Here's the paper you asked for (complete with bibliography). I wrote this paper for a Hum

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Here's the paper you asked for (complete with bibliography). I wrote this paper for a Human Sexuality class that I took last semester. I'm not the best writer in the world, but I did get a good grade on the paper. It's not the most scientific paper in the world, but I hope you enjoy it. Write back if you have questions. Andrew Vernon vernon@cs.uiuc.edu ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ A recent controversy has started over the subject of pornography. Many people believe that pornography is a cause of sexism and rape. However, I will present evidence that nonviolent pornography does not have the effects on human behavior that people often associate with it. On the other hand, violent pornography can contribute to rape and sexual harassment. Nonviolent pornography does not inspire negative sexual aggression and sexual inequality, unlike violent pornography which does inspire attitudes against women. The effect on gender inequality depends on the type of pornography that we are considering. Many people would tend to believe that pornography would cause sexism against women. This belief, however, is a misconception. "... research does not support the argument that nonviolent pornography contributes to sexist beliefs. ... the pattern of findings suggests that nonviolent pornography is not related to negative attitudes toward women." (1:366) In fact, "soft core pornography was found to have a significantly positive relationship to gender equality." (1:376) In addition, "gender equality is higher in states characterized by high circulation rates of soft-core pornography." On the other hand, "in long-term and short-term studies, negative effects [such as gender inequality] emerge when subjects are exposed to portrayals of overt violence against women or when sex is fused with aggression." (4:74) The evidence seems clear. Nonviolent pornography does not lead to gender inequality and may even serve a social good, as opposed to violent pornography which seems to add to sexism and gender inequality. Nonviolent pornography does not increase to sexual violence. An examination of the "Danish Experiment" shows how pornography may even be beneficial. "After Denmark repealed all censorship laws, there was a marked decrease in sex crimes, including rape and the decline continued over the following years." (5:480) This effect that pornography has on sex crimes seems to occur in several cultures. "Cross-cultural research indicates that the availability of pornography may contribute to the reduction of undesirable behavior." (5:480) Research tend to support that sexual violence does not seems to stem from nonviolent pornography. Violent pornography, unlike nonviolent pornography, can help in causing sexual violence. "[According to research], pornography desensitize men to the harm of rape." (3:22) The results of this study seems to indicate that pornography can help increase the occurrence of rape and other sexual violence against women. In addition, "violent scenes in which female victims become sexually aroused produce antisocial effects in males." (5:482) This statement shows how violent pornography can result in males lowering their inhibitions against raping women or committing other sexually-related crimes. These two examples seems to prove that violent pornography may aid in increasing sexual violence. Male attitudes towards women are affected differently by nonviolent and violent pornography. Nonviolent pornography seems to have little, if any, effect on attitudes toward women. "Most research suggests that exposure to nonviolent pornography is unrelated to attitudes toward women." (1:365) With the exception of one criticized study, no research has been able to show any connection between nonviolent pornography and various attitudes toward women (1:365). In another study, results showed that "exposure to sexually explicit nonviolent materials resulted in no attitudinal changes following exposure." (4:73) However, violent pornography affects attitudes toward women differently than nonviolent pornography. Pornography has been used to stimulate people in the past, which implies that pornography can, in fact, affect people's behavior. This affect in behavior can result in the desire to develop poor attitudes toward women. "`... pornographic movies were shown to the soldiers [serving during wartime], `in an obvious attempt to work the men up''" (6:517) This "attempt to work the men up" can be increased when the men believe that the other soldiers are also being aroused. If one soldier believes that the other soldiers are becoming aroused, he will become more aroused than if he were alone simply because he (the soldier) believes that becoming aroused is "what other people do", so the social impact can be much greater than that of the pornography (2:409). Violent pornography often change the way males view rape victims and can cause changes in how males interact with society. "Exposure to aggressive pornography `may alter perceptions of rape and rape victims.'" and that violent scenes can cause antisocial effects in males. (5:482) Nonviolent pornography seems to cause no change in the attitudes men have towards women, as opposed to violent pornography which can cause negative attitudes toward women. Many people are uncertain about what to do about pornography. It has been shown that nonviolent pornography does not do any harm (and may even have some benefits). For this reason, nonviolent pornography should not be regulated. Violent pornography has been shown to affect the attitudes that men have towards women. Evidence shows that it is the violence in the film, not the erotic contents of the film, that causes the negative aspects caused by violent pornography. "Negative effects produced by pornography may be due to a violence component and not to a sexuality component." (5:482) With this in mind, one might ask a question about pornography: should we restrict the violent component that is allowed in pornography? This question, however, brings up First Amendment concerns that will not be answered in this paper. The information in this paper shows has a very clear conclusion. Most results seem to prove that nonviolent pornography can help improve gender equality. Nonviolent pornography also does not affect men's attitudes towards women. Also, many studies show that nonviolent pornography do not cause sexual crimes, and can actually help to decrease these crimes. On the other hand, violent pornography can often result in sexism, and an increase in rapes and other sexual violence. Men who watch violent pornography begin to develop poor attitudes toward women. Although not all studies completely agree in all respects, most studies seem to show rather conclusively that nonviolent pornography does little harm, but the viewing of violent pornography can result in negative side effects. The information in this paper directly relates to the thesis. For example, the information clearly demonstrates that nonviolent pornography does not inspire poor attitudes toward women or cause sexual crimes, like rape. In addition, the information in this paper also shows that violent pornography can result in rapes, sexism, and poor attitudes toward women. The information in this paper clearly supports my thesis. When I reflect upon the information in this paper, I realize a few things. The first thing I realize is that it is the violence in violent pornographic films that causes the negative side effects associated with violent pornographic films. Also, I realize that nonviolent pornographic films can actually serve a purpose in society because nonviolent pornographic films have been known to be associated with greater gender equality and lower numbers of rapes and other forms of sexual harassment. Many other things as well could be learned from this paper when people reflect on it. Bibliography #1: Baron, Larry, Ph.D., "Pornography and Gender Equality: An Empirical analysis." The Journal of Sex Research 27 (1990): 363-378. #2: Coyne, Barry, J., Ph.D., et. al. "Effects of Social Pressure on Erections and Evaluations of Erotica." The Journal of Sex Research 25 (1987): 397-409. #3: Herzog, Sandra, "Sex Without Consent: The Hidden Story of Date Rape." Family Safety and Health (Spring, 1990): 22-23. #4: Linz, Daniel, Ph.D., "Exposure to Sexually Explicit Materials and Attitudes Toward Rape: A Comparison of Study Results." The Journal of Sex Research 26 (1989): 50-81. #5: Padgett, Vernon A., Ph.D., et. al. "Pornography, Erotica, and Attitudes Toward Women: The Effects of Repeated Exposure." The Journal of Sex Research 25 (1989): 479-489. #6: Palmer, Craig T., Ph.D., "Twelve Reasons Why Rape is Not Sexually Motivated: A Skeptical Examination." The

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