[Typist's note: The following paper was written by
Richard Lundstrom in 1975 and was delivered at a
Kateri Tekakwitha conference. Mr. Lundstrom passed away
in the early 1980's. I retyped the paper (in Word Perfect
version 5.1) from some badly faded copies and am
distributing it on Compuserve with the permission of
Mr. Lundstrom's wife. This ASCII version of the paper
is missing all of the underlining, italics, superscript,
and foreign language characters that do not translate
to ASCII. The original paper was 15 pages double spaced,
with ten pages of single spaced footnotes. I will be happy
to provide copies in Word Perfect 5.1 or other formats to
anyone who is interested. Please contact me for details.
I will also upload some of Mr. Lundstrom's other papers
in the Native American section of the Issues forum.
Preston Moser (CIS #72621,1377)
807 Bennett Ave. #6
Medford, OR 97504
The Pontifical Commission of Justice and Peace has recently
issued a paper entitled "The Church and Human Rights" admitting that
the Catholic Church has not always properly promoted and defended
human rights.(1) While affirming the basic truth of its traditional
dogmas and the rectitude of its current moral stance, the paper
admits that, in the matter of justice, the Church has erred or
sinned. The Vatican has prudently excluded the paper from any of its
traditional papal categories--it is neither solemn definition, nor
encyclical, nor bull nor allocution--for with what degree of its
infallible authority shall the Church admit that it has erred?
Rather the admission has come in humility, without pomp, without the
thunderous dialectic and theological dust raised by such issues as
those concerning the Trinity, the hypostatic union,
transubstantiation and the geometric configurations of the souls of
Nonetheless, the paper is timely and if it guides us aright it
might lead us to the transformation that John XXIII, Paul VI and the
World Synod of Bishops have urged, but toward which the Catholic
Church in the United States has advanced uncertainly, obliquely, if
indeed it has advanced at all. It could hardly be otherwise since a
Church convinced of its own righteousness is in no position to move
anywhere except in constricted concentric circles around the vision
of its own innocence, a vision that has endured despite the fact
that the United States has been and is so manifestly unChristian
that one scarcely knows where to begin to
expand the proposition, and despite our terrible oppression of the
non-white masses of mankind. We Catholics have always consoled
ourselves that such sinful conditions exist despite the Church. Now,
however, following the example of the Pontifical Commission, we may
examine our collective conscience, repent, and, thus freed, turn our
faces toward justice and peace and the deep structural
transformations needed to attain them.
The greatest obstacle to such salvific awareness of sin is the
typical aprioristic conviction that the Church has not sinned
because she can not. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that
the Church can sin because it has done so, most mortally indeed.
Let the examination begin with Christopher Columbus for in a
very real sense his "Discovery" begins the American experience.
Furthermore, on October 12 we shall uncritically celebrate the man
and a nice selection of his deeds supplied, like as not, by such
seekers of truth-before-profit as EXXon, Gulf, and I.T.T. We shall
not celebrate his sins nor those of his Church. But we can, perhaps,
become aware of them.
Christopher Columbus, Admiral of the Ocean Seas, after a long
voyage, hit an island he called San Salvador and went ashore under a
banner emblazoned with the Cross. He found its inhabitants to be
merry, loving, generous, hospitable, possessors of a spiritual
religion, unacquainted with murder and theft, so gentle that a
hundred would fly before a single Spaniard who was but jesting with
them. All of these things he wrote in his own hand.(2) Yet with no
seeming awareness of inconsistency, he attacked these "Indians" and
their villages, enslaving as many as his ships could handle on their
On his second voyage, a colonizing expedition, he set up
headquarters on the island he called Hispanola, now Haiti and Santo
Domingo. He subjected the inhabitants of the island in a series of
attacks featuring horse, cannon, musket, lance, sword and
man-killing dog against defenseless men, women, and children.(4) The
Indians were soon demoralized both by the attacks themselves and by
their inability to comprehend the unrestrained rapacity of their
In order to extract the wealth of the West Indies as quickly as
possible, Columbus next instituted the encomienda system--a grant of
land with the forced, unpaid, perpetual labor of the Indians living
on it.(5) From the Indians not thus enslaved Columbus exacted a
terrible tribute(6) which the most strenuous labor of the strongest
Indians could not satisfy. And one's life stood forfeit for
non-payment of tribute. The Indians could not tolerate the
consequent agony. They resisted. Some fled to the mountains where
they starved to death or were hunted down by the man-killing dogs.
Others practiced mass infanticide and mass abstinence from sexual
relations in order that children should not live in such horror.
Many were subjected to unspeakable torment: they were dismembered by
horses, they were maimed in ingenious ways, they were roasted upon
griddles, they were disemboweled,
impaled, drowned, hanged, the heads of babes were dashed against
rocks. And when an Indian turned upon a Christian and killed him,
there went forth an edict--for every Spaniard killed, one hundred
Indians shall die.(7)
Thus Hispanola was soon depopulated under Columbus and his
immediate successors, including his son Diego. So slave traders
fanned out to the other islands of the Caribbean in search of more
slaves and the Indians of these islands underwent the same
On Hispanola alone more than 250,000 Indians perished; in all
the West Indies--the Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, the Lesser
Antilles--more than a million were exterminated.(8) The actions
initiated by Columbus meant absolute genocide. The Indians of the
Indies--the Taino, the Arawak, the Carib--have been extinct for four
hundred and fifty years.(9)
Columbus emerges from the blood and fire of the charnel house
he himself created as a profiteer, a slave owner, a slave trader,(10)
and an active practitioner of genocide. He raised the curtain on the
most terrible crime in human history--the onslaught of the white
Christians against the Indians of the Americas. And Columbus was
above all else a Catholic. He was faithful to his devotions and
fervent in them. His chief motive in his Voyages, he said, was the
spread of the Catholic Faith through the conversion of the
natives.(11) He was so conscious of this mission that he developed a
cryptographic autograph that emphasized the etymology of
Christopher: he was a Christ bearer.(12) He adopted the brown habit
of the Franciscans as a sign of his commitment to poverty and
humility.(13) He could gather fifteen hundred Indian slaves for
shipment to Spain and when the assigned ships could hold only five
hundred he could turn the surplus thousand over to his men for an
unalleviated orgy of sex and violence, to escape which some Indians
ran themselves to death, literally.(14) Yet Columbus could retire
after his nightly prayers, invincibly righteous, and lose no sleep
over these murders. His chief worry was about inadequate profits.
Columbus was no hypocrite.
Would that he had been.
His attitudes, like those of the Europeans who followed him to
the New World, were formed in a Catholic culture and were
transmitted to him in the very air he breathed. He inhaled them from
home, school, pulpit, books; from parents, monks, priests, nuns, and
friends.(15) To understand such attitudes, one might recall the
marriage of the Catholic Church to the power of the Roman Empire
fashioned by Constantine. And one might remember especially the long
centuries of warfare between the Catholic Europeans, who were white,
and the followers of Islam, who were not.
Whatever the factors, by the time of Columbus the Catholic
attitude toward pagans was full blown and case hardened. The
maritime laws of Oleron express it thus: Any Christian may Attack
any Turk, or any other enemy of the Catholic Faith, treating him
as if he were a dog, without fear of penalty.(16) In 1430 Pope Martin
V sanctioned Portuguese incursions into Africa by granting them the
exclusive right to commerce, the slave trade and evangelization
there.(17) In 1452 Pope Nicholas V reaffirmed these rights.(18) In 1488
Pope Innocent VIII accepted with joy a gift from his fellow
Christian monarchs--one hundred moorish slaves.(19) In 1489 this same
pope promulgated a bull giving Portugal permission to enslave
Saracens and other pagans and to seize their land.(20) In 1493
Alexander VI in the Bulls Inter Cetera I and II divided the
non-Catholic world between Spain and Portugal, Spain to get the New
World, Portugal to get Africa and the East, even though he knew
these lands were inhabited. For he did "give, grant, and assign
forever to you and your heirs and successors, kings of Castile and
Leon, all singular the aforesaid countries and islands.... together
with all their dominions, cities, camps, places and villages, and
all rights, jurisdictions, and appurtenances of the same." "The
barbarous nations," the Pope states as his cherished wish, "were to
be overthrown and brought to the faith itself."(21)
The basic attitude of the Europeans as described by and
prescribed by the Popes is quite clear: A Catholic recognizes no
rights in non-Catholics. And those who were not Catholic were, with
very few exceptions, not white either. These pagan, colored peoples
could be attacked dispossessed, enslaved, forcibly converted,
killed. Indeed Christian nations were under an oft-repeated papal
commission to do so. The Catholic attitude, the
attitude shared by Columbus, had these notes: it was arrogant in its
profession of absolute power over men of other religions and races;
it was racist in its condemnation of non-Whites; it was violent in
the conquest, conversion and cultural suppression of those it
oppressed. All these qualities existed in extreme degrees. One final
note--the Christians and their Church were unconscious of any error
Obviously Columbus was no moral aberration. He was very much
the man of his times. It was an article of his Catholic Faith that
these non-white pagans had no rights before a Catholic. Hence he
respected none. The treatment he meted out to the Indians was
sanctioned by Pope and King. In conquering, enslaving, looting and
exterminating them, he was about the work of God. If there was any
fault anywhere, it lay with the Indians.
Columbus is a monstrosity. Supported by his Church, he
committed crimes in a spirit of idealistic righteousness. In the
name of God, he worked genocide against the people of God.
Throughout the Christian attack on the Indians, the clergy
operated with the same attitude as Columbus and their other lay
counterparts. They effected little true religious conversion and
much psychological destruction.(22) It might be relevant here to
mention that the Indian tribes, almost universally, would have
nothing to do with any Christian religion until they had been
physically overpowered;(23) Hence the priests, and later the
ministers, quickly learned to attach themselves to the big
battalions of the Europeans.) Priests saw to it that the temples and
alters of the Indians were razed, that their sacred icons were
smashed; that their historical records were destroyed.(24) They
branded as diabolical the Indians' religious beliefs and practices
and gods. They further humiliated the Indians by enslaving them and
forcing them to build thousands of churches and monasteries--often
on the sites of their own holy places.(25) The Church and its
religious orders grew wealthy from the loot and the slaves. The
clergy exacted their daily bread from the sweat of the Indians'
brows.(26) They were in a slightly sublimated manner, one hopes,
arrogant, racist, greedy and violent. And they too were totally
unconscious of it. For even the best of priests, men like Toribio de
Motolini'a and Bartolomeo de las Casas, supported the conquest and
did their best to further its aims.(27) (Las Casas would later change
his mind, but he is a lonesome figure.)(28) They sometimes protested
the excesses of greed and slaughter but even here their chief
consideration was profits or empire, as when Motolini'a warns the
Europeans that their depredations in New Spain will soon leave no
one to serve them.(29)
And the ministers of the Church were always present as the
conquest spread, sometimes even commanding the military forces
themselves.(30) Catholic priests managed the building of a long line
of mission-forts from South Carolina to Florida, thence along the
Gulf Coast to Texas, from Texas through New Mexico and Arizona to
California and the Pacific Coast.(31) The Indians lured into these
missions were enslaved.(32)
They were not free to leave;(33) They were subjected to a harsh and
unrelenting regimen enforced by the priests through severe physical
punishment, including death;(34) they were impressed for military
service against fellow Indians;(35) their labor was exploited to
support garrisons strategically located to hold off the English,
French, Russians, Americans and unconquered Indian tribes;(36) their
religions, their social relationships, their cultures were
suppressed.(37) These missions were, furthermore, death traps in
which, as at Santa Barbara, tribes had a half-life of thirteen
years.(38) Missionaries could demand and get scalps as proof of
"their" Indians' success in Christian wars against other Indians.(39)
They could administer severe beatings to Indians they thought
disobedient, unobservant, laggard.(40) They could order the death
sentence for what they considered more serious offenses (refusal to
submit was the most common "crime") and could even order the heads
of executed Indians to be displayed around mission territory impaled
on pikes as a warning to other Indians.(41) (Semi-American heros like
Eusebio Kino and Juni'pero Serra must face many such charges.)(42)
Naturally the Indians resisted. In the Carolinas, in Florida, in
Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, in California and all points to the
south, they killed priests, more than three hundred being
Franciscans and Jesuits.(43) They killed one hundred and eleven
priests in what is now the United States alone.(44)
The motive for the Indians' resistance to the priests was
explained by Pope', the leader of the 1680 Pueblo revolt in New
Mexico in which the Indians put twenty-one priests to death.(45) In
addition they broke up and burned the churches, the images of
Christ, the Virgin Mary and other saints, the bells, the crosses and
everything pertaining to Christianity; they separated from the wives
the priests had given them and took those whom they desired; they
plunged into the rivers, washing themselves and their clothing in
order to remove every vestige of the sacraments. Those things they
did, said Pope', because they wished to be free of the labor they
performed for the religious and the Spaniards and because they
wished to live in their own way.(46)
The general Indian attitude toward the Church may have been
best summarized by the Inca Atahualpa who, when informed by Fray
Vincente de Valverde that he must submit to the Europeans because
the Pope had given his land and its people to them, replied, "Your
Pope must be nuts." Such candor resulted in his early execution--for
It would be a mistake and a distraction to suggest that these
priests were knowingly immoral. With very few exceptions, they were
men of integrity and sanctity. Their labors and self-sacrifice were
often heroic. Their devotion to Christ was utterly beyond dispute.
It is precisely here that a large part of the problem lies: men of
great personal probity act as the executors
of a corrupt and oppressive institutional structure. It is a tribute
to the strength of ideology that it can bring even the best of men
to such a tragic state. And the religious ideology is the strongest
ideology of all.
What Columbus and the Spaniards did, other European Christians
likewise did. The Portuguese, the French, the English, the Dutch,
the Swedes, the Russians, the Americans--all possessed the same
attitudes deriving from the same ideological base.(48) All were
arrogant, racist, greedy and violent and few were aware of any sin.
Only practical exigencies such as the maximization of profits
necessitated regional adjustments in the treatment of the Indian
tribes. Moreover, Indian populations in the north were not as dense
as those in the West Indies, New Spain and Peru. Still the white
Christians did the best they could with the Indians available to
them. The Puritan Fathers and Mothers, for example, exterminated the
Pequot Indians with ruthless efficiency, thereby setting up a model
we Americans have repeatedly emulated and with which we are still
enamored.(49) And the culture-destructive activities of the Spanish
priests have been more than matched by the efforts of the United
States churches, including the Catholic Church, to complement
military subjugation with the annihilation of Indian societies and
the individual Indian personality.(50) These assaults which have by
no means ceased, reached their greatest intensity in the United
States, in the twentieth century, against the Indians of the
northern plains(51) and it may be, to quote John Collier,
"that the world has never witnessed a religious persecution so
implacable and so variously implemented." (52)
Samuel Eliot Morrison, even though his writings suggest that he
may be an approximate academic analogue to the activists like the
Paxton Boys and General Custer, quotes Bartolomeo de las Casas in
calling Columbus's activities on Hispanola irrational, abominable
and intolerable.(53) He might have said the same thing about
activities of the Catholic Church. He chose instead to praise the
Church.(54) Among historians, as among ordinary mortals, the Church
is justified, or excused at least, because her motive was the
conversion of the Indians to the Catholic Faith.(55) But this motive
has caused as much destruction among the Indians as the adventurer's
lust for gold, probably more.(56) Still it is the usual practice of
white Christian historians to ignore genocide by concentrating upon
the motives of those who are responsible for it.(57) In this regard,
many Indians are becoming less and less infatuated with white
For the Native Americans are still an oppressed people, living
constantly under the awful threat of imminent destruction. Tribes
still vanish with alarming regularity, leaving none to mourn their
vanished beauty and their thousands of years of creative cooperation
with the God of us all. They are still victims of the same greed,
violence, arrogance and racism that came to their world with
Columbus. Their destruction is not now achieved by gun fire,
although the current infestation of the Pine Ridge and
Rosebud Sioux Reservations by federal forces gives eloquent witness
to this nation's readiness to do so. Rather the Indians die because
those who dominate the nation still lust after Indian land and
resources and will not allow the Indians any power commensurate to
the need to protect themselves. They die because the most solemn law
of the land in their regard is violated time and time again by the
government of the United States. They die because their very
existence gives the lie to our bicentennial bombast. They die
because our system of capitalism, like a vampire, can live only on
the life-blood of victims.(58)
They die because the Church has failed them.
On the reservation this Church furthers oppression; it preaches
a truncated Christian morality that fosters submission; it preaches
a false peace that frustrates the revolution that must occur if the
Indian nations are to survive. In its dealings with non-Indians, the
Church curries the favor of those who have favors to curry only
because Indians are poor. It will not apply its Christian ethic to
challenge the structural immorality that impoverishes the Indians.
Rather it derives its support from these structures and has all the
usual reasons of expediency for not risking its physical survival by
standing with the Indians in opposition to them.
Yet it is with God's people as it was with Christ himself. One
is either with them or against them...
Indians themselves are trying to make us understand. Many speak
to the Church through their indifference to it. Others make sterner
In 1971 the Hopi informed us that the Christian Church is their
greatest threat--ranking ahead of the U.S. Army, Peabody Coal and
the Bureau of Indian Affairs.(59)
In 1973, in both anger and agony, Vine Deloria, Jr., spoke thus
to us Christians:
"To have given an adequate answer at Wounded Knee the federal
government would have had to admit that it is and always has
been made up of pathological liars. But by definition whites
and Christians, the civilized peoples of the world, do not
lie..." "On the one hand the Indian protestors are intent on
demonstrating that the white man's religion and his government
are hollow, without honor and without substance. Experienced
Indians regard this desire to show up the bankruptcy of the
white's values as suicidal. Of course practically every Indian
is convinced that the white man is corrupt to the core, but
many Indians reject attempts to demonstrate as much
because--and they point to Vietnam and the massacres of the
1800s--they believe that the white man will kill his opposition
rather than win it over by example or reason with it."
For the Indian, he says, the dilemma is how to call upon a more
universal sense of justice than the white Christian world can
sustain or fulfill.(60)
In 1975, at their July meeting in New Mexico, members of the
American Indian Movement agreed that the Institutional Church is the
greatest enemy of the Native Americans.
Such statements contain either the seeds of our redemption or
the obituary of the relevance of the Christian Church. They should
elicit response other than indignation if the Church is to carry out
the mission of its God.
But for a little moment, following the example of the
Pontifical Commission on Justice and Peace, and as a first step
toward the repentance and the transformation that must take place,
let us admit it simply: our Holy Mother the Church and we her
children, have, most grievously, sinned.
Richard H. Lundstrom
September 22, 1975
1. Denver Catholic Register, Sept. 3, 1975, p. 1.
2. Olson and Bourne, Eds., The Northmen, Columbus and Cabot,
"Journal of the First Voyage," Scribner's, New York, 1901,
A sailor, Rodrigo de Triana, first saw land and should have
collected a 10,000 maravedi reward for the first sighting.
Columbus, however, staged his own "first" sighting. Rodrigo
was so angry that he converted to Islam. Columbus collected
the reward in the form of a life annuity paid by a levy on
the butchers of Seville. So reports Las Casas whose father
was there. p. 109.
3. Ibid., p. 144, p. 225.
Morison, Samuel Eliot, Christopher Columbus Mariner, Mentor,
New York, 1955, p. 43, p. 64.
4. Washburn, Wilcombe, ed., The Indian and the White Man, Anchor,
Garden City, 1964, pp. 222-7.
Las Casas, Bartolomeo de, The Spanish Colonie, University
Microfilm, Ann Arbor, 1966, pp. A1 - A4
5. Collier, John, The Indians of the Americas, Mentor, New York,
1948, p. 79, p. 80.
Morison, loco citato, p. 119. Morison calls this system
repartimiento. The repartimiento was a grant of Indian labor.
Pearson, Keith L., The Indian in American History,
Harcourt Brace, New York, p. 32
6. Collier, loco citato, p. 72.
7. Las Casas, loco citato, p. A 3, p. A 4, p. A 5 and passim.
Washburn, loco citato, p. 225-7.
8. Morison, loco citato, p. 98.
9. Stock, Francis Borgia, O.F.M., ed., Motolinia's History of
New Spain, Academy of American Franciscan History,
Washington, D.C., 1951, p. 100.
[Typist's Note: The following was hand written at the end of
the end notes with the instruction to "Add to #9 - "]
"Columbus and Genocide" - by ???
from American Heritage Magazine, Oct. 1975.
In order to enslave the Indians over possible objections of
the "sentimental" Isabella, Columbus sent back word to Spain
that the Indians were cannibals. The lie still enjoys some
10. Morison, loco citato, p. 97, p. 98.
11. Morison, Ibid., p. 118
In the plan of colonization submitted to Ferdinand and Isabella,
Columbus asked for priests. One gets the strong impression, however
that he wanted them principally to ride shotgun on gold shipments
back to Spain. When Columbus concluded his second voyage, not one
Indian had been converted, but untold thousands had been murdered.
12. Morison, Ibid., p. 64.
13. Morison, Ibid., p.102.
14. Morison, Ibid., p. 97.
15. Prescott, William H., History of the Conquest of Mexico and
History of the Conquest of Peru, Modern Library, New York, p. 275
16. Pardessus, J.M., ed., Collection de Lois Maritimes, "Jugemens
d'Oleron," Paris, 1828, Tom. I, p. 351, cited by Prescott, loco
citato, p. 276.
"S'ilz sont pyrates, pilleurs, ou escumens de mer, ou Turcs,
et autres contraires et ennemis de nostredicte foy
catholique, chaseun peut prendre sur telles manieres de
gens, comme sur chiens, et peut l'on les desrobber et
spolier de lurs bins sans pugnition. C'est le jugement."
(Prescott's italics). Prescott loco citato, p. 277.
17. Houtart, Francois and Rousseau, Andre', The Church and
Revolution, Orbis Books, New York, 1971, p. 245.
18. Ibid., p. 245.
Valtiera, Angel, S.J., Peter Claver, Newman, Westminster, p. 76.
"It is granted to King Alfonso V of Portugal that he may claim
for himself and his successors any Saracens, pagans, kingdoms,
dukedoms, possessions, real and moveable properties that they may
possess, and subject the aforesaid persons to perpetual slavery."
19. Valtierra, loco citato, p. 76.
21. Deloria, Vine, Jr., God is Red, Grosset and Dunlap, New York, 1973,
McNickle, D'Arcy, They Came Here First, Lippincot, New York,
1949, p. 156.
After the terrible slaughter of New Spain, Clement VII welcomed
the returned hero, Cortes, and amid magnificent celebration and
pomp thanked the "Conquerors of Mexico" for the great service
they had rendered to Christianity. He also issued bulls granting
them plenary absolution for any sins they may have committed.
(Some smack of Ford and Nixon here.).
Prescott, loco citato, p. 661.
22. Moquin, Wayne and Van Doren, Charles, eds., A Documentary History of
the Mexican Americans, New York, Praeger, 1971, pp. 66-7.
Spicer, Edward H., Cycles of Conquest, U. of Arizona Press,
Tucson, p. 282.
Burke, James Wakefield, Missions of Old Texas, A. S. Burns and Co.,
New York, 1971, pp. 31-2.
Bancroft, Hubert Howe, History of Mexico, Bancroft and Co.,
San Francisco, 1883, Vol II p. 386.
Motolinia and Bancroft tell the story of Cristobal, an Aztec youth,
who was baptized after being forced to attend a Catholic school.
His father killed the boy in a fit of terrible rage. Motolinia
thought the father martyred the youth. Perhaps the father thought
he was performing the obsequies for a dead Indian.
23. Morison, loco citato, pp.325-6.
Prescott, loco citato, p. 122.
Washburn, loco citato, p.161, pp.167-75.
The leader of Indian resistance on Hispanola was Hatuey, whose name
has long graced bottles of a famous Cuban beer. Hatuey escaped
Hispanola and reached Cuba, becoming the leader of Indian resistance
there. Finally captured, and about to be burned alive, he was urged
to embrace Christianity and thus go to Heaven. Hatuey asked if white
men also went to heaven. Upon hearing that they did, he replied,
"Then I will not be a Christian, for I would not go again to a place
where I must find men so cruel." Prescott, loco citato, p. 123.
In his report on the Vizcaino expedition of 1602, Fr. Ascensio'n
states that no wars should be made upon Indians without the advice
and consent of the priests. (Boulton, loco citato in footnote 27,
24. Spicer, loco citato, p. 325-6.
Bancroft, loco citato, p. 179.
Collier, John, loco citato, p. 69.
25. Waters, Frank, Pumpkin Seed Point, Sage, Chicago, p. 97.
Collier, loco citato, p. 88.
26. Collier, loco citato, p. 69.
Prescott, loco citato, p. 1122.
27. Boulton, Herbert Eugene, ed., Spanish Explorations in the Southwest,
1542-1706, Scribners, New York, p. 114, pp. 131-2.
Bancroft, loco citato, p. 18, p. 23, p. 93, passim.
Motolinia, loco citato, p. 225, p. 292 and passim.
Burns, Edward McNall, and Ralph, Philip Lee, World Civilizations
Their History and Their Culture, W.W. Norton and Co., New York,
1974, Vol. II, p. 883.
Las Casas, Bartolomeo de, Treynte Prooposiciones muy juridicas, etc.,
Seville, p. 52. cited by Boulton, loco citato, p. 134.
Fr. Ascensio'n shows incisive insights into the profit motive.
(Boulton, loco citato, p. 132.)
28. Prescott, loco citato, p. 2-4-7.
When Las Casas went against Dr. Sepulveda in their famous debate, he
openly condemned the basis of the Conquest as expressed by many
Popes and Spanish monarchs. He took a terrible risk by thus espousing
heresy--the Inquisition was in full swing. It should be noted that he
was at least allowed to speak. (Las Casas, loco citato, pp. Q4-R3.
29. Motolini'a, loco citato, p. 251.
30. Boulton, loco citato, pp. 132-33, p. 437, p. 439.
Spicer, loco citato, p. 324.
Weigle, Morta, Penitentes of the Southwest, Ancient City Press,
Santa Fe, 1970, p. 4.
31. Bolton, Herbert, The Mission as a Frontier Institution in the
Spanish-American Colonies, Texas Western College Press,
El Paso, 1960, pp. 1-23.
Washburn, loco citato, p. 131.
32. Collier, loco citato, p. 131.
33. Staff of Sunset Books, eds., The California Missions, Lane Book Co.,
Menlo Park, Calif., 1964, pp. 14-15, 31-32.
Collier, loco citato, p. 131.
34. Spicer, loco citato, p. 325.
Moquin and Van Doren, eds., loco citato, pp. 139-146.
Bolton, loco citato, p. 13.
35. Bolton, loco citato, p. 13.
36. Englebert, Omer, Last of the Conquistadors Juni'pero Serra 1713-1784.
Harcourt Brace, New York, 1956, p. 58.
Staff of Sunset Books, loco citato, pp 14-15, 31-2.
Boulton, loco citato, p. 9, p. 10, p. 11.
Omer Englebert's (he's French) work on Serra was received as
definitive. Hear him about Indians: "How was one to civilize these
Redskins; dirty, boisterous, lazy, generally drunkards, in the habit
of lying, cheating, stealing, killing; people who begged without
shame, enjoyed the sight of suffering, knew nothing of the sentiment
of honor or gratitude, seemed susceptible only to fear and considered
as their neighbors only the folk of their own clan and kinship?....
Even in our day, if all you do for one of them is teach him his
letters and give him an automobile, you will have one newspaper
reader and motorist the more, but not one savage the less....Since
civilization is a matter of the inner being, and of an ethical
standard, it was only by transforming their soul and their
conscience through the revelation of the true god and the observance
of the Ten Commandments that one could change these malefactors into
honest folk." Englebert, loco citato, p. 39.
37. Burke, loco citato, p. 45, p. 9.
Moquin and Van Doren, eds., loco citato, pp. 131-6.
38. Collier, loco citato, pp. 31-2.
39. Bolton, loco citato, p. 11.
40. Collier, loco citato, p. 131.
Burke, loco citato, p. 145.
Loth, John H., Catholicism on the march, The California Missions,
Vantage Press, New York, 1961, pp. 71-2.
41. Spicer, loco citato, p. 310.
42. Spicer, loco citato, p. 325.
Bolton, loco citato, p. 11.
New Catholic Encyclopedia, McGraw Hill, N.Y. 1867, vol. 6, p. 45.
If it hadn't been for Juni'pero Serra and his missions, the Russians
may well have taken over California. The Nation for Dec. 10, 1914,
thanks Serra for having snatched California from Russia.
Considering current papal overtures to Russia, one wonders how this
fact will relate to his proposed canonization.
The Indian, Orlando, to Juni'pero Serra: "Why was it, Padre, you
friars had such a grudge against nakedness? Why was it so wicked to
go about as God made us?" and in explaining a massacre: "They taught
us to pray, spell and plow and dissemble our sex....Suppose we
preferred hunting and fishing to hammering horseshoes?....What if we
liked to dance under the moon....what if we liked our freedom under
the stars?" Niebuhr, Hulda, review of The Great Walker, Christian
Century, Aug. 22, 1956, p. 973.
43. Bolton, loco citato, p. 114-5, pp. 14-15.
Marshall, T.W.M., Christian Missions: Their Agents and Their Results,
Excelsior, New York, 1896, Vol. II, pp. 198-205.
44. Hughes, Thomas, The History of the Society of Jesus in North America,
Longmans, Green and Col, New York, 1917, Vol. II, p. 210.
45. Moquin and Van Doren, loco citato, pp. 131-6.
Bolton, loco citato, p. 15.
Chavez, Fray Angelico, La Conquistadora, St. Anthony Guild Press,
Patterson, 1954, p. 51.
46. Moquin, Wayne, ed., Great Documents in American Indian History,
Fraeger, New York, 1973, pp. 112-5.
Josephy, Alvin M., Jr., "Revolt in the Pueblos," American Heritage,
June, 1961, pp. 65-77.
47. Prescott, loco citato, p. 940.
Through unscrupulous guile, Pizarro lured the Inca Atahualpa and the
flower of his nation, unarmed, into a trap where thousands of Indians
were simply butchered. Pizarro cut his hand. The only other Spanish
blood shed was that of the clerics who scourged themselves to blood
to seek God's favor in the "battle." (Les Ecclesiasticos i Religiosos
se ocuparon toda aquella noche en oracion pidiendo a Dios el mas
conveniente suceso a' su sagrado servicio, exaltacion de la fe' e'
salvacion de tanto numero de almas, derramando muchas lagrimas i
sangre en las disciplinas que tomaron."
(Naharro, Relacion Sumari'a, MS). Prescott, p. 939.
48. Thomas, G.E., "Puritan Indians and the Concept of Race," New
England Quarterly, March, 1975, p. 3.
Edmonds, Walter D., The Musket and the Cross, Little, Brown
and Co., Boston, 1968, pp. 145-148, 138-9, 210-224.
49. Deloria, loco citato, p. 173.
Deloria, Vine, Jr., Behind the trail of Broken Treaties,
Delacorte Press, New York, 1974, p. 189.
Shorris, Earl, Death of the Great Spirit, Simon and Schuster,
New York, 1971, pp. 79-88.
Sheehan, Bernard W., Seeds of Extinction, Morton, New York,
1974, p. 116, pp. 205-18, pp. 276-8.
Mather, Cotton, Magnalia Christi Americans or History of New
England 1620-98, Antheneum House, New York, 1967,
pp. 154-5, pp. 574-6 and passim.
Farb, Peter, Man's Rise to Civilization, Avon, p. 207.
Pearson, loco citato, p. 46.
Spencer, Robert F. and Jennings, Jesse D., The Native
American, Harper and Row, New York, 1965, p. 350.
Pearce, Roy Harvey, The Savages of America, Johns Hopkins,
Baltimore, 1965, pp. 21-35.
Klingberg, Frank J., ed., The Carolina Chronicle of Dr.
Francis Le Jau, 1706-1717, U. of Carolina Press,
Berkely, 1956, pp. 122-3.
In Moby Dick Melville names the doomed ship Pequot as a symbol
of the Indians sacrificed to Kinky Puritan righteousness.
50. Pearson, loco citato, p. 79-83.
Spencer and Jennings, loco citato, p. 500, p. 501.
Collier, loco citato, p. 103.
Berkhofer, loco citato, p. 7, p. 106, p. 151.
Prucha, Francis Paul, Americanizing the American Indian,
Harvard U., Cambridge, 1973, pp. 2-10.
Faced with this type of Indian apathy, the Church groups on
the reservations tried various means of presuasion. Force
was the most effective and common meathod. Missionaries and
soldiers went to Indian homes and, in many cases, literally
carried children to school against the wishes of the
parents. The missionaries also made religious instruction
and worship a requirement for receiving federal services.
(Pearson, p. 320.)
[Typist's Note: The following section appeared at the end of the End
Notes section with the note "Add to #50."]
Coupled with the desire for new lands was the equally adamant demand
of the Christian churches for the breakup of the "tribal mass"
through allotment. Missionaries had visited nearly every tribe, and
in many of the remote tribes they discovered a relative immunity to
their overtures in the religious field. The custom in most tribes
of living in small groups or bands within the large reserved areas
meant that the religious traditions of the tribes were being
preserved through community religious ceremonies. Siphoning off a
few converts for the little missions became a difficult task for
the missionaries. They demanded that the reservations be divided
into allotments according to the number of individuals in the tribe.
In that way, the community groups would be destroyed and each family
would be isolated from the rest of the tribe, and so, theoretically,
vulnerable to conversion efforts. The result of this pressure was
the passage of the General Allotment act of 1887 which gave the
President the authority to make agreements with the tribes for the
allotment of their lands and the purchase of the "surplus" lands by
the United States.
Deloria, Behind the Trail of Broken Treaties, p. 189.
51. Collier, loco citato, pp. 132-34.
52. Ibid., p. 69. (also p. 48).
53. Morison, Christopher Columbus Mariner, p. 99.
54. Morison, Samuel Eliot, The Southern Voyages 1492-1616, U. of Oxford
Press, New York, 1974, p. 737.
"Let us not forget that this century (16th) was also an epiphany in
the religious sense; the main conception and aim of Columbus to
carry the word of God and the knowledge of his Son to the farthest
corners of the globe, became a fact: Christ had been made manifest
to a new race of Gentiles. By 1615, the Christian Mass was being
celebrated in hundreds of churches from the St. Lawrence through
the Antilles to the River Platte, and along the west coast from
Valdivia to Lower California. To the people of the New World, pagans
expecting short and brutish lives, void of hope for any future, had
come the Christian vision of a merciful God and a glorious Heaven.
And from the decks of ships traversing the two great oceans and
exploring the distant verges of the earth, prayers arose like clouds
of incense to the Holy Trinity and to Mary, Queen of the Sea."
Morison knows of the horrors of the European attack under which
millions of Indians died terrible deaths. Yet he has been speaking
thus for decades. His attitudes reflect the inability of stupendous
scholarship to transform basic racist biases.
55. Prescott, loco citato, pp. 257-77, pp. 685-6.
56. Bancroft, Hubert Howe, California Pastoral, San Francisco, History Co.
Publishers, 1888, p. 83. Bancroft says:
"European piety was little less pestilential than European avarice."
Bancroft also notes here that 340,000 people were punished by the
Inquisition, 32,000 being burned. Much of this occurred in the New
World, the confiscated property of those convicted serving to enrich
the Church. Cf. also Collier, loco citato, p. 83 and following.
57. de Madariaga, Hernan Cortes, Conqueror of Mexico, MacMillan and Co.,
New York, 1941, pp. 404-6.
Berkhofer, Robert F., Jr., Salvation and the Savage, U of Kentucky
Press, Lexington, 1965, passim. C: Introduction,
Morison, locis citatis, passim.
Prescott, loco citato, passim.
Spicer, loco citato, p. 281.
Bancroft, History of Mexico, pp. 485-7.
Vaughan, Alden T., New England Frontier: Puritans and Indians,
Little, Brown and Co., passim.
58. "Indian Oratory," Earth Magazine, August, 1972. Sitting Bull
explains it thus clearly: "They (the whites) have made many
laws, and those the rich may break but the poor may not. They
take money from the poor and weak to support the rich...."
59. Lalley, Francis A., "Bad Medicine at Black Mesa," America, Feb. 12,
1972, p. 145.
Josephy, Alvin M., Jr., "Hopi versus Christianity," American Heritage,
Feb., 1973, pp. 49-55.
Barnes, Peter, "Bad Day at Black Mesa," New Republic, July 17, 1973,
60. Deloria, Vine, Jr., "The Theological Dimension of the Indian
Protest Movement," The Christian Century, Sept. 19, 1973, p. 914.
[Typist's note: Following the last end note, there was an end
note that was marked "Add to #50." This was followed by a a
second note, this one hand written, marked "Add to #9 -". Both
of these notes have been added.]
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