Paul Harvey Christian history [Septuagint to Lib. of Alexandria] BCE [Before Conversion Er

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Paul Harvey Christian history [Septuagint to Lib. of Alexandria] BCE [Before Conversion Era]: 264-241: First Punic War 255: Septuagint translation (Hebrew -> Greek) begun in Alexandria, Egypt 250: Ecclesiastes written by Jesus ben Sirach 250: Synagogues, places to study Torah, appear 250: Arcesilaus founds Second Academy of Athens 250: Asoka the Great, d.232, buddhist king of Magadha (273-232), unites India in "unity of diversity," erects columns 40ft high inscribed with Laws of Peaceful Nonviolence later picked up by Gandhi and Martin Luther King 247-221: Ptolemy III Euergetes, king of Egypt, includes Judea/Samaria/ Galilee 239: Egyptians add leap year to calender 233: Sun Tzu, (Tzu means Master), Chinese philosopher, "The Art of War" 225: Quintus Fabius Pictor, first Roman historian 221: China standardizes weights and measures 219-201: Second Punic War 200: Book of Esther written in Susa, Persia 200?: Ma-wang-tui silks, oldest and complete Tao Te Ching (Taoism), Lao Tzu 200: Cato the Elder of Rome writes "De agricultura" 198: Antiochus III of Syria takes Judea/Samaria/Galilee from Egypt, Seleucid (Greek Babylonian) Empire begins period of extreme missionary Hellenism 194: Eratosthenes, b.276, accurately calculates earth's circumference 182: Hannibal, Carthaginian general, crossed the Alps, b.246 179: Pons Aemilius, first stone bridge in Rome 175-163: Antiochus Epiphanes, the fourth, king of Syria, persecutes Jews 170: Jerusalem High Priest Jason builds gymnasium for Greek athletic games 170: Ennius the poet, b.239, "Father of Latin Literature" 168: Antiochus IV plunders and desecrates Jerusalem Temple 167: Temple worship abolished in December by Antiochus IV 167-164: Maccabean Revolt, Judean response to above 165: Jerusalem Temple rededicated by Judas Maccabaeus 164: Daniel written in Jerusalem, some basis in older stories from 280-180 149-146: Third Punic War, Romans kill 450,000 at Carthage ... 149: Hu Shin produces Chinese dictionary of 10,000 characters 147: Greece under Roman rule 144: Jonathan Maccabaeus, who succeeded Judas, assassinated 144-135: Simon Maccabaeus rules Jerusalem, expels Syrians 133: Asia Minor annexed by Rome 135-104: John Hyrkanos, Prince and High Priest of Jerusalem, "age of expansion", annexes Transjordan, Samaria, Idumea. Forces Idumeans to convert to Hellenistic Judaism 130: 1 Maccabees, a Greek translation of lost Hebrew original 120: 2 Maccabees, a Greek text based on earlier Greek text now lost 112: Rise of Pharisees (a lay group) and Sadducees (Priests) in Judea 105: Jugurtha king of Numidia Africa defeated by Marius and Sulla of Rome 105: first College of Technology in Alexandria, founded by mathematician Heron 103: Aristobulus, Prince and High Priest of Jerusalem, was a brute 102-75: Alexander Jannai, Prince and High Priest of Jerusalem, was cruel 100: Ossuaries, stone bone boxes, with Greek inscriptions appear in Jerusalem 100: tomb of Goliath family linked to Temple Priesthood, inscriptions in Greek 90: Vitruvius' "De architectura" 82: Alexander Polyhistor of Miletus writes a history of the Jews 78: Book of Esther translated into Greek in Jerusalem 75-67: Salome Alexandra, Queen of Jerusalem, last independent Judean ruler 69: Hyrcanus II deposed, rise of House of Antipater in Jerusalem 63: Pompey the Great (106-48) of Rome captures Jerusalem 55: Cicero's "De oratore", "De republica" in 54 54: erection of new (Julian) forum in Rome 51: Caesar's "De bello Gallico", account of Gallic War, "De bello civili" in 47 47: Herod, governor of Galilee 47: Library of Ptolemy I in Alexandria destroyed by fire 46: Africa becomes Roman province 46: Julian calendar of 365.25 days, leap year 44: Gaius Julius Ceasar, b.100, Roman jurist, "et tu Brutus" 40: Herod appointed king of Judea in Rome 37-4: King Herod the Great of Judea, b. 73?, an Idumean, "Massacrer of the Innocents", kills High Priest Hyrkanos, Augustus said: "One would rather be Herod's swine than his son", posed as a champion of Hellenistic culture 31: Egypt falls to Rome, becomes Roman province, Cleopatra VII commits suicide 31-14CE: Octavian Augustus, b. 63, first Roman emperor 30: Roman Pantheon begun 25: 3 Maccabees written in Alexandria 19: Herod rebuilds a Hellenized Jewish Temple, complete with Roman eagle gate 12-4: Jesus son of Mary of Galilee born 6: Judea officially annexed by Rome 4-39CE: Herod Antipas, son of Herod & Malthace of Samaria, tetrarch of Galilee 4-6CE: Herod Archelaus, son of Herod & Malthace, ethnarch of Judea, "The Fool" 4-34CE: Philip, son of Herod & Cleopatra of Jerusalem, tetrarch of ? 2: Ovid's "Ars Amatoria" CE [Conversion Era]: 6: first Roman census of province Judea, by Quirinius, governor of Syria 9: Hillel, b.30BCE, "Do not unto others what you would not have done unto you" 14-37: Tiberius, Roman emperor, b. 42BCE 18-36: Caiaphas, high priest of Herod's Temple 22-220: Later (Eastern) Han dynasty in China 26-36: Pontius Pilate, governor of Syria (includes Galilee/Samaria/Judea) 28-29: John the Baptist begins ministry [Ref: Luke3:1-2] 33?: Jesus bathed in Jordan to remove sins by John the Baptist, Mk1:4-11 33-34: John the Baptist arrested by Herod Antipas [Ref: Luke3:19-20,Josephus] 33-34: Jesus' ministry begins soon after John's arrest [Ref: Mark1:14/Luke] 33-36: Jesus' ministry, foundation years of Christianity, "Repent, for the kingdom of the skies is approaching!" -Mt4:17(Gaus) "And he goes up the mountain and calls the ones he wanted to him, and they went to him. And he settled on twelve of them {his disciples} to be with him, and to be sent out by him to spread the word, and to have authority to throw out demons. And he gave Simon the name "Rock" {Aramaic: Kephas; Greek: Petros} [{1}"Peter"] {a fisherman from Bathesda and to be the first Pope(see 67)}; and he gave {2}James the son of Zebedee and his brother {3}John {more fishermen, was John the disciple Jesus loved? writer of Gospel of John and only eyewitness recorder?, later John the Elder?(see 120)} the name of Boanerges {Aramaic}, which means "the Thunder Brothers"; plus {4}Andrew {brother of Peter}, {5}Philip {also from Bathesda}, {6}Bartholomew, {7}Matthew {a Tax Collector! [Mt10:3], Gospel of Matthew?}, {8}Thomas {Gospel of Thomas?, a Gnostic?}, {9}James son of Alpheus, {10}Thaddeus, {11}Simon the Canaanite {a Canaanite!}, and {12}Judas Iscariot, who betrayed him." -Mk3:13-19(Gaus) 36: Jesus betrayed by one of his own disciples, Judas son of Simon of Iscariot 36: Jesus denied 3 times by one of his own disciples, [Simon] Peter the "Rock" 36: Jesus crucified, Friday March 30th [Ref: John, Unauthorized Version/Fox] "And at three o'clock, Jesus cried out in a loud voice, 'Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani,' {Aramaic?} which translates to "My God, my God, why did you desert me?" -Mk15:34(Gaus) 36-80: period of oral tradition in Christianity between Jesus and the Gospel of Matthew, the era of Paul of Tarsus, recorded in Acts: [Simon] Peter{1} as leader [Pope?], John{3}, James{2}, Andrew{4}, Philip{5}, Thomas{8}, Bartholomew{6}, Matthew{7}, James{9} son of Alpheus, Simon{11?} the Revolutionary, Jude son of James, Mary the mother of Jesus, Jesus' brothers and sisters and various other women [Ac1:13-14]; {What happened to Thaddeus?} only about 120 initial believers? [Ac1:15], Judas{12} the betrayer commits "suicide" [Ac1:18-19], Matthias voted in as his replacement [Ac1:23-26], Peter and John jailed for one night for causing riots, number of converts increases to 5000 [Ac3], Ananias and Sapphira die under mysterious circumstances after not giving all their possessions to Christianity [Ac5], Aramaic and Greek in use early on, 7 Greeks added to 12 apostles: Stephen, Philip, Prochorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas, Nicolaus [Ac6], initially there is only one Christian "church" [Greek ecclesia most likely just an assembly rather than a formal church], in Jerusalem, Paul [Saul] of Tarsus, prior to his conversion to "apostle of the Gentiles", has Stephen martyred and the Jerusalem "church" destroyed, the original Christians disperse throughout Judea and Samaria [Ac8:1ff], Paul of Tarsus converts and the main activity of Christianity shifts from the Hellenic-Jewish-Christians of Judea, Samaria and Galilee [Nazarenes "of Nazareth" and Ebionites "poor ones"] to the Gentile-Christians led by Paul and centered in the church of Corinth ... 36-37: Paul of Tarsus' conversion, (Acts9), (he was a Roman citizen, tentmaker) 37-41: Gaius Caligula, b. 12, emperor of Rome 37-44: Herod Agrippa I, king of Judea and Samaria 40: first known Christian church, erected at Corinth (center of gentile faith) 41-54: Claudius, emperor of Rome 41-48: Herod of Chalcis, king of Chalcis 43: city of London founded 45: Philo Judaeus of Alexandria, b. 30BCE, Jewish philosopher and Hellenizer 47-48: Paul on Cyprus (Acts13:4ff) 48-51: Council of Apostles and Elders, first Christian council, (Acts15:6-29) 48-93: Agrippa II, king of Judea, ruled from Chalcis 48-52 and Iturea 52-93 49-50: Paul in Corinth, the center of his mission to the gentiles (Acts18) 51-63: Pauline Letters: Gl(48-55),1Th(51),Rm(56-58),1Cr(56),2Cr(57),Ph(55-63) 54-68: Nero, b.37, (Claudius poisoned by his wife Agrippina), emperor of Rome 58: Paul arrested, imprisoned in Caesarea, (Acts25:4ff) 58: Ming-Ti, emperor of China, introduces Buddhism to China 59: Nero kills his mother Agrippina 60: Paul imprisoned in Rome (Acts28:16ff) 62: Paul martyred for treason in Rome 62: "James, brother of Jesus who is called Christ, stoned to death" [Josephus] 62: Nero kills wife Octavia, marries Poppaea Sabina 64: first recorded Roman persecution of Christians (as a distinct sect) 65-70: Gospel of Mark 65-70?: Q?, a hypothetical second source used by Matthew and Luke 66-70: Roman-Jewish War, final destruction of Second Temple, (Herod's Temple) 67: [Simon] Peter "The Rock", apostle of Jesus and first Pope, martyred 68: Linus becomes second Pope 68: Nero commits suicide 69: Galba(6/68-1/69), Otho(1-4), Vitellius(6-12), emperors in series of Rome 69-79: Vespasian, emperor of Rome 70-100: Gospel (NT) redaction and compilation stage of Christianity, post Paul, center of Christianity shifts from Corinth to Rome 71?: "The Jewish War", by Josephus 79: Pliny the Elder, b.23, died at Vesuvius, wrote of history of Essenes 79-81: Titus, emperor of Rome 80: Gospel of Matthew, most popular in early church, based on Mark and Q? 80?: Council of Jamnia said to have canonized Jewish Scripture, discredited 81-96: Domitian, emperor of Rome 88-97: Pope Clement I, of Rome 90: Gospel of Luke, based on Mark and Q?, also Acts of the Apostles 90?: Josephus claims exactly 22 Jewish books: 5 Law, 13 History, 4 Hymns 94: "Jewish Antiquities", by Josephus, Testimonium Flavianum: "At this time there appeared Jesus, a wise man. For he was a doer of startling deeds, a teacher of people who receive the truth with pleasure. And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many of Greek origin. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him previously did not cease to do so. And up until this very day the tribe of Christians (named after him) has not died out." (Ref: A18.3.3, Marginal Jew, Meier, p.61) 95: Letters of Clement of Rome [Pope, see 88-97] 96-98: Nerva, emperor of Rome 98-116: Trajan, emperor of Rome, Roman empire reaches maximum size 100: Fourth Ezra written, claims 24 Jewish books 100?: Flavius Josephus, b. 37, Jewish general, turncoat and historian 100: Gospel of John, only eyewitness account? by the disciple Jesus loved? 100: Romans build aqueduct using Roman Arch (semicircle) at Segovia, Spain 110: Letters of Ignatius, bishop of Antioch, attracts many Christian fakes 112: Pliny the Younger, b. 61, Roman consul and author, Letter10.96 114: "The Golden Ass", Apuleius, Roman satirist 115: Lucian of Samosata, Greek satirist, "The Passing of Peregrinus" - a satire of early Christianity 117-138: Hadrian, emperor of Rome 118: Tacitus, Publius Cornelius, b. 55?, Roman historian, "Annals", "Therefore, to squelch the rumor [that Nero had started the Great Fire of Rome], Nero created scapegoats and subjected to the most refined tortures those whom the common people called "Christians," [a group] hated for their abominable crimes. Suppressed for the moment, the deadly superstition broke out again, not only in Judea, the land which originated this evil, but also in the city of Rome, where all sorts of horrendous and shameful practices from every part of the world converge and are fervently cultivated." (Ref: A15.44, Marginal Jew, Meier, p.89-90) 120?: The Unknown Gospel, published 1935 120-200?: Egerton Papyrus 2, published 1935 120-138: Papias, bishop of Hierapolis, claims that John the Elder, a disciple of Jesus, told him that Mark "was the interpreter of Peter and wrote down carefully what he remembered of what had been said or done by the Lord, but not in the right order." Also claims that "Matthew composed the sayings in Hebrew [more likely Aramaic] and each one translated them as he could." (Ref: Unauthorized Version, Fox, p.126-127) 120: Plutarch, b.47, Greek historian 122-127: Hadrian's Wall built across Britain 125: earliest existing fragment of NT, papyrus fragment of Gospel of John 130: Gospel of Basilides (lost), 24 book commentary? 132: Akiva ben Joseph, b. 50?, Jewish religious leader 132-135: Bar Kochba revolt, final Jewish revolt, Judea and Jerusalem erased from maps, southern Syria named Palestine 138-161: Antoninus Pius, emperor of Rome 138?: Suetonius, b.69?, Roman historian, "Claudius25.4", "Lives of 12 Caesars" 140: Letters of Marcion, heavily edits Gospels to suit a theology based on Luke 150?: Didache (Christian teachings) 150?: Gospel of Thomas, based on Q? (see 65-70), published 1959 150?: Gospel of Peter 150?: Infancy Gospels: Protevangelium Jacobi, Infancy Gospel of Thomas ... 150?: The Secret Gospel (of Mark), published 1973 150-350?: "Jewish-Christian Gospels": (fragments only) Gospel of the Nazarenes is an Aramaic paraphrase (targum) of Matthew, 7 fragments of Gospel of the Ebionites in Greek, 7 fragments of Gospel of the Hebrews in Greek 150?: Claudius Ptolemy of Alexandria, Greek astronomer and geographer 161-180: Marcus Aurelius, emperor of Rome 164-180: Great Plague in Roman empire 165: Letters of Justin Martyr, b.100?, Greek church father 170: Letters of Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, claims Christians were changing and faking his own letters just as (he knew) they had changed the Gospels 170: Letters of Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons 170: a Christian claims 25 Jewish books from Palestinian informants 170: Tatian produces "Harmony," a blending of the four Gospels into one 170: Christian council on Montanist sect in Asia Minor 180-192: Commodus, emperor of Rome 189-199: Pope Victor I 190: Christian council to determine official date of Easter 193-211: Septimius Severus, emperor of Rome 200: Mishnah, Torah teachings, from Halakhah, Oral Law, Hillel/Akiva/Meir/Judah 200: Bishop of Antioch writes: Gospel of Peter (150?) being used in Cilicia 200: Bishop of Rome becomes Pope 200: period of Neo-Platonism, last of Greek philosophies 201?: Claudius Galen, b. 130?, Greek anatomist, physician and author 212-217: Geta then Caracalla, emperor of Rome 212: "Civis Romanus sum!", Roman citizenship for every free born subject 215: Letters of Clement, bishop of Alexandria, cites Gospel of the Egyptians 217: Judah Ha-Nasi, "Rabbi", codified Mishnah (200) 218-222: Heliogabalus, emperor of Rome 220: Letters of Tertullian 220: Goths invade Asia Minor and Balkans 222-230: Pope Urban I 222-235: Alexander Severus, emperor of Rome 230-250: Christian council of Rome 235: Letters of Hippolytus, bishop of Rome 236-238: Maximinus, emperor of Rome 238-244: Gordian I, II, Balbinus, Pupienus, Gordian III, emperors of Rome 240-250: Christian council of Carthage 244-249: Philip the Arabian, emperor of Rome 248: Rome celebrates 1,000th anniversary, see 753BCE 249-251: Decius, emperor of Rome 250: Letters of Methodius, bishop of Olympus 250: Rome steps up persecution of Christians, martyrs revered as saints 250: Diophantus of Alexandria, first book of algebra 250?: Letters of Pistis Sophia, Porphyry Tyrius? 251: Letters of Novatian 251-253: Gallus, emperor of Rome 253-260: Valerian, emperor of Rome 254: Letters of Origen, b.185?, cites a rumor recorded by Celsus ~178 that Jesus' father was a Roman soldier by the name of Panthera, coined "homoousios" or Jesus and God of one substance, adopted at Council of Nicaea in 325, wrote "Hexapla" - the OT in six Hebrew and Greek texts 257: Goths, (Visigoths and Ostrogoths), invade Black Sea area 257: Franks invade Spain 258: Letters of Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, claims Christian letter faking 260-268: Gallienus, emperor of Rome 264: Letters of Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria 264-268: Christian council on behavior of Paul of Samosata, bishop of Antioch 268: Goths sack Athens, Sparta, Corinth 268-270: Claudius II, emperor of Rome 270-275: Aurelian, emperor of Rome, "restitutor orbis" 271: compass invented in China 276-282: Marcus Aurelius Probus, emperor of Rome 276: Mani, b.215, crucified, founder of Manichaean Christian sect in Persia 282-283: Marcus Aurelius Carus, emperor of Rome 284-305: Diocletian, emperor of Rome 285: Roman empire partitioned into western and eastern empires 285: Pappus of Alex. describes 5 machines: cogwheel/lever/pulley/screw/wedge 303-311: last persecution of Christians in Rome 304: Letters of Victor, bishop of Pettau 306-337: Constantine the Great, reunites empire, converts to Christianity 313: Edict of Milan, Constantine establishes toleration of Christianity 317: Letters of Lactantius 325: Council of Nicaea, "1st great Christian council" - Jerome, 1st ecumenical, called by Emperor Constantine, 318 bishops attend, deals with Arianism (336) 325-900: Teotihuacan, ancient Mexican city 325?: Codex Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, earliest "New Testaments" 331: seat of Roman empire moved to Constantinople (former Greek Byzantium) 336: Arius, Greek theologian, b.256?, Arianism: Jesus was a created being 338: Jewish calender modified with different year lengths to correct to Solar 340: Rome again splits, Constans emperor of West, Constantius II of East 340?: Eusebius of Caesarea, b. 260?, theologian and church historian 360: Huns invade Europe, scrolls begin to be replaced by books 361: Emperor Julian the Apostate attempts to revive paganism 367: Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria cites exactly 27 books of NT 370: Epiphanius, bishop on Cyprus, cites 27 plus Wisdom of Solomon 375: Parable of the Adulterous Woman, Jn7:53-8:11 added 379-395: Theodosius the Great, last emperor of united empire, stops Olympics 381: Council of Emperor Theodosius at Constantinople, 2nd ecumenical, declares Jesus had a true human soul 383: Roman legions begin to evacuate Britain 390: Apollinaris of Laodicea, b.310, Jesus had human body but divine spirit 393,397: Augustine's Councils, cites exactly 27 books of NT 396: Alaric, king of the Visigoths, plunders Athens 400: Vulgate (Hebrew->Latin,Greek->Latin) by Jerome (340?-420?), 400: Palestinian Talmud [Mishnah and Gemara (Mishnah commentary)] 400-600: Era of 'aggressive forgeries' in Christian texts 401-417: Pope Innocent I [nice name] 401: Visigoths invade Italy 410: Alaric, king of the Visigoths, sacks Rome 410: beginnings of Alchemy 416: Visigoths take Spain 418: Franks take Gaul 429: Picts and Scots expelled from S. England by Anglo/Saxon/Jutes 430: Augustine, b. 354, origin of "Original Sin," church father and philosopher 431: Council of Ephesus, 3rd ecumenical, declared Mary is Mother of God 432: St. Patrick begins mission in Ireland 433-453: Atila the Hun 439: Codex Theodosianus, compilation of Roman Law 440-461: Pope Leo I 450: Mark's Resurrection of Jesus, v.16:9-20 added 451: Council of Chalcedon, 4th ecumenical, declared Jesus is two natures, both human and divine, in one 451: Nestorius of Constantinople, held Mary was not Mother of God 452: Venice founded by refugees from Attila's Huns 454: Eutyches of Constantinople, Monophysites: Jesus was divine (not human) 455: Vandals sack Rome [it was becoming the thing to do] 457-474: Pope Leo I becomes emperor of remaining (eastern) Roman empire 461-483: Pope Simplicius 470: flowering of Mayan city culture in southern Mexico 474-491: Zeno, eastern Roman emperor 476: official end of western Roman empire, last emperor Romulus Augustulus 478: first Shinto shrines in Japan 483-492: Pope Felix III 484-519: first schism between western (Rome) and eastern (Byzan.) Christianity 489: Zeno destroys Nestorian(451) school at Edessa, erects Church of St. Simeon 491: Armenian Church secedes from Byzantium and Rome 491-518: Anastasius I, eastern Roman emperor 492-496: Pope Gelasius I 496-498: Pope Anastasius II 498: Nestorians (451) settle in Nisibis, Persia 498-514: Pope Symmachus 499: Synod of Rome issues a decree on papal elections 500: incense introduced in Christian church service, first plans of Vatican 500: Codex Bezae, NT in Greek and Latin 500: Tamo brings tea from India to China 502: Narsai of Mealletha, Syrian poet, head of Nestorian school in Nisibis(498) 514-523: Pope Hormisdas 518-527: Justin I, emperor of Byzantine (former eastern Roman) empire 523-526: Pope John I 525: Dionysius Exiguus (500-560) proclaims birth of Jesus was Dec 23, 1CE 526-530: Pope Felix IV 527-565: Justinian the Great, Byzantine emperor 529: Justinian closes 1000yr Athen's School of Philosophy, declared Paganism 530-532: Pope Boniface II 533: N. Africa captured by Belisarius from Vandals, becomes Byzantine province 533-535: Pope John II 534-870: Malta becomes Byzantine province 535-536: Pope Agapetus I 536-537: Pope Silverius 539-562: war between Byzantine Empire and Persia 542: plague in Constantinople from Egyptian and Syrian rats, spreads to Europe 543: Justinian condemns writings of Origen (185-254), disastrous earthquakes shake entire world 547: plague, medically described by Gildas, reaches Britain 550: St. David converts Wales to Christianity 550: crucifix becomes Christian icon 552: Emperor Shotoko Taishi introduces Buddhism into Japan 552: Justinian sends Christian missionaries to China and Ceylon to get silkworm 553: silk industry monopoly established in Byzantine empire 555: 2nd Council of Constantinople, 5th ecumenical, called by Emperor Justinian 565-578: Justin II, Byzantine emperor 572-628: war between Byzantine Empire and Persia 578-582: Tiberius II, Byzantine emperor 582-602: Maurice, Byzantine emperor 587: Visigoths of Spain converted to Christianity 589: Lombards of Italy converted to Roman Catholicism 590: plague in Rome 594: end of plague which began in 542 and halved the population of Europe 595: first authenticated record of decimal number system appears in India 596: St. Augustine of Canterbury sent to convert Britain to Christianity 600: Babylonian Talmud [Mishnah and Gemara (Mishnah commentary)], Ashi 600: Antara ibn Shaddad, one of seven great Islamic poets 600: Pope Gregory strives to convert the Jews to Christianity 600: book printing in China 602: Yellow River (Huang Ho) of China changes course in flood 602-610: Phocas, kills Maurice, Byzantine emperor 606: standard examinations for public office in China 609: Roman Pantheon changed to Church of S. Maria Rotonda 610-641: Heraclius, kills Phocas, Byzantine emperor 610: Muhammad's vision on Mount Hira 614: Persians take Damascus and Jerusalem and "Holy Cross of Christ" 615: earliest records of some of Muhammad's teachings 616: Persians take Egypt 619: "Suan-Ching", ten classics, textbooks used for Chinese exams (606) 622: year one in Muslim calendar, The Hegira 622-680: Monothelite controversy, condemned at 6th Ecum. Council of Const. 624: Muhammad marries Aisha, daughter of Abu Bekr 625: Paulinus of Rome comes to convert Northumbria to Christianity 625: Muhammed begins dictation of Qur'an (Koran) 625: Brahmagupta, mathematician of India, teaches at Ujjain 626: Edwin of Northumbria founds Edinburgh and begins Christianization 627: Byzantines defeat Persians at Nineveh, discover Indian sugar cane 628: Emperor Heraclius wins back "Cross of Christ" from Persians (614) 628: Muhammad captures Mecca and writes to rulers of the world, explains Islam 629: Heraclius recovers Jerusalem from Persians 629: Pope Honorius I sides with Heraclius and Monothelites (622) 632: East Anglia Christianized 632: Muhammad, b. 570?, Arab prophet and founder of Islam 632: Abu Bekr, first Islamic Caliph, seat at Medina 634: Omar I, second Caliph, takes Syria, Persia, Egypt; defeats Heraclius of Byzantium in "Holy War" 635: Christianization of Wessex 635-750: Damascus becomes capital of Islamic Caliphs 636: Southern Irish Church submits to Roman Catholicism 637: Jerusalem captured by Islam 640: Library of Alexandria, "the center of Western Culture," with 300,000 ancient papyrus scrolls, is completely destroyed.

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