 47 47: Herod governor of Galilee 47: Library of Ptolemy I in Alexandria destroyed by fire 46: North Africa becomes Roman province 46: Julian calendar of 365.25 days, leap year 44: Gaius Julius Ceasar, b.100, Roman jurist, "et tu Brutus" 40-37: Antigonus, High Priest and King of Jerusalem 40: Herod appointed king of Judea in Rome by Mark Antony and Octavian Augustus 37: Herod captures Jerusalem 37-4: King Herod the Great of Judea, b. 73?, an Idumean, "Massacrer of the Innocents", kills Antigonus and all heirs, Augustus said: "One would rather be Herod's swine than his son", posed as a champion of Hellenistic culture, purely Greek inscriptions used on coins and weights, Herod's Jerusalem was thoroughly Hellenic including a Greek theatre and Hippodrome. 31: Egypt falls to Rome, becomes Roman province, Cleopatra VII commits suicide 31-14CE: Octavian Augustus, b. 63, 1st Roman emperor, son of Apollo and virgin 30: Roman Pantheon begun 25: 3 Maccabees written in Alexandria 19-4: Herod rebuilds a Hellenized Jewish Temple, includes Roman eagle gate 12-4: Jesus [G:Iesous,H:Yeshu,E:Joshua] son of Mary of Nazareth, Galilee born 6: Judea officially annexed as a province, (part of Syria), by Rome 4-39CE: Herod Antipas, son of Herod & Malthace(Samaritan), tetrarch of Galilee 4-6CE: Herod Archelaus, son of Herod & Malthace, ethnarch of Judea, "The Fool" 4-34CE: Philip, son of Herod & Cleopatra, tetrarch of Iturea & Trachonitis 2: Ovid's "Ars Amatoria"

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