Following are abstracts taken from psychology journals, 1981-89 on the effeccts of porn on
Following are abstracts taken from psychology journals, 1981-89
on the effeccts of porn on behavior. Read 'em, use 'em---BUT STOP ARGUING
WITHOUT SOME DATA!
Pornography, erotica, and attitudes toward women:
The effects of repeated exposure.
Padgett,-Vernon-R.; Brislin-Slutz,-Jo-A.; Neal,-James-A.
Rio Hondo Coll, Whittier, CA, US
Journal-of-Sex-Research; 1989 Nov Vol 26(4) 479-491
AB: Assessed the relationship between pornography and attitudes
toward women in 2 correlational studies, and tested the effect
of nonviolent erotica on attitudes toward women with 184
psychology students and 20 patrons at an "adult" theater. Hours
of viewing pornography was not a reliable predictor of attitudes
toward women in either sample. Patrons of the adult theater, who
viewed more pornography, had more favorable attitudes toward
women than male or female Ss.
Pornography and sexual offences.
Langevin,-Ron; Lang,-Reuben-A.; Wright,-Percy; Handy,-Lorraine; et-al
Clarke Inst of Psychiatry, Toronto, ON, Canada
Annals-of-Sex-Research; 1988 Vol 1(3) 335-362
AB: Examined whether erotica is harmful and incites sexual crimes
by interviewing 227 male sex offenders and 50 control Ss from
the community in Canada about purchase of erotic magazines and
videos and attendance at erotic movies. Erotica use was not a
pertinent factor in offenders' sex offenses nor to their legal
situation. Results do not support the conclusion of the Meese
Commission (1986) that there is a causal association of sexual
violence and use of violent pornography.
Physiological desensitization and judgments about female victims of violence.
Linz,-Daniel; Donnerstein,-Edward; Adams,-Steven-M.
U California, Santa Barbara, US
Human-Communication-Research; 1989 Sum Vol 15(4) 509-522
AB: 29 male undergraduates viewed a control film (nonviolent with
explicit sexual content) and 34 male undergraduates viewed an
experimental film (violent with explicit sexual content). All Ss
were then exposed to 2 brief clips of violence perpetrated by a
man against a woman while their heart rates were monitored.
Results indicate that heart rates for Ss exposed to the violent
videotape were lower during the final 90 sec of each violent
dependent measure film clip than controls. Although the
violence-viewing Ss experienced no change in moods, control Ss
experienced significant increases in hostility, anxiety, and
depression during the dependent measure clips. Ss in the
violence-viewing condition attributed less injury to the victims
but greater responsibility to the perpetrators in the dependent
measure clips, compared to control Ss.
Child sexual abuse and pornography: Is there a relationship?
Purdue U, West Lafayette, IN, US
Journal-of-Family-Violence; 1988 Dec Vol 3(4) 253-267
AB: A review of official reports and other research indicates
that the circumstances surrounding sexual abuse are inadequately
specified to allow specific causal interpretations. The role of
pornography in contributing to such abuse is explored by
reviewing laboratory studies and the circumstances of child
sexual abuse. An assessment of the research literature suggests
that pornography is a minor and indirect influence on child
Exposure to sexually explicit materials and attitudes toward rape:
A comparison of study results.
U California Communication Studies Program, Santa Barbara, US
Journal-of-Sex-Research; 1989 Feb Vol 26(1) 50-84
AB: Reviews experimental studies conducted since the 1970
pornography commission that have tested the effects of exposure
to sexually explicit materials on attitudes and perceptions
about rape. Studies of short-term exposure to nonaggressive
sexually explicit communications have yielded mixed results.
When effects do exist for this material, they are both fewer and
weaker than antisocial effects from sexually violent material.
Studies of the effects of long-term exposure to nonviolent
pornography have also yielded mixed results: Some experiments
find increases in negative attitudes about rape, and others show
no effects. Studies that have included violent film conditions
have consistently found less sensitivity toward rape victims
after exposure to these materials.
A preliminary examination of the pornography experience of sex offenders,
paraphiliacs, sexual dysfunction patients and controls based on
Meese Commission recommendations.
Sexual Behavior Ctr, Lancaster, PA, US
Journal-of-Sex-and-Marital-Therapy; 1988 Win Vol 14(4) 285-298
AB: The Meese Commission Report (1986) claims that exposure to
pornography leads to sex offenses and states that it is
important to examine the developmental patterns of offenders.
The present study found that the frequency of use of pornography, age of
exposure to pornography, age of 1st masturbation experience and use of
pornography during 1st masturbation experience for 62 male sex offenders,
paraphiliacs, sexual dysfunction patients, and controls were not significantly
Pornography and rape: A causal model.
Mills Coll, Oakland, CA, US
Political-Psychology; 1988 Mar Vol 9(1) 41-73
AB: Contends that in order for rape to occur, a man must not only
be predisposed to rape, but his internal and social inhibitions
against acting out rape desires must be undermined. It is
theorized that pornography (1) predisposes some men to want to
rape women or intensifies the predisposition in other men
already so predisposed; (2) undermines some men's internal
inhibitions against acting out their rape desires; and (3)
undermines some men's social inhibitions against the acting out.
Research substantiating this theory is presented and discussed,
and suggestions are made for further research.
Rape rates and the circulation rates of adult magazines.
Ohio State U, Columbus, US
Journal-of-Sex-Research; 1988 Vol 24 241-250
AB: Examination of reported rape rates and the sale of 10 popular
adult magazines by states for 1982 revealed a significant
relationship. Although the assumption was that the more sexually
explicit magazines and those containing the most violent sexual
depictions would have higher correlations with rape rates,
correlations for individual magazines indicate the opposite.
The censorship of pornography: Catharsis or learning?
York U, Toronto, ON, Canada
American-Journal-of-Orthopsychiatry; 1988 Oct Vol 58(4) 493-504
AB: Asserts that contemporary research on pornography reveals an
impasse between the models of catharsis and learning. It is
suggested that preference for the latter by a recent government
report (US Department of Justice, 1986) is based on ideological
rather than scientific considerations. The breakdown in the
liberal tradition, current pornography research based on
behaviorism, and 2 major theoretical problems are discussed. An
alternative approach is suggested that uses knowledge of
sexuality, gender inequality, and institutional oppression, and
the meaning of texts to better understand pornography. It is
argued that censorship may obstruct research and fail to advance
feminist goals. (
Beitrag zur Beziehung von Video-Filmkonsum und Kriminalitat in der Adoleszenz. / Relationship between viewing of video films and criminality in adolescents.
U Bern, Jugendpsychiatrischen Klinik und Poliklinik, Switzerland
Praxis-der-Kinderpsychologie-und-Kinderpsychiatrie; 1987 Feb-Mar Vol 36(2) 66-71
AB: Presents 3 forensic-psychiatric case reports in which
criminal acts perpetrated by adolescent males were associated
with previously viewed horror or pornographic videos. In each
case, the videos served to precipitate and legitimize a neurotic
solution to existing conflicts. It is suggested that in
exceptionally unusual, ludicrous, or cruel offenses by
adolescents, the possibility of video-induced criminality should
Effects of long-term exposure to violent and sexually
degrading depictions of women.
Linz,-Daniel-G.; Donnerstein,-Edward; Penrod,-Steven
U California, Communication Studies Program, Santa Barbara, US
Journal-of-Personality-and-Social-Psychology; 1988 Nov Vol 55(5) 758-768
AB: Investigated the effects of emotional desensitization to
films of violence against women and the effects of sexually
degrading explicit and nonexplicit films on beliefs about rape
and the sexual objectification of women. Males viewed either 2
or 5 R-rated violent "slasher," X-rated nonviolent
"pornographic," or R-rated nonviolent teenage-oriented ("teen
sex") films. Affective reactions and cognitive perceptions were
measured after each exposure. Later, these men and no-exposure
control Ss completed a voir dire questionnaire, viewed a
reenacted acquaintance or nonacquaintance sexual assault trial,
and judged the defendant and alleged rape victim. Ss in the
violent condition became less anxious and depressed and showed
declines in negative affective responses. They were also less
sympathetic to the victim and less empathetic toward rape
victims in general. However, longer film exposure was necessary
to affect general empathy. There were no differences in response
between the R-rated teen sex film and the X-rated, sexually
explicit, nonviolent film, and the no-exposure control
conditions on the objectification or the rape trial variables. A
model of desensitization to media violence and the carryover to
decision making about victims is proposed. (
Violent pornography and self-reported likelihood of sexual aggression.
Demare,-Dano; Briere,-John; Lips,-Hilary-M.
U Winnipeg, MB, Canada
Journal-of-Research-in-Personality; 1988 Jun Vol 22(2) 140-153
AB: 222 undergraduate males were administered an attitudes survey
examining pornography use, attitudes, and self-reported
likelihood of rape (LR) or using sexual force (LF). Nonviolent
pornography was used by 81% of Ss within the previous year,
whereas 41% and 35% had used violent and sexually violent
pornography, respectively. 27% of Ss indicated some hypothetical
LR or LF. Discriminant function analysis revealed that use of
sexually violent pornography and acceptance of interpersonal
violence against women were uniquely associated with LF and LR.
It is hypothesized that the specific fusion of sex and violence
in some pornographic stimuli and in certain belief systems may
produce a propensity to engage in sexually aggressive behavior.
An empirical investigation of the role of pornography in the
verbal and physical abuse of women.
York U, Toronto, ON, Canada
Violence-and-Victims; 1987 Fal Vol 2(3) 189-209
AB: Studied the presence of pornography and both sexual and
nonsexual violence in the lives of 44 battered women drawn from
shelters and counseling groups, and a comparison group of 32
women from a mature university population. It was found that the
partners of the battered Ss read or viewed significantly greater
amounts of pornographic materials than did the partners of the
comparison group. In addition, 39% of the battered Ss (in
contrast to 3% of the comparison group) responded in the
affirmative to the question, "Has your partner ever upset you by
trying to get you to do what he'd seen in pornographic pictures,
movies, or books?" It was also found that battered Ss
experienced significantly more sexual aggression at the hands of
their partners than did the Ss in the comparison group.
Four theories of rape: A macrosociological analysis.
International Congress on Rape (1986, Tel Aviv, Israel).
U California Ctr for the Study of Women, Los Angeles, US
Social-Problems; 1987 Dec Vol 34(5) 467-489
AB: Presents a theoretical model that integrates 4
macrosociological theories of gender inequality, proliferation
of pornographic materials, cultural spillover of violence to
other social contexts, and social disorganization as mechanisms
promoting rape. The theoretical model was tested, using 1980
-1982 data on rapes known to the police in the 50 states in the
US. The results show that gender inequality, social
disorganization, percent residing in standard metropolitan
statistical areas, the circulation of pornography, economic
inequality, and percent unemployed had direct effects on the
incidence of rape.
The use of sexually explicit stimuli by rapists, child molesters
Queen's U, Kingston, ON, Canada
Journal-of-Sex-Research; 1988 May Vol 25(2) 267-288
AB: 89 male sex offenders (voluntary outpatients) and 24 male
nonoffenders were asked to retrospectively recall their use of
sexually explicit materials during pubescence, and currently. 23
rapists and 51 men who molested children other than their own
(i.e., child molesters) reported significantly greater use of
materials than was indicated by either incest offenders or
nonoffender controls. Rapists and child molesters reported
frequent use of these materials while preparing themselves to
commit an offense. Current use was significantly related to the
chronicity of their sexual offending (as revealed by number of
victims) among the child molesters and to laboratory-assessed
sexual preferences for children in the heterosexual child molesters.
The pornography/aggression linkage: Results from a field study.
Tulane U, New Orleans, LA, US
Deviant-Behavior; 1987 Vol 8(4) 389-399
AB: Assessed the impact of presenting a pornographic movie on a
college campus in a longitudinal, self-report study of 230 women
students to determine effects of the film's showing on the Ss'
experiences with aggression from males. Compared with the weeks
prior to and following the movie's showing, no significant
difference in reported aggression was found. Those Ss reporting
association with males attending the movie reported no
significantly different levels of experienced aggression from
those Ss whose companions did not view the film. PO: Human
Use of pornography in the criminal and developmental histories
of sexual offenders.
Carter,-Daniel-L.; Prentky,-Robert-A.; Knight,-Raymond-A.; Vanderveer,-Penny-L.; et-al
Massachusetts Treatment Ctr, Research Dept, Bridgewater, US
Journal-of-Interpersonal-Violence; 1987 Jun Vol 2(2) 196-211
AB: Investigated exposure to and use of pornography in the
familial, developmental, and criminal histories of 64
incarcerated male volunteers (38 rapists and 26 child
molesters). Data were gathered using a paper-and-pencil self
-report questionnaire. Results show that while both groups
reported similar exposure to pornography in the home and during
development, child molesters indicated significantly more
exposure than rapists in adulthood and were significantly more
likely both to use such materials prior to and during the
offenses and to employ pornography to relieve an impulse to act
out. Findings are discussed with regard to the catharsis
hypothesis and to the role of pornography in the commission of
sexual offenses for certain types of rapists and child
"Stranger" child--murder: Issues relating to causes and controls.
Australian Inst of Criminology, Canberra, ACT, Australia
International-Journal-of-Offender-Therapy-and-Comparative-Criminology; 1987 Vol 31(1) 49-59
AB: Discusses the causes and control of serial killings of
children. Despite the tendency to view such killers as
psychiatrically ill, studies suggesting that these offenders do
not differ psychologically from nonoffenders are cited. It is
suggested that subcultural and other sociological perspectives
stressing social disadvantage have low levels of explanatory
power. While evidence concerning the effects of media on sexual
and violent crime is inconclusive, case studies indicate that
pornography and even popular music may increase the propensity
of some individuals to commit atrocities. It is concluded that
countermeasures to control stranger killing of children lie in
more sophisticated law enforcement, long periods of
incarceration, and more sophisticated crime analysis.
The findings and recommendations of the Attorney General's Commission on Pornography: Do the psychological "facts" fit the political fury?
Linz,-Daniel; Donnerstein,-Edward; Penrod,-Steven
U California, Los Angeles
American-Psychologist; 1987 Oct Vol 42(10) 946-953
AB: The Attorney General's Commission on Pornography has
concluded that there is a causal relationship between exposure
to many forms of pornography and several antisocial effects,
including increased levels of violence against women. As a
result of these findings, the commission has called for more
strict enforcement of existing obscenity laws and serious
consideration of additional legal measures not traditionally
handled under obscenity law. The authors question whether the
social science data relied on by the commission justifies either
the commission's conclusions about harm or the call for more
stringent law enforcement. Although some of the commission's
findings appear to be sound extrapolations from the empirical
studies, the authors find several of the commission's findings
and recommendations incongruent with available research data.
Instead of advocating stricter legal controls the authors
reiterate their call for educational programs to mitigate the
effects of sexual violence in the media.
Exposure to pornography and attitudes about women and rape:
A correlational study.
Rutgers U, Camden Coll
Journal-of-Sex-Research; 1986 Aug Vol 22(3) 378-385
AB: Investigated the relationship between exposure to sexually
explicit material and attitudes toward rape in 115 male
undergraduates. Data provide mixed support for the hypothesis
that exposure to pornographic materials would be correlated with
less liberal attitudes toward women: Only exposure to coercive
or violent sexual themes was related to more traditional
attitudes about women. Contrary to predictions, Ss having
greater exposure to sexual materials were found to express more
liberal attitudes toward women in the area of sexual behavior.
Pornography and sex-related crime: A sociological
perspective. Hong Kong Psychological Society: Psychosocial
aspects of pornography (1986, Hong Kong).
U Hong Kong
Bulletin-of-the-Hong-Kong-Psychological-Society; 1986 Jan-Jul No 16-17 73-81
AB: Suggests that the incidence of reported rape is lower in
areas in which there are more liberal attitudes toward
pornography. Women may choose to not report a rape because of
fear, threat of further victimization, or powerlessness and
helplessness. In a society that has a liberal tolerance for
pornography and in which rape is often presented as a normal
part of male-female relations, a woman may assume that rape
would not be viewed as a serious offense by authorities.
Pornography as cause or pornographic experience as constituted?
Hong Kong Psychological Society: Psychosocial aspects of pornography
(1986, Hong Kong).
U Hong Kong
Bulletin-of-the-Hong-Kong-Psychological-Society; 1986 Jan-Jul No 16-17 29-32
AB: Suggests that pornography should not be viewed as the cause
of certain behaviors but as the material constituent of a
pornographic experience. Experiments that attempt to assess the
effects of pornography on behavior ignore the element of choice
in the real-life pornographic situation, since the experimental
Ss are presented with pornography while it must be actively
sought out in real life. It is also suggested that determining
what constitutes pornography may depend on an individual's
Fifteen years of pornography research: Does exposure to pornography have
any effects? Hong Kong Psychological Society: Psychosocial aspects of
pornography (1986, Hong Kong).
U Hong Kong
Bulletin-of-the-Hong-Kong-Psychological-Society; 1986 Jan-Jul No 16-17 41-62
AB: Reviews 35 studies published between 1972 and 1985 on whether
exposure to pornography (EP) has any effects on behavior. One
study examined the effects of EP on prosocial behavior (none was
found); 20 studies assessed the effects of EP on antisocial
behavior and found general support for a causal link between EP
and aggression; 3 studies found some evidence of a link between
EP and rape; and 11 studies examined the relationship between EP
and moral values and attitudes and found some evidence relating
EP to a greater acceptance by men of the victimization of women.
Overall, the studies indicate that pornography does have
psychosocial effects on users, contrary to the 1970 report by
the US Congress's Commission on Obscenity and Pornography.
The question of pornography.
U California, Santa Barbara
Psychology-Today; 1986 Dec Vol 20(12) 56-59
AB: Questions the conclusions of the 1986 US Attorney General's
Commission on Pornography and argues that the most important
problem in the media is not pornography but violence. Research
is summarized that suggests that the amount of violence depicted
in pornography has not increased, that the aggression-evoking
effects of exposure to sexually violent material may be
temporary, that materials depicting women "enjoying" rape have
especially damaging effects on male attitudes, and that violence
against women need not occur in a sexual context to have a
negative effect on viewer attitudes and behavior.
Mass media sexual violence and male viewers: Current theory and research.
U Wisconsin, Ctr for Communication Research, Madison
American-Behavioral-Scientist; 1986 May-Jun Vol 29(5) 601-618
AB: Reviews research on aggressive pornography and research that
examines nonpornographic media images of violence against women.
The question of whether pornography influences behaviors and
attitudes toward women is considered. There is no evidence for
any "harm"-related effects from sexually explicit materials. But
research may support potential harmful effects from aggressive
materials. Although messages about violence and the sexualized
nature of violence may be part of some forms of pornography,
they are also pervasive in media messages in general, from
prime-time TV to popular films. It is concluded that the media
is just one of many influences in society that contribute to
men's callous attitudes about rape and sexual aggression.
Repeated exposure to violent and nonviolent pornography: Likelihood of
raping ratings and laboratory aggression against women.
U California, Los Angeles
Aggressive-Behavior; 1986 Vol 12(2) 129-137
AB: Examined the long-term effects of repeated exposure to
violent and nonviolent pornography on males' laboratory
aggression against women and their self-reported likelihood of
raping. 42 university students were randomly assigned to the
sexually violent, sexually nonviolent, or control exposure
conditions. Those assigned to the sexually violent or sexually
nonviolent conditions were exposed over a 4-wk period to 10
stimuli including feature-length films and written and pictorial
depictions, whereas controls were not exposed to any stimuli.
Following the end of the exposure phase, Ss participated in what
they believed to be a totally unrelated experiment in which
aggression was assessed within a Buss paradigm. Exposure to the
violent or nonviolent pornographic stimuli did not affect
laboratory aggression, but likelihood of raping ratings
predicted laboratory aggression.
"Prudes" and "pornographiles": Effects of subject and audience attitudes
on the viewing and rating of pornographic materials.
Journal-of-Social-and-Clinical-Psychology; 1984 Fal Vol 2(3) 215-229
AB: Examined stereotyped conceptions of the prude and the pornographile
by testing the responses of 72 male undergraduates with anti- or
propornography attitudes to pornographic stimuli presented in varying
social contexts. Specifically, both types of Ss were allowed to view
and rate a series of pornographic slides in 1 of 3 conditions: alone
(control) or in the presence of a peer whose expressed attitude toward
pornography was either favorable or unfavorable. For measures of viewing
time and rated pornographic value, the antipornography Ss were more
susceptible to the influence of the peer audience's expressed attitude
than were the propornography Ss. In general, the stereotyped images of
the prude and the pornographile were supported. However, it remains to
be determined to what degree the observed differences were due to
personality, social comparison, and arousal-attribution processes.
Self-regulated exposure to erotica, recall errors, and
The relief of sexual problems through pornography.
Australian-Journal-of-Sex,-Marriage-and-Family; 1984 May Vol 5(2) 97-106
AB: Examines the scientific foundations for claimed efficacy of sexually
explicit materials for use in sex therapy. The term pornography is
examined to establish important distinctions between different
materials, and the case for pornography, as advanced by W. C. Wilson
(1978), is examined critically. While acknowledging that many therapists
are finding sexually explicit materials educationally valuable in the
treatment of sexual disorders, it is concluded that the evidence is
insufficient for the therapeutic use of what most people mean by
pornography. (28 ref)
Pornography and sexual abuse of women.
Delancey Street Foundation, San Francisco, CA
Sex-Roles; 1984 Jun Vol 10(11-12) 857-868
AB: Interviewed 200 juvenile and adult, current and former, female
street prostitutes, aged 10-46 yrs, to investigate the sexual abuse of
street prostitutes. 70% of the Ss were less than 21 yrs old; 60% were
less than 17 yrs old. 69% of the Ss were White and 18% were Black. 68%
were single and never married. 42% described themselves as very poor.
The Ss were administered a sexual assault experience questionnaire
consisting of questions on background information, forms of assault
experienced, history of juvenile sexual exploitation, and self-concept.
Many of the descriptions of sexual assaults made reference to the role
played by pornography; these references were unsolicited by the
interviewers. A detailed content analysis of 193 cases of rape and of
178 cases of juvenile sexual abuse revealed a clear relationship
between violent pornography and sexual abuse in the experience of
street prostitutes. Results can neither confirm nor reject the
catharsis model of pornography; however, they lend considerable weight
to the imitation model.
The effects of erotica and pornography on attitudes and behavior:
U Dublin, Trinity Coll, Ireland
Bulletin-of-the-British-Psychological-Society; 1984 Aug Vol 37 249-252
AB: Reviews the literature on the effects of erotica (ER) and
pornography (PN) on attitudes and behavior, noting that researching
these topics poses difficult experimental problems. The reliability of
data on availability and use of PN is questionable. It is asserted that
the context in which PN thrives needs to be reexamined. Of particular
interest is the degree of acceptance of coercion in sexual relations
by "normal" males and females. Findings on ER vs PN are discussed, and
decisions concerning the effects of PN and ER by the US National
Commission on Obscenity and Pornography and the Committee on Obscenity
and Film Censorship (UK) are reviewed. Current concern centers around
violent sexual material. Research has shown that exposure to sexually
violent material can lead to antisocial attitudes and behavior. It has
been argued that the enjoyment of PN by individuals will decline when
such individuals begin to accord women their status as fully human. It
is concluded that PN can be viewed as a useful indicator of the state
of male-female relations in society
Debriefing effectiveness following exposure to pornographic rape
U California, Los Angeles
Journal-of-Sex-Research; 1984 Feb Vol 20(1) 1-13
AB: Examined the ethics of exposing undergraduate students to
pornographic rape portrayals followed by a debriefing designed to
dispel a number of rape myths. 150 Ss were randomly assigned to read
pornographic stories. Some of these depicted a rape, whereas others
depicted mutually consenting intercourse. Afterwards, those exposed to
the rape version were given a debriefing that included statements
concerning the true horror of rape and the existence of rape myths.
About 10 days later, a survey ostensibly conducted by a local committee
of citizens was given to Ss in their classes. As part of the survey, Ss
indicated their reactions to a rape article and their opinions about the
general causes of rape. Results indicate that those exposed to the rape
depictions followed by a debriefing were less accepting of certain rape
myths than Ss exposed to mutually consenting intercourse depictions.
Implications are discussed both in terms of work focusing on the
potential antisocial impact of violent pornography and of research
specifically designed to identify the conditions most likely to change
acceptance of rape myths.
Can there be positive effects of participation in pornography experiments?
York U, Downsview, Canada
Journal-of-Sex-Research; 1984 Feb Vol 20(1) 14-31
AB: Conducted a 2-phase experiment in response to recent ethical concerns
about the possible antisocial effects of exposing research Ss to
pornographic rape portrayals. In Phase 1, 64 male and 94 female
undergraduates were randomly assigned to read either an "acquaintance"
or a "stranger" rape depiction, or to read control materials. Ss who
read the rape depictions were then given a rape debriefing that included
a communication about the undesirable desensitizing effects of pairing
sexual violence with other highly explicit and pleasing sexual stimuli.
Half of the Ss who read the control materials were also given the rape
debriefing. In Phase 2, Ss were presented with a number of newspaper
articles in which a newspaper report of a rape was embedded and asked
to give their opinions. Results indicate that the rape debriefing
generally increased Ss' perceptions of pornography as a cause of rape.
Ss in the rape debriefing conditions also gave the rapist in the
newspaper report a higher sentence and saw the rape victim as less
responsible than did Ss in the control conditions. This latter effect,
however, occurred only under conditions where Ss had earlier been
exposed to an example of a rape depiction that was relevant to both
the rape myths discussed in the rape debriefing and the newspaper report
of the rape. (24 ref) (PsycLIT Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserve
Pornography and social science research: . . .higher moralities.
Zillmann,-Dolf; Bryant,-Jennings, Indiana U
Journal-of-Communication; 1983 Fal Vol 33(4) 111-114
AB: Responds to comments by L. Gross (see PA, Vol 71:23017)
concerning the present authors' (see PA, Vol 70:1038) study on
pornography, which found that massive exposure to pornography
results in a loss of compassion for female rape victims and
women in general. The present authors provide sources for
information on their debriefing procedures and address the
issues of possible damage to research Ss and the contamination
of results because Ss may have talked about their experience in
the study with others.
Pornography and social science research: Serious questions. . . .
Gross,-Larry, U Pennsylvania
Journal-of-Communication; 1983 Fal Vol 33(4) 107-111
AB: Contends that D. Zillmann and J. Bryant's (see PA, Vol
70:1038) study on pornography, which found that massive exposure to
pornography resulted in a loss of compassion toward women as rape
victims and toward women in general, cannot be taken at face value
because information on how the research was conducted is lacking. In
addition, according to the present author, the research raises serious
questions of ethics concerning experimental procedures and conditions
and "damage" to the Ss that the researchers did not address.
Exposure to pornography, permissive and nonpermissive cues, and male aggression
U Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Inst & Clinic
Motivation-and-Emotion; 1983 Sep Vol 7(3) 291-299
AB: 40 male undergraduates viewed either neutral slides with a silent
female or erotic slides with a female who made permissive,
nonpermissive, or no comments about the slides. Ss rated the slides and
subsequently rated the female confederate. Ss were then given an
opportunity to administer their choice of several intensities of
shock to the female in a competitive RT task. Ss in the permissive cues
condition rated the erotic slides as more arousing, saw the female as
more reasonable and accepting, and selected more intense shocks for the
female than did Ss in the other conditions. One explanation of these
results is that permissive cues in the presence of erotica led the S
to believe that other normally inappropriate behaviors would be
Pornography, sexual callousness, and the trivialization of rape.
Indiana U, Inst for Communication Research, Bloomington
Journal-of-Communication; 1982 Fal Vol 32(4) 10-21
AB: Studied the effect of pornography on perceptions of sexuality and
behavioral dispositions toward sex and gender. 160 male and female
undergraduates were assigned to 1 of 4 conditions in which exposure to
pornography was massive, intermediate, or nil. Ss were tested for
habituation effects, perceptions of sexuality, and dispositions
concerning sex and gender. A control group was tested with no prior
exposure to pornographic materials. Results show that numerous
persisting perceptual and dispositional changes concerning sexuality,
especially female sexuality, were recorded during the 3rd wk after the
exposure treatment. Findings show that massive exposure to standard
pornography resulted in a loss of compassion toward women as rape
victims and toward women in general.
Effects of erotica on retaliatory behavior as a function of level of prior provocation.
Ramirez,-John; Bryant,-Jennings; Zillmann,-Dolf
Indiana U, Inst for Communication Research, Bloomington
Journal-of-Personality-and-Social-Psychology; 1982 Nov Vol 43(5) 971-978
AB: 72 male undergraduates were mildly or severely provoked by the
experiments; exposed to nonerotic, suggestive, or explicitly erotic
stimuli; and then provided with an opportunity to treat their provoker
in a hostile manner. The effect of exposure to suggestive erotica
interacted with degree of provocation. Exposure to such erotica
significantly reduced hostile behavior under conditions of mild
provocation, but it had no appreciable effect under conditions of
severe provocation. In contrast, exposure to explicit erotica
significantly increased hostile behavior, and this effect did not
reliably interact with degree of provocation. There was some indication,
however, that the hostility-enhancing effect of exposure to explicit
erotica was strongest under conditions of severe provocation. (
Exposure to pornography and aggression toward women: The case of the
Fordham U, Lincoln Ctr Campus
Social-Problems; 1982 Apr Vol 29(4) 387-398
AB: Reviews research since 1970 on the effects of pornography on men's
treatment of and underlying attitudes toward women. There is little
evidence that exposure to hard-core pornography produces aggressive
behavior in men. However, levels of aggression in already angered men
are increased by exposure to hard-core materials. Research on the
long-term effects of exposure to pornography and the difference between
laboratory-induced anger and deeper anger that is a product of
psychosexual development are discussed. It is concluded that anger is a
greater social problem than pornography, particularly in men who are
unable to resolve it or distinguish it from sexual arousal and control
Roger Tang, email@example.com
Middle-class weenie and art nerd
E-Mail Fredric L. Rice / The Skeptic Tank