Following are abstracts taken from psychology journals, 1981-89 on the effeccts of porn on

Master Index Current Directory Index Go to SkepticTank Go to Human Rights activist Keith Henson Go to Scientology cult

Skeptic Tank!

Following are abstracts taken from psychology journals, 1981-89 on the effeccts of porn on behavior. Read 'em, use 'em---BUT STOP ARGUING WITHOUT SOME DATA! Pornography, erotica, and attitudes toward women: The effects of repeated exposure. Padgett,-Vernon-R.; Brislin-Slutz,-Jo-A.; Neal,-James-A. Rio Hondo Coll, Whittier, CA, US Journal-of-Sex-Research; 1989 Nov Vol 26(4) 479-491 PY: 1989 AB: Assessed the relationship between pornography and attitudes toward women in 2 correlational studies, and tested the effect of nonviolent erotica on attitudes toward women with 184 psychology students and 20 patrons at an "adult" theater. Hours of viewing pornography was not a reliable predictor of attitudes toward women in either sample. Patrons of the adult theater, who viewed more pornography, had more favorable attitudes toward women than male or female Ss. Pornography and sexual offences. Langevin,-Ron; Lang,-Reuben-A.; Wright,-Percy; Handy,-Lorraine; et-al Clarke Inst of Psychiatry, Toronto, ON, Canada Annals-of-Sex-Research; 1988 Vol 1(3) 335-362 LA: English PY: 1988 AB: Examined whether erotica is harmful and incites sexual crimes by interviewing 227 male sex offenders and 50 control Ss from the community in Canada about purchase of erotic magazines and videos and attendance at erotic movies. Erotica use was not a pertinent factor in offenders' sex offenses nor to their legal situation. Results do not support the conclusion of the Meese Commission (1986) that there is a causal association of sexual violence and use of violent pornography. Physiological desensitization and judgments about female victims of violence. Linz,-Daniel; Donnerstein,-Edward; Adams,-Steven-M. U California, Santa Barbara, US Human-Communication-Research; 1989 Sum Vol 15(4) 509-522 AB: 29 male undergraduates viewed a control film (nonviolent with explicit sexual content) and 34 male undergraduates viewed an experimental film (violent with explicit sexual content). All Ss were then exposed to 2 brief clips of violence perpetrated by a man against a woman while their heart rates were monitored. Results indicate that heart rates for Ss exposed to the violent videotape were lower during the final 90 sec of each violent dependent measure film clip than controls. Although the violence-viewing Ss experienced no change in moods, control Ss experienced significant increases in hostility, anxiety, and depression during the dependent measure clips. Ss in the violence-viewing condition attributed less injury to the victims but greater responsibility to the perpetrators in the dependent measure clips, compared to control Ss. Child sexual abuse and pornography: Is there a relationship? Knudsen,-Dean-D. Purdue U, West Lafayette, IN, US Journal-of-Family-Violence; 1988 Dec Vol 3(4) 253-267 AB: A review of official reports and other research indicates that the circumstances surrounding sexual abuse are inadequately specified to allow specific causal interpretations. The role of pornography in contributing to such abuse is explored by reviewing laboratory studies and the circumstances of child sexual abuse. An assessment of the research literature suggests that pornography is a minor and indirect influence on child sexual maltreatment. Exposure to sexually explicit materials and attitudes toward rape: A comparison of study results. Linz,-Daniel U California Communication Studies Program, Santa Barbara, US Journal-of-Sex-Research; 1989 Feb Vol 26(1) 50-84 AB: Reviews experimental studies conducted since the 1970 pornography commission that have tested the effects of exposure to sexually explicit materials on attitudes and perceptions about rape. Studies of short-term exposure to nonaggressive sexually explicit communications have yielded mixed results. When effects do exist for this material, they are both fewer and weaker than antisocial effects from sexually violent material. Studies of the effects of long-term exposure to nonviolent pornography have also yielded mixed results: Some experiments find increases in negative attitudes about rape, and others show no effects. Studies that have included violent film conditions have consistently found less sensitivity toward rape victims after exposure to these materials. A preliminary examination of the pornography experience of sex offenders, paraphiliacs, sexual dysfunction patients and controls based on Meese Commission recommendations. Condron,-Mary-K.; Nutter,-David-E. Sexual Behavior Ctr, Lancaster, PA, US Journal-of-Sex-and-Marital-Therapy; 1988 Win Vol 14(4) 285-298 AB: The Meese Commission Report (1986) claims that exposure to pornography leads to sex offenses and states that it is important to examine the developmental patterns of offenders. The present study found that the frequency of use of pornography, age of exposure to pornography, age of 1st masturbation experience and use of pornography during 1st masturbation experience for 62 male sex offenders, paraphiliacs, sexual dysfunction patients, and controls were not significantly different. Pornography and rape: A causal model. Russell,-Diana-E. Mills Coll, Oakland, CA, US Political-Psychology; 1988 Mar Vol 9(1) 41-73 AB: Contends that in order for rape to occur, a man must not only be predisposed to rape, but his internal and social inhibitions against acting out rape desires must be undermined. It is theorized that pornography (1) predisposes some men to want to rape women or intensifies the predisposition in other men already so predisposed; (2) undermines some men's internal inhibitions against acting out their rape desires; and (3) undermines some men's social inhibitions against the acting out. Research substantiating this theory is presented and discussed, and suggestions are made for further research. Rape rates and the circulation rates of adult magazines. Scott,-Joseph-E.; Schwalm,-Loretta-A. Ohio State U, Columbus, US Journal-of-Sex-Research; 1988 Vol 24 241-250 AB: Examination of reported rape rates and the sale of 10 popular adult magazines by states for 1982 revealed a significant relationship. Although the assumption was that the more sexually explicit magazines and those containing the most violent sexual depictions would have higher correlations with rape rates, correlations for individual magazines indicate the opposite. The censorship of pornography: Catharsis or learning? McCormack,-Thelma York U, Toronto, ON, Canada American-Journal-of-Orthopsychiatry; 1988 Oct Vol 58(4) 493-504 AB: Asserts that contemporary research on pornography reveals an impasse between the models of catharsis and learning. It is suggested that preference for the latter by a recent government report (US Department of Justice, 1986) is based on ideological rather than scientific considerations. The breakdown in the liberal tradition, current pornography research based on behaviorism, and 2 major theoretical problems are discussed. An alternative approach is suggested that uses knowledge of sexuality, gender inequality, and institutional oppression, and the meaning of texts to better understand pornography. It is argued that censorship may obstruct research and fail to advance feminist goals. ( Beitrag zur Beziehung von Video-Filmkonsum und Kriminalitat in der Adoleszenz. / Relationship between viewing of video films and criminality in adolescents. Klosinski,-G. U Bern, Jugendpsychiatrischen Klinik und Poliklinik, Switzerland Praxis-der-Kinderpsychologie-und-Kinderpsychiatrie; 1987 Feb-Mar Vol 36(2) 66-71 AB: Presents 3 forensic-psychiatric case reports in which criminal acts perpetrated by adolescent males were associated with previously viewed horror or pornographic videos. In each case, the videos served to precipitate and legitimize a neurotic solution to existing conflicts. It is suggested that in exceptionally unusual, ludicrous, or cruel offenses by adolescents, the possibility of video-induced criminality should be considered. Effects of long-term exposure to violent and sexually degrading depictions of women. Linz,-Daniel-G.; Donnerstein,-Edward; Penrod,-Steven U California, Communication Studies Program, Santa Barbara, US Journal-of-Personality-and-Social-Psychology; 1988 Nov Vol 55(5) 758-768 AB: Investigated the effects of emotional desensitization to films of violence against women and the effects of sexually degrading explicit and nonexplicit films on beliefs about rape and the sexual objectification of women. Males viewed either 2 or 5 R-rated violent "slasher," X-rated nonviolent "pornographic," or R-rated nonviolent teenage-oriented ("teen sex") films. Affective reactions and cognitive perceptions were measured after each exposure. Later, these men and no-exposure control Ss completed a voir dire questionnaire, viewed a reenacted acquaintance or nonacquaintance sexual assault trial, and judged the defendant and alleged rape victim. Ss in the violent condition became less anxious and depressed and showed declines in negative affective responses. They were also less sympathetic to the victim and less empathetic toward rape victims in general. However, longer film exposure was necessary to affect general empathy. There were no differences in response between the R-rated teen sex film and the X-rated, sexually explicit, nonviolent film, and the no-exposure control conditions on the objectification or the rape trial variables. A model of desensitization to media violence and the carryover to decision making about victims is proposed. ( Violent pornography and self-reported likelihood of sexual aggression. Demare,-Dano; Briere,-John; Lips,-Hilary-M. U Winnipeg, MB, Canada Journal-of-Research-in-Personality; 1988 Jun Vol 22(2) 140-153 AB: 222 undergraduate males were administered an attitudes survey examining pornography use, attitudes, and self-reported likelihood of rape (LR) or using sexual force (LF). Nonviolent pornography was used by 81% of Ss within the previous year, whereas 41% and 35% had used violent and sexually violent pornography, respectively. 27% of Ss indicated some hypothetical LR or LF. Discriminant function analysis revealed that use of sexually violent pornography and acceptance of interpersonal violence against women were uniquely associated with LF and LR. It is hypothesized that the specific fusion of sex and violence in some pornographic stimuli and in certain belief systems may produce a propensity to engage in sexually aggressive behavior. An empirical investigation of the role of pornography in the verbal and physical abuse of women. Sommers,-Evelyn-K.; Check,-James-V. York U, Toronto, ON, Canada Violence-and-Victims; 1987 Fal Vol 2(3) 189-209 AB: Studied the presence of pornography and both sexual and nonsexual violence in the lives of 44 battered women drawn from shelters and counseling groups, and a comparison group of 32 women from a mature university population. It was found that the partners of the battered Ss read or viewed significantly greater amounts of pornographic materials than did the partners of the comparison group. In addition, 39% of the battered Ss (in contrast to 3% of the comparison group) responded in the affirmative to the question, "Has your partner ever upset you by trying to get you to do what he'd seen in pornographic pictures, movies, or books?" It was also found that battered Ss experienced significantly more sexual aggression at the hands of their partners than did the Ss in the comparison group. Four theories of rape: A macrosociological analysis. International Congress on Rape (1986, Tel Aviv, Israel). Baron,-Larry; Straus,-Murray-A. U California Ctr for the Study of Women, Los Angeles, US Social-Problems; 1987 Dec Vol 34(5) 467-489 AB: Presents a theoretical model that integrates 4 macrosociological theories of gender inequality, proliferation of pornographic materials, cultural spillover of violence to other social contexts, and social disorganization as mechanisms promoting rape. The theoretical model was tested, using 1980 -1982 data on rapes known to the police in the 50 states in the US. The results show that gender inequality, social disorganization, percent residing in standard metropolitan statistical areas, the circulation of pornography, economic inequality, and percent unemployed had direct effects on the incidence of rape. The use of sexually explicit stimuli by rapists, child molesters and nonoffenders. Marshall,-W.-L. Queen's U, Kingston, ON, Canada Journal-of-Sex-Research; 1988 May Vol 25(2) 267-288 AB: 89 male sex offenders (voluntary outpatients) and 24 male nonoffenders were asked to retrospectively recall their use of sexually explicit materials during pubescence, and currently. 23 rapists and 51 men who molested children other than their own (i.e., child molesters) reported significantly greater use of materials than was indicated by either incest offenders or nonoffender controls. Rapists and child molesters reported frequent use of these materials while preparing themselves to commit an offense. Current use was significantly related to the chronicity of their sexual offending (as revealed by number of victims) among the child molesters and to laboratory-assessed sexual preferences for children in the heterosexual child molesters. The pornography/aggression linkage: Results from a field study. Smith,-M.-Dwayne; Hand,-Carl Tulane U, New Orleans, LA, US Deviant-Behavior; 1987 Vol 8(4) 389-399 AB: Assessed the impact of presenting a pornographic movie on a college campus in a longitudinal, self-report study of 230 women students to determine effects of the film's showing on the Ss' experiences with aggression from males. Compared with the weeks prior to and following the movie's showing, no significant difference in reported aggression was found. Those Ss reporting association with males attending the movie reported no significantly different levels of experienced aggression from those Ss whose companions did not view the film. PO: Human Use of pornography in the criminal and developmental histories of sexual offenders. Carter,-Daniel-L.; Prentky,-Robert-A.; Knight,-Raymond-A.; Vanderveer,-Penny-L.; et-al Massachusetts Treatment Ctr, Research Dept, Bridgewater, US Journal-of-Interpersonal-Violence; 1987 Jun Vol 2(2) 196-211 AB: Investigated exposure to and use of pornography in the familial, developmental, and criminal histories of 64 incarcerated male volunteers (38 rapists and 26 child molesters). Data were gathered using a paper-and-pencil self -report questionnaire. Results show that while both groups reported similar exposure to pornography in the home and during development, child molesters indicated significantly more exposure than rapists in adulthood and were significantly more likely both to use such materials prior to and during the offenses and to employ pornography to relieve an impulse to act out. Findings are discussed with regard to the catharsis hypothesis and to the role of pornography in the commission of sexual offenses for certain types of rapists and child molesters. "Stranger" child--murder: Issues relating to causes and controls. Wilson,-Paul-R. Australian Inst of Criminology, Canberra, ACT, Australia International-Journal-of-Offender-Therapy-and-Comparative-Criminology; 1987 Vol 31(1) 49-59 AB: Discusses the causes and control of serial killings of children. Despite the tendency to view such killers as psychiatrically ill, studies suggesting that these offenders do not differ psychologically from nonoffenders are cited. It is suggested that subcultural and other sociological perspectives stressing social disadvantage have low levels of explanatory power. While evidence concerning the effects of media on sexual and violent crime is inconclusive, case studies indicate that pornography and even popular music may increase the propensity of some individuals to commit atrocities. It is concluded that countermeasures to control stranger killing of children lie in more sophisticated law enforcement, long periods of incarceration, and more sophisticated crime analysis. The findings and recommendations of the Attorney General's Commission on Pornography: Do the psychological "facts" fit the political fury? Linz,-Daniel; Donnerstein,-Edward; Penrod,-Steven U California, Los Angeles American-Psychologist; 1987 Oct Vol 42(10) 946-953 AB: The Attorney General's Commission on Pornography has concluded that there is a causal relationship between exposure to many forms of pornography and several antisocial effects, including increased levels of violence against women. As a result of these findings, the commission has called for more strict enforcement of existing obscenity laws and serious consideration of additional legal measures not traditionally handled under obscenity law. The authors question whether the social science data relied on by the commission justifies either the commission's conclusions about harm or the call for more stringent law enforcement. Although some of the commission's findings appear to be sound extrapolations from the empirical studies, the authors find several of the commission's findings and recommendations incongruent with available research data. Instead of advocating stricter legal controls the authors reiterate their call for educational programs to mitigate the effects of sexual violence in the media. Exposure to pornography and attitudes about women and rape: A correlational study. Garcia,-Luis-T. Rutgers U, Camden Coll Journal-of-Sex-Research; 1986 Aug Vol 22(3) 378-385 AB: Investigated the relationship between exposure to sexually explicit material and attitudes toward rape in 115 male undergraduates. Data provide mixed support for the hypothesis that exposure to pornographic materials would be correlated with less liberal attitudes toward women: Only exposure to coercive or violent sexual themes was related to more traditional attitudes about women. Contrary to predictions, Ss having greater exposure to sexual materials were found to express more liberal attitudes toward women in the area of sexual behavior. Pornography and sex-related crime: A sociological perspective. Hong Kong Psychological Society: Psychosocial aspects of pornography (1986, Hong Kong). Sharp,-Imogen U Hong Kong Bulletin-of-the-Hong-Kong-Psychological-Society; 1986 Jan-Jul No 16-17 73-81 AB: Suggests that the incidence of reported rape is lower in areas in which there are more liberal attitudes toward pornography. Women may choose to not report a rape because of fear, threat of further victimization, or powerlessness and helplessness. In a society that has a liberal tolerance for pornography and in which rape is often presented as a normal part of male-female relations, a woman may assume that rape would not be viewed as a serious offense by authorities. Pornography as cause or pornographic experience as constituted? Hong Kong Psychological Society: Psychosocial aspects of pornography (1986, Hong Kong). Tsang,-Adolf U Hong Kong Bulletin-of-the-Hong-Kong-Psychological-Society; 1986 Jan-Jul No 16-17 29-32 AB: Suggests that pornography should not be viewed as the cause of certain behaviors but as the material constituent of a pornographic experience. Experiments that attempt to assess the effects of pornography on behavior ignore the element of choice in the real-life pornographic situation, since the experimental Ss are presented with pornography while it must be actively sought out in real life. It is also suggested that determining what constitutes pornography may depend on an individual's personal experience. Fifteen years of pornography research: Does exposure to pornography have any effects? Hong Kong Psychological Society: Psychosocial aspects of pornography (1986, Hong Kong). Hui,-C.-Harry U Hong Kong Bulletin-of-the-Hong-Kong-Psychological-Society; 1986 Jan-Jul No 16-17 41-62 AB: Reviews 35 studies published between 1972 and 1985 on whether exposure to pornography (EP) has any effects on behavior. One study examined the effects of EP on prosocial behavior (none was found); 20 studies assessed the effects of EP on antisocial behavior and found general support for a causal link between EP and aggression; 3 studies found some evidence of a link between EP and rape; and 11 studies examined the relationship between EP and moral values and attitudes and found some evidence relating EP to a greater acceptance by men of the victimization of women. Overall, the studies indicate that pornography does have psychosocial effects on users, contrary to the 1970 report by the US Congress's Commission on Obscenity and Pornography. The question of pornography. Donnerstein,-Edward-I.; Linz,-Daniel-G. U California, Santa Barbara Psychology-Today; 1986 Dec Vol 20(12) 56-59 AB: Questions the conclusions of the 1986 US Attorney General's Commission on Pornography and argues that the most important problem in the media is not pornography but violence. Research is summarized that suggests that the amount of violence depicted in pornography has not increased, that the aggression-evoking effects of exposure to sexually violent material may be temporary, that materials depicting women "enjoying" rape have especially damaging effects on male attitudes, and that violence against women need not occur in a sexual context to have a negative effect on viewer attitudes and behavior. Mass media sexual violence and male viewers: Current theory and research. Donnerstein,-Edward-I.; Linz,-Daniel-G. U Wisconsin, Ctr for Communication Research, Madison American-Behavioral-Scientist; 1986 May-Jun Vol 29(5) 601-618 AB: Reviews research on aggressive pornography and research that examines nonpornographic media images of violence against women. The question of whether pornography influences behaviors and attitudes toward women is considered. There is no evidence for any "harm"-related effects from sexually explicit materials. But research may support potential harmful effects from aggressive materials. Although messages about violence and the sexualized nature of violence may be part of some forms of pornography, they are also pervasive in media messages in general, from prime-time TV to popular films. It is concluded that the media is just one of many influences in society that contribute to men's callous attitudes about rape and sexual aggression. Repeated exposure to violent and nonviolent pornography: Likelihood of raping ratings and laboratory aggression against women. Malamuth,-Neil-M.; Ceniti,-Joseph U California, Los Angeles Aggressive-Behavior; 1986 Vol 12(2) 129-137 AB: Examined the long-term effects of repeated exposure to violent and nonviolent pornography on males' laboratory aggression against women and their self-reported likelihood of raping. 42 university students were randomly assigned to the sexually violent, sexually nonviolent, or control exposure conditions. Those assigned to the sexually violent or sexually nonviolent conditions were exposed over a 4-wk period to 10 stimuli including feature-length films and written and pictorial depictions, whereas controls were not exposed to any stimuli. Following the end of the exposure phase, Ss participated in what they believed to be a totally unrelated experiment in which aggression was assessed within a Buss paradigm. Exposure to the violent or nonviolent pornographic stimuli did not affect laboratory aggression, but likelihood of raping ratings predicted laboratory aggression. "Prudes" and "pornographiles": Effects of subject and audience attitudes on the viewing and rating of pornographic materials. Yuen,-Kenneth; Ickes,-William U Wisconsin Journal-of-Social-and-Clinical-Psychology; 1984 Fal Vol 2(3) 215-229 AB: Examined stereotyped conceptions of the prude and the pornographile by testing the responses of 72 male undergraduates with anti- or propornography attitudes to pornographic stimuli presented in varying social contexts. Specifically, both types of Ss were allowed to view and rate a series of pornographic slides in 1 of 3 conditions: alone (control) or in the presence of a peer whose expressed attitude toward pornography was either favorable or unfavorable. For measures of viewing time and rated pornographic value, the antipornography Ss were more susceptible to the influence of the peer audience's expressed attitude than were the propornography Ss. In general, the stereotyped images of the prude and the pornographile were supported. However, it remains to be determined to what degree the observed differences were due to personality, social comparison, and arousal-attribution processes. Self-regulated exposure to erotica, recall errors, and The relief of sexual problems through pornography. Court,-John-H. Australian-Journal-of-Sex,-Marriage-and-Family; 1984 May Vol 5(2) 97-106 AB: Examines the scientific foundations for claimed efficacy of sexually explicit materials for use in sex therapy. The term pornography is examined to establish important distinctions between different materials, and the case for pornography, as advanced by W. C. Wilson (1978), is examined critically. While acknowledging that many therapists are finding sexually explicit materials educationally valuable in the treatment of sexual disorders, it is concluded that the evidence is insufficient for the therapeutic use of what most people mean by pornography. (28 ref) Pornography and sexual abuse of women. Silbert,-Mimi-H.; Pines,-Ayala-M. Delancey Street Foundation, San Francisco, CA Sex-Roles; 1984 Jun Vol 10(11-12) 857-868 AB: Interviewed 200 juvenile and adult, current and former, female street prostitutes, aged 10-46 yrs, to investigate the sexual abuse of street prostitutes. 70% of the Ss were less than 21 yrs old; 60% were less than 17 yrs old. 69% of the Ss were White and 18% were Black. 68% were single and never married. 42% described themselves as very poor. The Ss were administered a sexual assault experience questionnaire consisting of questions on background information, forms of assault experienced, history of juvenile sexual exploitation, and self-concept. Many of the descriptions of sexual assaults made reference to the role played by pornography; these references were unsolicited by the interviewers. A detailed content analysis of 193 cases of rape and of 178 cases of juvenile sexual abuse revealed a clear relationship between violent pornography and sexual abuse in the experience of street prostitutes. Results can neither confirm nor reject the catharsis model of pornography; however, they lend considerable weight to the imitation model. The effects of erotica and pornography on attitudes and behavior: A review. Masterson,-John U Dublin, Trinity Coll, Ireland Bulletin-of-the-British-Psychological-Society; 1984 Aug Vol 37 249-252 AB: Reviews the literature on the effects of erotica (ER) and pornography (PN) on attitudes and behavior, noting that researching these topics poses difficult experimental problems. The reliability of data on availability and use of PN is questionable. It is asserted that the context in which PN thrives needs to be reexamined. Of particular interest is the degree of acceptance of coercion in sexual relations by "normal" males and females. Findings on ER vs PN are discussed, and decisions concerning the effects of PN and ER by the US National Commission on Obscenity and Pornography and the Committee on Obscenity and Film Censorship (UK) are reviewed. Current concern centers around violent sexual material. Research has shown that exposure to sexually violent material can lead to antisocial attitudes and behavior. It has been argued that the enjoyment of PN by individuals will decline when such individuals begin to accord women their status as fully human. It is concluded that PN can be viewed as a useful indicator of the state of male-female relations in society Debriefing effectiveness following exposure to pornographic rape depictions. Malamuth,-Neil-M.; Check,-James-V. U California, Los Angeles Journal-of-Sex-Research; 1984 Feb Vol 20(1) 1-13 AB: Examined the ethics of exposing undergraduate students to pornographic rape portrayals followed by a debriefing designed to dispel a number of rape myths. 150 Ss were randomly assigned to read pornographic stories. Some of these depicted a rape, whereas others depicted mutually consenting intercourse. Afterwards, those exposed to the rape version were given a debriefing that included statements concerning the true horror of rape and the existence of rape myths. About 10 days later, a survey ostensibly conducted by a local committee of citizens was given to Ss in their classes. As part of the survey, Ss indicated their reactions to a rape article and their opinions about the general causes of rape. Results indicate that those exposed to the rape depictions followed by a debriefing were less accepting of certain rape myths than Ss exposed to mutually consenting intercourse depictions. Implications are discussed both in terms of work focusing on the potential antisocial impact of violent pornography and of research specifically designed to identify the conditions most likely to change acceptance of rape myths. Can there be positive effects of participation in pornography experiments? Check,-James-V.; Malamuth,-Neil-M. York U, Downsview, Canada Journal-of-Sex-Research; 1984 Feb Vol 20(1) 14-31 AB: Conducted a 2-phase experiment in response to recent ethical concerns about the possible antisocial effects of exposing research Ss to pornographic rape portrayals. In Phase 1, 64 male and 94 female undergraduates were randomly assigned to read either an "acquaintance" or a "stranger" rape depiction, or to read control materials. Ss who read the rape depictions were then given a rape debriefing that included a communication about the undesirable desensitizing effects of pairing sexual violence with other highly explicit and pleasing sexual stimuli. Half of the Ss who read the control materials were also given the rape debriefing. In Phase 2, Ss were presented with a number of newspaper articles in which a newspaper report of a rape was embedded and asked to give their opinions. Results indicate that the rape debriefing generally increased Ss' perceptions of pornography as a cause of rape. Ss in the rape debriefing conditions also gave the rapist in the newspaper report a higher sentence and saw the rape victim as less responsible than did Ss in the control conditions. This latter effect, however, occurred only under conditions where Ss had earlier been exposed to an example of a rape depiction that was relevant to both the rape myths discussed in the rape debriefing and the newspaper report of the rape. (24 ref) (PsycLIT Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserve Pornography and social science research: . . .higher moralities. Zillmann,-Dolf; Bryant,-Jennings, Indiana U Journal-of-Communication; 1983 Fal Vol 33(4) 111-114 AB: Responds to comments by L. Gross (see PA, Vol 71:23017) concerning the present authors' (see PA, Vol 70:1038) study on pornography, which found that massive exposure to pornography results in a loss of compassion for female rape victims and women in general. The present authors provide sources for information on their debriefing procedures and address the issues of possible damage to research Ss and the contamination of results because Ss may have talked about their experience in the study with others. Pornography and social science research: Serious questions. . . . Gross,-Larry, U Pennsylvania Journal-of-Communication; 1983 Fal Vol 33(4) 107-111 AB: Contends that D. Zillmann and J. Bryant's (see PA, Vol 70:1038) study on pornography, which found that massive exposure to pornography resulted in a loss of compassion toward women as rape victims and toward women in general, cannot be taken at face value because information on how the research was conducted is lacking. In addition, according to the present author, the research raises serious questions of ethics concerning experimental procedures and conditions and "damage" to the Ss that the researchers did not address. Exposure to pornography, permissive and nonpermissive cues, and male aggression toward females. Leonard,-Kenneth-E.; Taylor,-Stuart-P. U Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Inst & Clinic Motivation-and-Emotion; 1983 Sep Vol 7(3) 291-299 AB: 40 male undergraduates viewed either neutral slides with a silent female or erotic slides with a female who made permissive, nonpermissive, or no comments about the slides. Ss rated the slides and subsequently rated the female confederate. Ss were then given an opportunity to administer their choice of several intensities of shock to the female in a competitive RT task. Ss in the permissive cues condition rated the erotic slides as more arousing, saw the female as more reasonable and accepting, and selected more intense shocks for the female than did Ss in the other conditions. One explanation of these results is that permissive cues in the presence of erotica led the S to believe that other normally inappropriate behaviors would be tolerated. Pornography, sexual callousness, and the trivialization of rape. Zillmann,-Dolf; Bryant,-Jennings Indiana U, Inst for Communication Research, Bloomington Journal-of-Communication; 1982 Fal Vol 32(4) 10-21 AB: Studied the effect of pornography on perceptions of sexuality and behavioral dispositions toward sex and gender. 160 male and female undergraduates were assigned to 1 of 4 conditions in which exposure to pornography was massive, intermediate, or nil. Ss were tested for habituation effects, perceptions of sexuality, and dispositions concerning sex and gender. A control group was tested with no prior exposure to pornographic materials. Results show that numerous persisting perceptual and dispositional changes concerning sexuality, especially female sexuality, were recorded during the 3rd wk after the exposure treatment. Findings show that massive exposure to standard pornography resulted in a loss of compassion toward women as rape victims and toward women in general. Effects of erotica on retaliatory behavior as a function of level of prior provocation. Ramirez,-John; Bryant,-Jennings; Zillmann,-Dolf Indiana U, Inst for Communication Research, Bloomington Journal-of-Personality-and-Social-Psychology; 1982 Nov Vol 43(5) 971-978 AB: 72 male undergraduates were mildly or severely provoked by the experiments; exposed to nonerotic, suggestive, or explicitly erotic stimuli; and then provided with an opportunity to treat their provoker in a hostile manner. The effect of exposure to suggestive erotica interacted with degree of provocation. Exposure to such erotica significantly reduced hostile behavior under conditions of mild provocation, but it had no appreciable effect under conditions of severe provocation. In contrast, exposure to explicit erotica significantly increased hostile behavior, and this effect did not reliably interact with degree of provocation. There was some indication, however, that the hostility-enhancing effect of exposure to explicit erotica was strongest under conditions of severe provocation. ( Exposure to pornography and aggression toward women: The case of the angry male. Gray,-Susan-H. Fordham U, Lincoln Ctr Campus Social-Problems; 1982 Apr Vol 29(4) 387-398 AB: Reviews research since 1970 on the effects of pornography on men's treatment of and underlying attitudes toward women. There is little evidence that exposure to hard-core pornography produces aggressive behavior in men. However, levels of aggression in already angered men are increased by exposure to hard-core materials. Research on the long-term effects of exposure to pornography and the difference between laboratory-induced anger and deeper anger that is a product of psychosexual development are discussed. It is concluded that anger is a greater social problem than pornography, particularly in men who are unable to resolve it or distinguish it from sexual arousal and control over women. -- ----- Roger Tang, Middle-class weenie and art nerd


E-Mail Fredric L. Rice / The Skeptic Tank